Deeper Life Women
Home » Theological Doctrine » NT Theology » Signs, Wonders, Miracles-Word Study Notes
Signs, Wonders, Miracles-Word Study Notes [message #8900] Mon, 26 March 2012 20:50
william  is currently offline william
Messages: 1189
Registered: January 2006
Senior Member
Administrator
I thought I would paste in some notes on the words: signs, wonders, miracles. These are automatically generated from my Bible program ONLINE BIBLE. I was attempting to see all of the places in the New Testament where these words were used so that I could make sure we were using the proper terminology in the other thread.

I've included the comments of two Greek scholars. Both are pretty well known but not charismatic!.

If the formatting doesn't work, I'll just delete this and put the notes in pdf format.

************************************************************ *****

 
Matthew 7:22
 
22 (AV) Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? (AV)
22 (IGNT) πολλοι {MANY} ερουσιν {WILL SAY} μοι {TO ME} εν { IN} εκεινη τη {THAT} ημερα {DAY,} κυριε {LORD,} κυριε {LORD,} ου τω {NOT} σω {THROUGH THY} ονοματι {NAME} προεφητευσαμεν {DID WE PROPHESY,} και τω {AND} σω {THROUGH THY} ονοματι {NAME} δαιμονια {DEMONS} εξεβαλομεν {CAST OUT,} και τω {AND} σω {THROUGH THY} ονοματι {NAME} δυναμεις {WORKS OF POWER} πολλας {MANY} εποιησαμεν {PERFORM?} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 7:22 (RWP)
 
Did we not prophesy in thy name? (ου τω σω ονοματι προεφητευσαμεν; ). The use of ου in the question expects the affirmative answer. They claim to have prophesied (preached) in Christ’s name and to have done many miracles. But Jesus will tear off the sheepskin and lay bare the ravening wolf. "I never knew you" (ουδεποτε εγνων υμας). "I was never acquainted with you" (experimental knowledge). Success, as the world counts it, is not a criterion of one’s knowledge of Christ and relation to him. "I will profess unto them" (ομολογησω αυτοις), the very word used of profession of Christ before men Matthew 10:32. This word Jesus will use for public and open announcement of their doom.
 
Matthew 7:22 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
22. Have we not (ου). That form of the negative is used which expects an affirmative answer. It therefore pictures both the self-conceit and the self-deception of these persons. "Surely we have prophesied," etc.
 
Matthew 12:38
 
38 ¶ (AV) Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign from thee. (AV)
38 (IGNT) τοτε {THEN} απεκριθησαν {ANSWERED} τινες {SOME} των {OF THE} γραμματεων {SCRIBES} και {AND} φαρισαιων {PHARISEES,} λεγοντες { SAYING,} διδασκαλε {TEACHER,} θελομεν {WE WISH} απο {FROM} σου {THEE} σημειον {A SIGN}σημειον {A SIGN}σημειον {A SIGN}σημειον {A SIGN} ιδειν {TO SEE.} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 12:38 (RWP)
 
A sign from thee (απο σου σημειον). One wonders at the audacity of scribes and Pharisees who accused Jesus of being in league with Satan and thus casting out demons who can turn round and blandly ask for a "sign from thee." As if the other miracles were not signs! "The demand was impudent, hypocritical, insulting" (Bruce).
39 (AV) But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas: (AV)
39 (IGNT) ο δε {BUT HE} αποκριθεις {ANSWERING} ειπεν {SAID} αυτοις {TO THEM,} γενεα {A GENERATION} πονηρα {WICKED} και {AND} μοιχαλις { ADULTEROUS} σημειον {A SIGN} επιζητει {SEEKS FOR,} και {AND} σημειον ου {A SIGN } δοθησεται {SHALL NOT BE GIVEN} αυτη {TO IT,} ει μη {EXCEPT} το {THE} σημειον {SIGN} ιωνα {OF JONAH} του {THE} προφητου {PROPHET.} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 12:39 (RWP)
 
An evil and adulterous generation (γενεα πονηρα και μοιχαλις). They had broken the marriage tie which bound them to Jehovah (Plummer). See Psalms 73:27 Isaiah 57:3 62:5 Ezekiel 23:27 James 4:4 Revelation 2:20. What is "the sign of Jonah?"
 
