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Covenant [message #12624 is a reply to message #12580] Mon, 05 November 2018 20:06 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L is currently online Mark L
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The Idea of covenant

Israel was to live her life between the terms of the covenant. It was unique among the nations in that other nations related to their God while God revealed himself to Israel. From Abraham to Moses God entered into covenant with individuals. eg Noah, Issac, Jacob. After Moses it became a covenant to a nation.

The Hebrew Term

Heb. Berit - the technical phrase is "to cut a covenant" Kerat Berit
The term stems from the idea of offering a sacrifice to seal the covenant them cutting it in half and walking between them. The popular view of this is that it means this is what will happen to you it you break the covenant. Bro. Freeman believes that the slaying of the sacrifice shows the seriousness of it and both parties walking between it shows they are bound together in it.
Gen. 15/9-18, Jer. 34/18-19 God was appearing as a great light and a burning lamp.

The Origin of the Covenant Concept in the OT

Gen. 9/11 Between Noah as representative of the human race and God
Gen. 15/18 Between Abraham as founder of Israel and God

The Token of the Covenant

It was the slaying of an animal and walking between it.
A covenant can be confirmed by a gift 1 Sam. 18/3-4
A token can be a common meal eg Jacob and Laban Gen. 31/44
The token or sign of Abraham's covenant was circumcision Gen. 17
The rainbow Gen.9
The smoking furnace and flaming lamp Gen.15

The Nature of Israels Covenant

In ancient times there were two types of covenant

a) Parity covenant - This was reciprocal. Responsibility was required of both parties. Both parties had input dickering or barter. Both parties stipulated the terms.

b)Suzerainty covenant. This is a unilateral covenant.
One side gives the covenant. An eg would be between subjects and their king.

a) is Jacob and Laban

b) is God and Noah
The covenant at Mt Sinai was a Suzerainty covenant.

The Purpose of the covenant
It was the same as the purpose of Israels election:

a) To be custodians of the revelation of the knowledge of the true God.

b) Israel was elected to obedience.

c) Israel was elected to reflect God's character.

d) Preparation for the Messiah.

Types of covenants in the OT

a) Between men : Abraham and the Amorites Gen. 14/13 / David and Jonathon

b) Covenants between God and Men

The Book of the Covenant Ex. 19-34

- Ex. 19 preparation for the covenant
- Ex. 20 the 10 commandments
- Ex. 20/18-36 The general form of the covenant
- Ex. 21-23/13 Civil legislation
- Ex. 23/14-19 Ceremonial legislation
- Ex. 23/20-33 Concluding legislation
Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12625 is a reply to message #12580] Mon, 05 November 2018 20:12 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L is currently online Mark L
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Doctrine of the Messiah

The Meaning and Nature of Messianic Prophecy

1/ The Meaning: That prophecy that predicts the fulfillment of redemption. The establishment of the Kingdom of God on the earth through the messiah. It is not limited to the prophets. It is also found in the Pentateuch, Psalms and historical books as well.

2/ The Nature: Messianic prophecy in the OT proceeded along two lines based on the covenant God gave Abraham. Gen. 12/2-3
. . . A great nation. This was pointing to Israel and the later kingdom of God
. . . All will be blessed. Points to salvation
Here is where messianic prophecy begins to take shape into two streams.

a) a glorious kingdom ruled over by a Davidic monarch

b) the messiah who is shown to be a suffering servant who dies for his people

The glorious kingdom:

The promise made to Abraham created the expectation in Israel for a kingdom and as the kingdom of God. This was heightened when Saul actually became king. The national conception of Israel as the kingdom of God. Then with David becoming king as a type of the messiah an even greater expectation came.
11 Sam.7 - God gave to David that his future son would be the messiah and establish an eternal kingdom. With the ensuing disappointments of the kings after David ending in the destruction of Jerusalem and the exile the hope of a messianic king in their thinking and theology became the hope of a messianic deliverer.
You see in the NT in John 6 the expectation of a messiah who would come and rule over them and deliver them from their enemies. The point here is that deliverer was never in the original prophecy. When they came back after 70 yrs exile they discovered Zerrubabal was not the messiah. He was only a man and their hope of deliverance wasn't being realized.
Joel 2,3 Amos 9/11-15, Haggai 2/3, Ezek. 3/11-13, Neh. 9/32 These all show a hope of
deliverance. Neh.9/32-37 His prayer shows his (their) facing up to reality that the promises were yet to be fulfilled. So their expectation was yet to a future kingdom. The prophecies over the centuries showed a king would come like David but greater and establish a kingdom like David but greater.