Matthew 12:39 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
39. Adulterous (μοιχαλις). A very strong and graphic expression, founded upon the familiary Hebrew representation of the relation of God’s people to him under the figure of marriage. See Psalms 73:27 Isaiah 57:3 sqq.; Isaiah 62:5 Ezekiel 23:27. Hence idolatry and intercourse with Gentiles were described as adultery; and so here, of moral unfaithfulness to God. Compare James 4:4 Revelation 2:20 sqq. Thus Dante:
 
"Where Michael wrought
Vengeance upon the proud adultery."
Inf., vii., 12.
 
Matthew 15:31
 
31 (AV) Insomuch that the multitude wondered, when they saw the dumb to speak, the maimed to be whole, the lame to walk, and the blind to see: and they glorified the God of Israel. (AV)
31 (IGNT) ωστε {SO THAT} τους {THE} οχλους {CROWDS} θαυμασαι {WONDERED,} βλεποντας {SEEING} κωφους {DUMB} λαλουντας {SPEAKING,} κυλλους { MAIMED} υγιεις {SOUND,} χωλους {LAME} περιπατουντας {WALKING,} και {AND} τυφλους {BLIND} βλεποντας {SEEING;} και {AND} εδοξασαν {THEY GLORIFIED} τον {THE} θεον {GOD} ισραηλ {OF ISRAEL.} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 16:1
 
1 ¶ (AV) The Pharisees also with the Sadducees came, and tempting desired him that he would shew them a sign from heaven. (AV)
1 (IGNT) και {AND} προσελθοντες {HAVING COME TO HIM} οι {THE} φαρισαιοι {PHARISEES} και {AND} σαδδουκαιοι {SADDUCEES} πειραζοντες {TEMPTING HIM} επηρωτησαν {ASKED} αυτον {HIM} σημειον {A SIGN} εκ {OUT OF} του {THE} ουρανου {HEAVEN} επιδειξαι {TO SHEW} αυτοις {THEM.} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 16:1 (RWP)
 
The Pharisees and Sadducees (οι φαρισαιοι και σαδδουκαιοι). The first time that we have this combination of the two parties who disliked each other exceedingly. Hate makes strange bedfellows. They hated Jesus more than they did each other. Their hostility has not decreased during the absence of Jesus, but rather increased.
 
Tempting him (πειραζοντες). Their motive was bad.
 
A sign from heaven (σημειον εκ του ουρανου). The scribes and Pharisees had already asked for a sign. {Matthew 12:38} Now this new combination adds "from heaven." What did they have in mind? They may not have had any definite idea to embarrass Jesus. The Jewish apocalypses did speak of spectacular displays of power by the Son of Man (the Messiah). The devil had suggested that Jesus let the people see him drop down from the pinnacle of the temple and the people expected the Messiah to come from an unknown source {John 7:27} who would do great signs. {John 7:31} Chrysostom (Hom. liii.) suggests stopping the course of the sun, bridling the moon, a clap of thunder.
 
Matthew 16:3
 
3 (AV) And in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowring. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times? (AV)
3 (IGNT) και {AND} πρωι {AT MORNING,} σημερον {TODAY} χειμων {A STORM;} πυρραζει γαρ {FOR IS RED} στυγναζων {LOWERING} ο {THE} ουρανος { HEAVEN.} υποκριται {HYPOCRITES!} το {THE} μεν {INDEED} προσωπον {FACE} του {OF THE} ουρανου {HEAVEN} γινωσκετε {YE KNOW HOW} διακρινειν τα {TO DISCERN, } δε {BUT THE} σημεια {SIGNS} των {OF THE} καιρων ου {TIMES} δυνασθε {YE CANNOT!} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 16:3 (RWP)
 
Lowring (στυγναζων). A sky covered with clouds. Used also of a gloomy countenance as of the rich young ruler in Mark 10:22. Nowhere else in the New Testament. This very sign of a rainy day we use today. The word for "foul weather" (χειμων) is the common one for winter and a storm.
 
The signs of the times (τα σημεια των καιρων). How little the Pharisees and Sadducees understood the situation. Soon Jerusalem would be destroyed and the Jewish state overturned. It is not always easy to discern (διακρινειν, discriminate) the signs of our own time. Men are numerous with patent keys to it all. But we ought not to be blind when others are gullible.
 
Matthew 16:3 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
3. Lowering (στυγναζων). The verb means to have a gloomy look. Dr. Morison compares the Scotch gloaming or glooming. Cranmer, the sky is glooming red. The word is used only here and at Mark 10:22, of the young ruler, turning from Christ with his face overshadowed with gloom. A.V., he was sad. Rev., his countenance fell.
 
9, 10. Note the accurate employment of the two words for basket. See on "Mt 14:20".
4 (AV) A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed. (AV)
4 (IGNT) γενεα {A GENERATION} πονηρα {WICKED} και {AND} μοιχαλις {ADULTEROUS} σημειον {A SIGN} επιζητει {SEEKS,} και {AND} σημειον ου {A SIGN } δοθησεται {SHALL NOT BE GIVEN} αυτη {TO IT,} ει μη {EXCEPT} το {THE} σημειον {SIGN} ιωνα {OF JONAH} του {THE} προφητου {PROPHET.} και {AND} καταλιπων {LEAVING} αυτους {THEM} απηλθεν {HE WENT AWAY.} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 16:4 (RWP)
 
Same words in Matthew 12:39 except του προφητου, a real doublet.
 
 
Matthew 21:15
 
15 (AV) And when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the Son of David; they were sore displeased, (AV)
15 (IGNT) ιδοντες δε {BUT SEEING} οι {THE} αρχιερεις {CHIEF PRIESTS} και {AND} οι {THE} γραμματεις {SCRIBES} τα {THE} θαυμασια {WONDERS } α {WHICH} εποιησεν {HE WROUGHT,} και {AND} τους {THE} παιδας {CHILDREN} κραζοντας {CRYING} εν {IN} τω {THE} ιερω {TEMPLE, } και {AND} λεγοντας {SAYING,} ωσαννα {HOSANNA} τω {TO THE} υιω {SON} δαβιδ {OF DAVID,} ηγανακτησαν {THEY WERE INDIGNANT,} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 21:15 (RWP)
 
The children (τους παιδας). Masculine and probably boys who had caught the enthusiasm of the crowd.
 
Matthew 24:3
 
3 (AV) And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world? (AV)
3 (IGNT) καθημενου δε {AND AS WAS SITTING} αυτου {HE} επι {UPON} του {THE} ορους των {MOUNT} ελαιων {OF OLIVES} προσηλθον {CAME TO} αυτω { HIM} οι {THE} μαθηται κατ {DISCIPLES} ιδιαν {APART,} λεγοντες {SAYING,} ειπε {TELL} ημιν {US,} ποτε {WHEN} ταυτα {THESE THINGS} εσται {SHALL BE?} και {AND} τι {WHAT IS} το {THE} σημειον {SIGN } της σης {OF THY} παρουσιας {COMING} και {AND} της {OF THE} συντελειας {COMPLETION} του {OF THE} αιωνος {AGE?} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 24:3 (RWP)
 
As he sat (καθημενου). Genitive absolute. Picture of Jesus sitting on the Mount of Olives looking down on Jerusalem and the temple which he had just left. After the climb up the mountain four of the disciples (Peter, James, John, Andrew) come to Jesus with the problem raised by his solemn words. They ask these questions about the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, his own second coming (παρουσια, presence, common in the papyri for the visit of the emperor), and the end of the world. Did they think that they were all to take place simultaneously? There is no way to answer. At any rate Jesus treats all three in this great eschatological discourse, the most difficult problem in the Synoptic Gospels. Many theories are advanced that impugn the knowledge of Jesus or of the writers or of both. It is sufficient for our purpose to think of Jesus as using the destruction of the temple and of Jerusalem which did happen in that generation in A.D. 70, as also a symbol of his own second coming and of the end of the world (συντελειας του αιωνος) or consummation of the age. In a painting the artist by skilful perspective may give on the same surface the inside of a room, the fields outside the window, and the sky far beyond. Certainly in this discourse Jesus blends in apocalyptic language the background of his death on the cross, the coming destruction of Jerusalem, his own second coming and the end of the world. He now touches one, now the other. It is not easy for us to separate clearly the various items. It is enough if we get the picture as a whole as it is here drawn with its lessons of warning to be ready for his coming and the end. The destruction of Jerusalem came as he foretold. There are some who would date the Synoptic Gospels after A.D. 70 in order to avoid the predictive element involved in the earlier date. But that is to limit the fore-knowledge of Jesus to a merely human basis. The word παρουσια occurs in this chapter alone {Matthew 24:3,27,37,39} in the Gospels, but often in the Epistles, either of presence as opposed to absence {Philippians 2:12} or the second coming of Christ. {2 Thessalonians 2:1}
 
Matthew 24:3 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
3. Coming (παρουσιας). Originally, presence, from παρειναι, to be present. In this sense Philippians 2:12 2 Corinthians 10:10. Also arrival, as in 1 Corinthians 16:17 2 Corinthians 7:6,7 2 Thessalonians 2:9 2 Peter 3:12. Of the second coming of Christ: James 5:8 1 John 2:28 2 Peter 3:4 1 Thessalonians 4:15.
 