The suffering servant messiah:

The other stream of prophecy shows a suffering servant who would come and die. Is. 53, Ps.22, Zech. 13/7 According to David Baron in his book on Zechariah the Jews couldn't reconcile these two streams of prophecy so they formulated the doctrine of two messiahs. Messiah ben Joseph who would suffer and die. Messiah ben David who would rule and reign. We know now that it is two advents referred to. Luke 24 fulfills the first advent and Matt. 24 fulfills the second. On pages 136-145 of the deeper life book here is a discussion of Messianic prophecies and the messianic kingdom prophecies.

The Meaning and Usage of the Term "Messiah"

Heb. Mashiach Gr. Christos It comes from the Heb. verb Mashach - to smear or anoint.

a. to smear. to smear (paint) a house Jer. 22/14
Isaiah 21/5 to rub (smear) a shield with oil to protect it. (from rust)
Ex. 29 2 to smear unleavened cakes with oil.

b. to anoint. It came to mean Jesus name.
There is a close connection in the OT between anointing and consecration.

To anoint is used in two ways in the OT.

1. the literal sense where men were actually anointed with oil signifying their consecration to some office. Aaron was literally anointed
Num.7/1 the tabernacle
1 Sam. 10,16 Kings were anointed
Oil symbolized consecration and setting apart to God.

2. the metaphysical sense used of those who have been called and set apart by God but not
actually anointed
Jewish patriarchs Ps. 105/15 they are called anointed but it wasn't literal.
Habakkuk 3/13 Israel
Is. 45/1 Cyrus is called Gods anointed
The Davidic king or messiah is called anointed
Ps. 2/2, 18/50, 89/38,51 132/10,17 1 Sam. 2/10,35, Dan. 9 25-26

The concept of of a "Davidic" Messiah.

a. 11 Sam.7 - speaks of a son of David to sit upon his throne but the language goes much deeper especially in vs 13,16

b. Ps. 2 /2- his anointed vs. 7- my Son
vs. 11- the Lord vs. 12- the Son

c. Danial 9/25-26 "prince" establishes the fact that it is the Davidic messiah

d. NT Confirmation Matt. 2/4, 16/16, 11/2, John 1/41, Acts 19/4
Messianic Names and Titles in the OT

Gen.16/7 The Angel of the Lord
Ex. 23/20-21 The Angel
Is. 63/9 Angel of his Presence
Mal. 3/1 Angel of the Covenant
Ps. 2/2 The Anointed One
Zech. 3/8 The Branch
Josh. 5/14 The Captain of the Host of the Lord
Is. 9/6 The Child
Is. 43/15 The Creator (John 1, Col 1)
Zech. 10/4 The Cornerstone
Jer. 30/9 David
Haggai 2/7 Desire of All Nations
Is. 9/6 Father of Eternity
Zech.13/1 The Fountain
Is. 41/14 The Holy One of Israel
Is. 54/5 The Husband
Ex. 3 I AM
Is. 7/14 Emmanuel
Zech. 14/9 King
Is. 9/6 Mighty God
Is. 59/20 Redeemer
Jer. 23/6 The Lord our Righteousness
Deut.32/15 The Rock
Micah 5/2 The Ruler
Is. 42/1 The Servant
Gen.49/10 Shiloh
Dan.7/13 Son of Man
Is. 9/6 Wonderful

Messianic Prophecies

1/ The Protoevangelism Gen.3/15
This is the first prophesy. Women don't have seed so it must be an unusual event. Bruising the head is a reference to the cross and resurrection.
Gen.4/1 Heb. - I have gotten a man: Yahweh. It is a very popular view that Eve was expecting that their first child born was to be the deliverer that God would send.
Enoch only 7 from Adam was prophesying of Gods return. So there is no reason not to believe this what Eve meant. That this son was the messiah to come.

2/ The Blessing of Shem Gen. 9/25-27
3/ The Blessing of Abraham Gen. 12/1-3
4/ The Blessing of Judah Gen. 49/8-12
5/ The Blessing of Israel Num. 2417-19
6/ A prophet like Moses Deut.18/16-19
7/ 1 Sam.2/27-36 The Faithful Priesthood and Yahweh's anointed
8/ 11 Sam.7/11-16 The Eternal Kingdom of the Davidic King
9/ Messianic Psalms Psalm 2 (22, 110)

[Updated on: Mon, 05 November 2018 20:33]

Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12626 is a reply to message #12580] Mon, 05 November 2018 20:24 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L is currently online Mark L
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Messianic concepts

The Immanuel prophecy Is. 7/14

The Background: Israel (Ephraim) and Syria want Ahaz (Judah) to join their rebellion against
Assyria. Prophecy of the virgin birth.

Various Interpretations

a) The virgin was Ahaz wife. The son was Hezekiah. 11Kings 18/2 Ahaz wife name was Abi and the son was Hezekiah. They say Hezekiah fulfilled this prophecy because he delivered Israel from Assyria
11 Kings 16/2, 18/2 When Isaiah gave this prophecy Hezekiah was 9 yrs old so not much of a prophecy to prophesy he had a son 9 yrs ago.

b) The virgin is Isaiah's wife and the son Ma-her-shalal-hash-baz.
They insist this fits the context of Is. 8. The reasoning is because "conceive" is a participle which has no tense it should read "the Almah is pregnant and have a son". It is present tense so it is Isaiah's wife.
- They say vs 16 shows the sign will be fulfilled in Isaiah's time and not the birth of Christ later.
- There is a definite article in front of Almah so it must mean someone they knew.
- The term Almah doesn't mean virgin but "a girl of marriageable age" There is a Heb word for
virgin "Betulah" The miracle then in this view is that Isaiah predicted a boy and not a girl.

c) The virgin is a personification of the house of David. The answer to that is there is not a shred of evidence to support it.

d) The double fulfillment view.

This is held by some conservatives. There is a virgin in Ahaz day who although married is yet a virgin (unconsummated) and will conceive and bare a son. but this is not a virgin birth. This would bring fulfillment as far as Ahaz day is concerned but the immediate fulfillment does not exhaust the prophecy. Its ultimate fulfillment is with the virgin Mary and Jesus. Some prophecy is like that. eg. Hosea 11/1, Matt 2, 11 Sam. 7
This view says that not every detail has to fulfill both ends of the prophecy.

e) The absolute Messianic view or exclusive messianic view.

This is Freeman's view and conservatives have always believed this. It is entirely possible that Isaiah saw this as future together with some immediate circumstances in King Ahaz.
The prophecy cannot refer to a mere human child as his name (Immanuel) means "God with us" His name shows deity. Isaiah 8/8 Immanuel is God Is. 9/6-7, 11/1-5 Some professor somewhere would have to teach you that these passages aren't referring to the same person because they are. It is incorrect to say participles can't be translated into future time. There is not time in a participle but time is determined by the context in which it is used. Is. 7/14 "shall conceive" and Gen. 17/19 "shall bare" The same Heb word is used.

If Isaiah was referring to his wife he would have used the common term for wife "Ishah" His use of the term Almah must have some significance. The use of the definite article with Almah points to it being significant. Both Ahaz and Isaiah had children at the time of the prophecy.
Is. 8,9 and Micah. No father is mentioned and that is very unusual in Heb. because lineage is
always traced through the father. No father is ever mentioned in all the prophecies.
What significance could this sign have for Ahaz as it is several centuries in the future?
The answer is not any! Many signs had no immediate significance. eg Jonah. The offer for a sign was a valid one but Ahaz refused it and God used it for his own ends.