Of the world (αιωνος). Rather the existing, current age. They do not ask the signs of the Messiah’s coming at the end of all time, to judge the world.
 
Matthew 24:24
 
24 (AV) For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. (AV)
24 (IGNT) εγερθησονται {THERE WILL ARISE} γαρ {FOR} ψευδοχριστοι {FALSE CHRISTS} και {AND} ψευδοπροφηται {FALSE PROPHETS,} και {AND} δωσουσιν {WILL GIVE} σημεια {SIGNS} μεγαλα {GREAT} και {AND} τερατα {WONDERS,} ωστε {SO AS} πλανησαι {TO MISLEAD,} ει {IF} δυνατον {POSSIBLE,} και {EVEN} τους {THE} εκλεκτους {ELECT.} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 24:24 (RWP)
 
Great signs and wonders (σημεια μεγαλα και τερατα). Two of the three words so often used in the N.T. about the works (εργα) of Jesus, the other being δυναμεις (powers). They often occur together of the same work. {John 4:48 Acts 2:22 4:30 2 Corinthians 12:12 Hebrews 2:4} τερας is a wonder or prodigy, δυναμις, a mighty work or power, σημειον, a sign of God’s purpose. Miracle (μιραχυλυμ) presents only the notion of wonder or portent. The same deed can be looked at from these different angles. But the point to note here is that mere "signs and wonders" do not of themselves prove the power of God. These charlatans will be so skilful that they will,
 
if possible (ει δυνατον), lead astray the very elect. The implication is that it is not possible. People become excited and are misled and are unable to judge of results. Often it is post hoc, sed non propter hoc. Patent-medicine men make full use of the credulity of people along this line as do spiritualistic mediums. Sleight-of-hand men can deceive the unwary.
 
Matthew 24:24 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
24. Signs and wonders (σημεια και τερατα). See on "Mt 11:20". The two words often joined in the New Testament. See John 4:48 Acts 2:22 4:30 2 Corinthians 12:12. The words do not denote different classes of supernatural manifestations, but these manifestations regarded from different points of view. The same miracle may be a mighty work, or a glorious work, regarded with reference to its power and grandeur; or a sign of the doer’s supernatural power; or a wonder, as it appeals to the spectator. Tερας (derivation uncertain) is a miracle regarded as a portent or prodigy, awakening amazement. It most nearly corresponds, therefore, to the etymological sense of the word miracle (Lat., miraculum, a wonderful thing, from mirari, to wonder).
 
Matthew 24:30
 
30 (AV) And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. (AV)
30 (IGNT) και {AND} τοτε {THEN} φανησεται {SHALL APPEAR} το { THE} σημειον {SIGN} του {OF THE} υιου του {SON} ανθρωπου {OF MAN} εν {IN} τω {THE} ουρανω {HEAVEN;} και {AND} τοτε {THEN } κοψονται {SHALL WAIL} πασαι {ALL} αι {THE} φυλαι {TRIBES} της {OF THE} γης {LAND,} και {AND} οψονται {THEY SHALL SEE} τον { THE} υιον του {SON} ανθρωπου {OF MAN,} ερχομενον {COMING} επι {ON} των {THE} νεφελων του {CLOUDS} ουρανου {OF HEAVEN} μετα {WITH} δυναμεως {POWER} και {AND} δοξης {GLORY} πολλης {GREAT.} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 24:30 (RWP)
 
The sign of the Son of Man in heaven (το σημειον του υιου του ανθρωπου εν τω ουρανω). Many theories have been suggested like the cross in the sky, etc. Bruce sees a reference to Daniel 7:13 "one like the Son of man" and holds that Christ himself is the sign in question (the genitive of apposition). This is certainly possible. It is confirmed by the rest of the verse: "They shall see the Son of man coming." See Matthew 16:27 Matthew 26:64. The Jews had repeatedly asked for such a sign (Broadus) as in Matthew 12:38 16:1 John 2:18.
 