The meaning of the term "Almah"

Is the term "virgin" the correct term? The RSV and the liberals say this Heb term never means
virgin and can designate a married women. They also say if Isaiah wanted to use virgin there is a Heb. word available - Betulah


Every place Almah occurs the meaning of virgin can fit the context and it cannot be denied in any of the passages it is used.
Gen. 24/43, Ex.2/8, Ps.68/25, Son of S. 1/3, 6/8, Prov. 30/19
Gen 24/16 is Betulah Gen. 24/43 is Almah. So Almah can mean Betulah. An Almah can be applied to one who is properly designated as a virgin.

If Isaiah wanted to convey the idea of virgin birth then why didn't he use the the term Betulah?

a) Betulah often needs some qualifying phrase to show virgin is meant. Gen. 24/16 Almah is never used that way. Judges 21/12 Betulah
Betulah doesn't automatically mean virgin.

b) Betulah can also mean a married women. Deut.22/24, Joel 1/8
It is not true that Almah can designate a married women. Betulah can but Almah not. There is not one instance in the OT or extra biblical literature where Almah is used to designate a married women. Where Almah is used it means a virgin or a young unmarried women.
The prophet used Almah because Betulah would have required some qualification.
Almah can mean a young women but it is always a virgin. Almah should b e translated unmarried damsel or virgin and virgin is implied in Heb. by saying unmarried.
The LXX translated it Parthenos which can only mean virgin. The HS in translating Is.8/14 in Matt.1/23 used the Greek word Parthenos.

, Acts 8/32-35

[Updated on: Mon, 05 November 2018 20:34]

Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12627 is a reply to message #12580] Mon, 05 November 2018 20:25 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L is currently online Mark L
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Messianic concepts

The Branch Prophecies Zech. 3/8, 6/9-13

Term: Branch. - Heb. Tsemach

Is. 4/2, 11/1, 53/2 some of the terms are a little different but the same idea.
Is. 5/1-2f, 6/11-13 these speak of a parable of Israel as a vineyard and only a remnant or root will be left.
Is. 11/1 speaks of a branch growing out of that root.
Is.53/2 now we understand why a root is coming out of dry ground.
Jer. 23/5-6, 33/15-16

Denial of the Messianic reference in Is. 4

They say it is just vegetation he is speaking of

Reply: All the references use the same Heb. term for branch and to mean Messiah. It is unlikely Isaiah would use it differently.

Jer.23 - the branch is called the king
Zech. 3/8 God calls him my servant
Is. 4/2 the branch of the Lord
Is.11/2 the Spirit of the Lord will rest upon him. Its not a twig

Another view is the branch is the nation of Israel

Reply: it says the branch is for Israel

The Branch in Zech.3 & 6

The critical view is that the branch refers to either Joshua or Zerubabel
(Zerrubabal was the governor and Joshua was the high priest in Israel after the exile)

6/12-13 "Behold the man" that eliminates Zerubabel. Priests cannot be kings and vs/vs Both chap go together - in chap 3 they are being prepared for chap 6 – 3/8 to Joshua and his
fellow priests. They didn't have to understand what the sign was. The point is Joshua is being told he is a sign. He knew he wasn't the branch.

Critical view: 6/11 - is that the branch refers to either Joshua or Zerubabel. They say crowns
refers to Joshua and Zerrubabal but Zerubabels name was dropped from the text. They say 6/13 "between them both" refers to both men and Zerubabel was simply dropped from the text.

Reply: Crowns can simply mean a two tiered crown or two different metals like silver and gold. Only one crown was made and it was set on the head of Joshua.
All mention of Zerubabel was not included in the text so that such a misunderstanding wouldn't take place. So we would know who Joshua was supposed to symbolize.
It is utterly impossible for a priest to be king. It is impossible for Zerrubabal to be king as no Jewish man was allowed to be king from Zedekiah until now.
6/14 says to put the crown in the temple for a memorial. It wasn't even supposed to be worn.

[Updated on: Mon, 05 November 2018 20:45]

Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12628 is a reply to message #12580] Mon, 05 November 2018 20:31 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L is currently online Mark L
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Messianic Concepts

The Servant prophecy of Isaiah 53

The Nature of the Prophecy

It is a transitional prophecy between the OT sacrificial type and the NT lamb of God. It is
significant because it is the basis for NT teaching on the atonement. Ps.22, Zech 12/10 speak of his sufferings but Is. 53 is the clear passage The importance of Is. 53 to NT doctrine is seen in Jesus appealing to it right after his resurrection.
Luke 24/25-26, Acts 3/18, 26 Acts 8/32-33

Within Isaiah there are 4 servant poems:

Isaiah 42/1-9
Isaiah 49/1-9
Isaiah 50/4-9
Isaiah 52/13-53/12
Between Isaiah 40 and 53 servant is referred to 20 times

There are two general classifications or interpretations.

1. The servant is Israel or a remnant of it.

Between chap 40 & 53 the term servant is applied to Israel on numerous occasions. Until Pentecost the Jews believed Isaiah 53 to be messianic. After Pentecost they applied it to Israel. In the 19th century the critics picked up the Jewish view.
Jews and the critics believe the servant is Israel because :

a) Is.40-53 calls Israel Gods servant

b) Is. 52/13 - 53/12 depicts the substitutionary sufferings of Israel in Babylon.


Is. 40/2 Israel suffered and was cleansed and now is Gods servant to the nations.
When the nations view Israels double sufferings in the exile it moves the nations to repentance. The biblical view is that Israel was punished for her own sins. Jer. 25/1-10
Jer. 15/1, Ezek.14/14,20 Because of their evil God said he would not honour the prayers of men whose prayers for Israel he honoured before. The picture here is anything but redemptive suffering. The OT substitute had to be holy.

The servant is a pious remnant. Some say the servant is a pious remnant within the nation of
Israel. eg. The prophetic body in Israel because they always have and always do suffer
Some say it is the priesthood as a body. Some say it is a group of Isaiah's disciples.

2. The Servant is an individual

Various individuals:
Isaiah Acts 8/34
Jeremiah as he got a lot of suffering
One of the kings

The Servant as Messiah. This is the biblical view

a) because of the objective statements made by Isaiah (42/1) it is unlikely he would have said this about himself.

b) Is.52/13, 15,53/11 The references there are to the future. That would exclude figures from the past.

c) His sinless character and the implications of his resurrection in Is.53/10

d) The nature and magnitude of his work as described in 42/4, 49/5, 53/4-6, 7-12 go infinitely
beyond any human figure.

e) The HS himself applies Is. 53 to Jesus in the NT Matt. 8/16-17, Acts 8/32-35

[Updated on: Mon, 05 November 2018 20:44]

Eschatology [message #12629 is a reply to message #12580] Mon, 05 November 2018 20:54 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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This refers to both national and individual resurrection. The critics play it down believing eternal life to be living on through your descendants.

There are supposed to be two different types of eschatology.

1. Revealed eschatology

This is the type of end-time prophecy which occurred primarily during the pre-exilic period before foreign domination. The prophet spoke clearly without reference to symbols.
eg. Amos 1-2 9/11-15, Is.1 clear understanding

2. Apocalyptic Eschatology This is a revelation of end-time events in cryptic language.
There is much symbolism hidden meanings, double meanings, visions etc. eg. Danial, Ezekiel
The problem with that is one cannot make any clear distinctions between the two types. eg Joel 2-3, Is.24-26 Both are pre-exilic yet apocalyptic. These two types are not mutually exclusive.

The Day of the Lord As Judgment upon Israel

A. There are two key time concepts in the OT

1. Looking back to the exodus as time of deliverance when Israels election was revealed Ezek. 20/6

2. The eschatological concept. Looking forward to the end times. Because of her sin and
disobedience there would be a day of judgment upon Israel. The gentiles also and the salvation of a remnant.

B. The teaching of the prophets
All the prophets use the expression "day of the Lord" or "that day"
One has to keep in mind there are two time concepts in the prophets.
Future judgment upon Israel and the heathen nations
End-time judgments on Israel and the nations.
Obadiah This was the first prophet to write about it.
Joel 2-3 are apocalyptic based upon a national calamity in chap 1.
Amos 5/18-20 Is. 7/17-23 Jer. 30/7, 25/33, 46/10
Zephaniah His whole message is the day of the Lord

The day of the Lord As Universal Judgment

Amos 1/3, 6, 9, 11, 13, 2/1, 2/4 The point here is not just judgment but universal judgment.
Isaiah 14, 17, 20 Ezek.30/3f
Ezek. 25-32 covers just about every nation of his day
Zephaniah - judgment upon the whole world
The point here is its not just judgment on Israel but upon all the nations and the whole world.