Matthew 24:30 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
30. Mourn (κοψονται). Stronger: beat their breasts in anguish.
 
Matthew 26:48
 
48 (AV) Now he that betrayed him gave them a sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he: hold him fast. (AV)
48 (IGNT) ο δε {AND HE WHO} παραδιδους {WAS DELIVERING UP} αυτον {HIM} εδωκεν {GAVE} αυτοις {THEM} σημειον {A SIGN,} λεγων {SAYING,} ον αν { WHOMSOEVER} φιλησω {I SHALL KISS,} αυτος {HE} εστιν {IT IS:} κρατησατε {SEIZE } αυτον {HIM.} (IGNT)
 
Matthew 26:48 (RWP)
 
Gave them a sign (εδωκεν αυτοις σημειον). Probably just before he reached the place, though Mark {Mark 14:44} has "had given" (δεδωκει) which certainly means before arrival at Gethsemane. At any rate Judas had given the leaders to understand that he would kiss (φιλησω) Jesus in order to identify him for certain. The kiss was a common mode of greeting and Judas chose that sign and actually "kissed him fervently" (κατεφιλησεν, verse Matthew 26:49), though the compound verb sometimes in the papyri has lost its intensive force. Bruce thinks that Judas was prompted by the inconsistent motives of smouldering love and cowardice. At any rate this revolting ostentatious kiss is "the most terrible instance of the εκουσια φιληματα εχθρου," {Proverbs 27:6} "the profuse kisses of an enemy" (McNeile). This same compound verb occurs in Luke 7:38 of the sinful woman, in Luke 15:20 of the Father’s embrace of the Prodigal Son, and in Acts 20:37 of the Ephesian elders and Paul.
 
 
 
Mark 6:51
 
51 (AV) And he went up unto them into the ship; and the wind ceased: and they were sore amazed in themselves beyond measure, and wondered. (AV)
51 (IGNT) και {AND} ανεβη {HE WENT UP} προς {TO} αυτους { THEM} εις {INTO} το {THE} πλοιον {SHIP,} και {AND} εκοπασεν {FELL} ο {THE} ανεμος {WIND.} και {AND} λιαν εκ {EXCEEDINGLY } περισσου {BEYOND MEASURE} εν {IN} εαυτοις {THEMSELVES} εξισταντο {THEY WERE AMAZED, } και {AND} εθαυμαζον {WONDERED;} (IGNT)
 
Mark 6:51 (RWP)
 
They were sore amazed in themselves (λιαν εν εαυτοις εξισταντο). Only in Mark. Imperfect tense picturing vividly the excited disciples. Mark does not give the incident of Peter’s walking on the water and beginning to sink. Perhaps Peter was not fond of telling that story.
52 (AV) For they considered not the miracle of the loaves: for their heart was hardened. (AV)
52 (IGNT) ου γαρ {FOR} συνηκαν {THEY UNDERSTOOD NOT} επι {BY} τοις {THE} αρτοις {LOAVES,} ην γαρ η {FOR WAS} καρδια αυτων {THEIR HEART} πεπωρωμενη {HARDENED.} (IGNT)
 
Mark 6:52 (RWP)
 
For they understood not (ου γαρ συνηκαν). Explanation of their excessive amazement, viz., their failure to grasp the full significance of the miracle of the loaves and fishes, a nature miracle. Here was another, Jesus walking on the water. Their reasoning process (καρδια in the general sense for all the inner man)
 
was hardened (ην πεπωρωμενη). See RWP on "Mr 3:5" about πωρωσις. Today some men have such intellectual hardness or denseness that they cannot believe that God can or would work miracles, least of all nature miracles.
 
Mark 8:11
 
11 (AV) And the Pharisees came forth, and began to question with him, seeking of him a sign from heaven, tempting him. (AV)
11 (IGNT) και {AND} εξηλθον {WENT OUT} οι {THE} φαρισαιοι { PHARISEES} και {AND} ηρξαντο {BEGAN} συζητειν {TO DISPUTE WITH} αυτω {HIM, } ζητουντες {SEEKING} παρ {FROM} αυτου {HIM} σημειον {A SIGN} απο {FROM} του {THE} ουρανου {HEAVEN,} πειραζοντες {TEMPTING} αυτον {HIM.} (IGNT)
 
Mark 8:11 (RWP)
 