The Day of the Lord As Deliverance

The prophets said over and over again that it was a day of evil and destruction. But they also said it was for purging out a remnant. Jesus also said it over and over. Narrow & few . . .

The OT doctrine of the Remnant

a) Shows the origin. Lev. 26/38-45 Deut. 4/24-31 30/1-10
The point is that God says at the beginning of Israel that they would sin and he would cast them away but he would preserve a remnant.

b) It goes back to the time of Elijah.1 Kings 19/10,18 God preserved 7000. Out of the whole nation only 7000 left.

c) Pre-exilic periods.
Hosea speaks of the national resurrection of Israel. Which will come out of the remnant which is left. Ezekiel 37 vision of the dry bones.

d) The remnant and the doctrine of election
Rom. 9/26-29, 11/1-5 11/25-26 The nation saved is the remnant A remnant has been preserved through history including some who were not elect to preserve Israels nationality.
Ezek. 20/ 33-38 The rebels will be purged out and the balance is the remnant. National Israel will be saved. Is.6/9-13 Isaiah named one of his sons "the remnant shall return"
Isaiah 1.25-28 A remnant will be preserved out of the judgment

e) Isaiah places the time of the remnant to be delivered in the millennium. Is.11/1-16
Jer.23/3-6 The delivered remnant is in the time of messiahs remnant in the millennium.
Micah 2/12-13 4/1-7, 5/7-9
Ezek. 12/14-16, 14/20-22, His day
Ezek. 20/30-38 the end-time remnant
Dan. 7/21-22,27 Zephaniah 2/9, 3/12-13
Joel 3/28,3/22 The context is the day of the Lord
Amos 9/8 Malachi 4/1-2
The NT is Matt 7 - few and narrow
The Purpose in the Deliverance of the Remnant
The purpose of pouring out judgment and purging a remnant is so God will have a people to
serve him when he establishes his kingdom. Without preserving a remnant there would be no
more left
The OT Doctrine of the Future Life [message #12630 is a reply to message #12580] Mon, 05 November 2018 21:06 Go to previous message
Mark L is currently online Mark L
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The OT Doctrine of the Future Life


The OT saints didn't have full light but had enough to have hope for a future life. In the OT death had profound spiritual implications. Death is abnormal and unnatural. It comes because of sin. God is in control of death. It doesn't just happen. The sovereign God of the OT shows he has the power of life and death. Death in ending the physical doesn't end existence. The OT shows the nephesh goes to Sheol. In Israel only the Sadducees denied this.

The Doctrine of Sheol

Sheol - the place of the dead (departed spirits) Qeber -the grave Bar -the pit
These words are often confused in the English translations but never in the Heb. Isaiah 38/18 is a poetic use of all three Heb. words.
Isaiah 14/15 Ezek 31/14-18, 32/1-32 Bar designates the lower parts of Sheol (the pit)
Is. 14/15 shows a distinction between Sheol and the pit which is in Sheol. The wicked are cast into the pit. Some are cast into the deeper regions of the pit. The OT shows some nations were cast into the deeper regions of the pit depending on whether they oppressed Israel or not. Ezek. 32/1823,24 distinctions are made in the pit
One of the judgments on Egypt was it would lie with the uncircumcised. Egypt practised
circumcision as did Edom.

There are various segregation's in the pit.

Ps. 88/16 the lowest pit
Deut 32/332 the lowest Sheol
Prov. 7/27 the chambers of death in Sheol
Is. 14/15 , Ezek.32/23 The outermost parts of the pit.

Tophet - means a fireplace. From a root word which means to burn.
In the OT and NT Tophet was in the valley of Hinnom outside Jerusalem where Moloch worship was conducted. Child sacrifice was practised here
11 Kings 23, Jer. 7/31-33, Jer. 19/4-13, Jer. 23/35
The Heb. word for valley was "Gai" The valley of Hinnom. Belonging to Hinnom was written
Gehinnom. Jesus used the word Gehenna (same word) Some apostate Israelite's worshipped Moloch here after the exile It became an accursed place and eventually became the garbage dump. Jesus pointed to that in the NT and along with Jer. 7/31-33 it became a symbol of the future destruction of the wicked Tophet is a synonym of what we think of as a place of destruction or hell in the NT

Beliefs regarding the Dead

a) Burial was indispensable to the Heb because . . .
- of the fact that man is created in the image of God
- out or respect for the dead
- the Heb. unlike the Greek didn't divide man up. The body was not something to cast away or
burn. Even the body of a criminal was to be treated properly. Deut. 21/21-23 To a Heb. lack of burial was a calamity. 11 Kings 9/10 Lack of burial awaited Gods enemies Isaiah 66/24
Jer. 25/33 1 Sam. 31/8-10 This was considered an outrage

b) The Family Grave It was important to the Heb. It may not be important to me where I am buried but the Heb. wanted to be buried with his family.
1 Kings 13/22 Both Jacob and Joseph were to be taken out of Egypt and buried in Canaan. Gen. 47/30 50/25 Ex. 13/19

The Relation Between Sheol and Hades

Sheol- OT term Hades - NT term
In the NT they translate Sheol to mean Hades. Ps. 16/10 Acts 2/27
The LLX always translates Sheol with Hades.

There are two interpretations of the relationship between Sheol and Hades

a) The Fundamentalist interpretation from the Schofield bible. Prior to Jesus accession the dead abode in the pit or paradise (Abraham's bosom) And they were captive there. After Jesus ascension the unrighteous dead still go the pit but the saved go to where paradise is now in the immediate presence of Christ. Eph. 4/8-10

b) Freeman's View Jesus reveals in Luke 16 that the righteous had always gone to paradise and were in the presence of the Lord. Nothing has changed in Sheol. Christ is just revealing the full meaning of paradise. The wicked go to torment in Hades and the righteous to paradise in the presence of the Lord. Sheol is translated Hades. Paradise never is.

- Prior to Jesus ascension the righteous were in Sheol. At Jesus ascension they rose with him. Freeman - paradise was always with the Lord even if it was called paradise.
In the NT the term Hades is synonymous with death and is usually used negatively. Bro.
Freeman's view is that no change took place in Eph. 4 as the righteous were already with the Lord.
Sheol Hades and Gehenna The OT and NT never confuse them.
Jer. 7/31-32 son of Hinnom Heb is Gehenna
Babylonian Sheol- according to critical scholarship both Babylonian and Heb Sheol came from the same source. Babylonian Sheol is called ARALU. Its description is quite mythological.

Heb. Sheol

The inhabitants - both righteous and wicked - but separated

a) The wicked Ps. 49/14 They are cast there as a means of punishment Ps. 9/17 Is. 14/15
They are punished with fire in the lowest part of the pit. Their state is eternal with no hope of redemption. Is.34/8-10, 66/24

b)The state of the righteous in Sheol It is a place of rest and comfort 1 Sam. 28/15
Dan. 12/13 rest and a future hope Ps. 139/7-10 God was with him even in Sheol
Ps. 16/10 Prov.15/24 Is. 66/1-2 The righteous will not always be there

The Doctrine of the Future Life

1. The critical view

The critics teach that the Heb. did not believe in cessation of life at death but it could hardly be called life. All joy is gone, communion with God is ended, and all men good and evil must spend eternity in a dark and gloomy Sheol. They quote Ps 6/5 for eg. Yet all this vs is saying is that you can't serve God in the grave. The liberals base this view on the corporate personality theory. That the Heb. idea of the future life was for him to live through his descendants because of his strong sense of family and nation.

2. Evidence of Israels belief in a future life

Our study of Israels belief in a future life will be shown by the concepts used below. The second line of evidence will be the OT texts themselves as covered under the doctrine of the resurrection. The critics say that Israel had no hope of future life and where these concepts are used it is quite late in Israels history. The truth as evidenced below is that they did have a future hope and it is evident quite early.

a) The phrase "gathered to ones fathers"
This is not merely a reference to the burying of one in a sepulchre. God promised Abraham he would be gathered to his fathers yet his fathers were in Mesopotamia. Jacob was gathered to his people yet he was in Egypt and they were in Palestine. Gen. 49/33 He was also buried 70 days later.
Num. 20/24 Aaron - his fathers were in Egypt so it can't mean just the land or a graveyard. It
sometimes refers to this but it means he was gathered to where his fathers "are" ie: the spiritual dimension. So this very phrase implies belief in a future life.

b) Necromancy (the seance)

This was forbidden in Israel but some did it anyway. (King Saul) It indicated a belief that there were people out there somewhere or they wouldn't be trying to contact them. Samuel said to Saul he would be with him tomorrow yet Saul and his sons were buried much later. 1 Sam.28

c) Creation in the image and likeness of God.

Only man was created this way and this was for fellowship with him. If it was only for 70 yrs and then descend into Hades with no hope of that fellowship continuing would seem to contradict the reason for creating him.

d) The tree of life in the garden of Eden.
If Israel came into the knowledge of a future life in the inter testament period then why have a tree of immorality right at the beginning.

e) The sacredness of human life

Great stress is placed on the value of a human life in the OT. They are careful not to take it lightly. Even an animal. They were not to drink the blood because it was the life of the animal.
The prohibition against murder and other laws shows the value of human life.

f) The doctrine of Sacrifice

A life is substituted for a life. Sin separated from God so why substitute an animal if it was only for a few yrs in this life. Why bother with all the rigorous system of sacrifice. The point here is one had to be restored to fellowship before death so it wouldn't be eternal.

g) The eschatology of Israel

This showed Israel believed in a future life. The kingdom of God to be established on the earth. The day of the Lord where the wicked and the righteous were to be rewarded.

h) The question of the teaching of the retribution and rewards in the OT.

This shows Israels belief that in a future time this would happen. Is14/16 The king of Babylon. The other kings there mock him as he goes lower than they. Ps.49/15 The righteous will go the Lord Dan. 12/2 A resurrection of the wicked to shame and the righteous to glory.
Ps. 9/17 a place of punishment The translation of Enoch and Elijah shows belief in a future life. The book of life

The OT doctrine of the resurrection

Terms There is no Heb. noun and 2 Heb. verbs
Is. 26/19 to arise - Heb. Qum
Dan. 12/2 Heb. Qits - to awake

The concept that God controlled life as well as death occurs all through the OT. God can deliver someone from Sheol and bring someone to life. Gen. 2/17 God gave life but also gave the tree of knowledge which brings death. God gives both life and death.
Deut. 32/39, 11Kings 5/7 These show the common belief in Israel that God can kill and make
alive Ps.18/5-6, 30/3, 71/20, 86/13, Jonah 2/1,6, 1Sam.2/6, 11Sam. 12/22-23

All these show the Heb. belief that God can put in Sheol and deliver out of it. Raise the dead – resurrection. There are specific instances in the OT where God resurrected people
Elijah and the widows son 1 Kings 17/17-24
Elisha and the boy 11 Kings 4/31-37
Elisha's great anointing 11 Kings 13/20-21

The Heb. idea of National resurrection

Hosea 6/2, 13/14 Is. 26/19-21
Ezek. 37- vision of the valley of dry bones

Individual Resurrection

Ps. 49/15 Hosea 13/14 with 1 Cor.15/53-55 Hosea teaches national resurrection but the deeper meaning is applied to the individual by Paul.
Is. 26/19-21 actually states bodily resurrection. Nations are made up of people
Ps. 16/10, 17/15, Dan. 12/2,13
The inspired NT writers show the OT saints believed in resurrection Heb. 11/17-19 Abraham's hope and faith was that God would raise up Issac from the dead. Abraham believed in bodily resurrection
Acts 2/27-31
Matt.22/23-32 Jesus refuted the Sadducee and showed bodily resurrection from the OT
Job 19/25-27 Job certainly believed in bodily resurrection
1Cor. 15/4 he died was buried and rose "according to the scriptures"

What scriptures?
Gen. 22,
Ex.3/6, Ps. 16/10, Is. 53/10, Is. 26/19, Dan.12/2,13, Luke 24/25-27

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