And the Pharisees came forth (και εξηλθον οι φαρισαιοι). At once they met Jesus and opened a controversy. Matthew 16:1 adds "and Sadducees," the first time these two parties appear together against Jesus. See discussion on Matthew 16:1. The Pharisees and Herodians had already joined hands against Jesus in the sabbath controversy. {Mark 3:6} They
 
began to question with him (ηρξαντο συνζητειν αυτω). Dispute, not mere inquiry, associative instrumental case of αυτοι. They began at once and kept it up (present infinitive).
12 (AV) And he sighed deeply in his spirit, and saith, Why doth this generation seek after a sign? verily I say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation. (AV)
12 (IGNT) και {AND} αναστεναξας τω {HAVING GROANED} πνευματι αυτου {IN HIS SPIRIT} λεγει {HE SAYS,} τι η {WHY} γενεα αυτη {THIS GENERATION} σημειον {A SIGN} επιζητει {SEEKS?} αμην {VERILY} λεγω {I SAY} υμιν ει {TO YOU,} δοθησεται τη {IF THERE SHALL BE GIVEN} γενεα ταυτη {TO THIS GENERATION} σημειον {A SIGN.} (IGNT)
 
Mark 8:12 (RWP)
 
He sighed deeply in his spirit (αναστεναξας τω πνευματι). The only instance of this compound in the N.T. though in the LXX The uncompounded form occurs in Mark 7:34 and it is common enough. The preposition ανα- intensifies the meaning of the verb (perfective use). "The sigh seemed to come, as we say, from the bottom of his heart, the Lord’s human spirit was stirred to its depths" (Swete). Jesus resented the settled prejudice of the Pharisees (and now Sadducees also) against him and his work.
 
There shall no sign be given unto this generation (ει δοθησεται τη γενεα ταυτη σημειον). Matthew 16:4 has simply ου δοθησεται, , plain negative with the future passive indicative. Mark has ει instead of ου, which is technically a conditional clause with the conclusion unexpressed (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1024), really aposiopesis in imitation of the Hebrew use of \im This is the only instance in the N.T. except in quotations from the LXX {Hebrews 3:11 4:3,5} It is very common in the LXX The rabbis were splitting hairs over the miracles of Jesus as having a possible natural explanation (as some critics do today) even if by the power of Beelzebub, and those not of the sky (from heaven) which would be manifested from God. So they put up this fantastic test to Jesus which he deeply resents. Matthew 16:4 adds "but the sign of Jonah" mentioned already by Jesus on a previous occasion {Matthew 12:39-41} at more length and to be mentioned again. {Luke 11:32} But the mention of the sign of Jonah was "an absolute refusal of signs in their sense" (Bruce). And when he did rise from the dead on the third day, the Sanhedrin refused to be convinced. {see Acts 3:1-5:42}
 
Mark 9:39
 
39 (AV) But Jesus said, Forbid him not: for there is no man which shall do a miracle in my name, that can lightly speak evil of me. (AV)
39 (IGNT) ο δε {BUT} ιησους {JESUS} ειπεν μη {SAID,} κωλυετε {FORBID NOT} αυτον {HIM;} ουδεις γαρ {FOR NO ONE} εστιν {THERE IS} ος {WHO } ποιησει {SHALL DO} δυναμιν {A WORK OF POWER} επι τω {IN} ονοματι μου {MY NAME, } και {AND} δυνησεται {BE ABLE} ταχυ {READILY} κακολογησαι {TO SPEAK EVIL OF} με {ME;} (IGNT)
 
Mark 9:39 (RWP)
 
Forbid him not (μη κωλυετε). Stop hindering him (μη and the present-imperative) as John had been doing.
 
Mark 13:4
 
4 (AV) Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled? (AV)
4 (IGNT) ειπε {TELL} ημιν {US} ποτε {WHEN} ταυτα {THESE THINGS} εσται {SHALL BE?} και {AND} τι {WHAT} το {THE} σημειον {SIGN} οταν {WHEN} μελλη {SHOULD BE ABOUT} παντα {ALL} ταυτα { THESE THINGS} συντελεισθαι {TO BE ACCOMPLISHED?} (IGNT)
 
Mark 13:4 (RWP)
 
Tell us, when shall these things be? (ειπον ημιν ποτε ταυτα εσται; ). The Revised Version punctuates it as a direct question, but Westcott and Hort as an indirect inquiry. They asked about the
 
when (ποτε) and the
 
what sign (τι σημειον). Matthew 24:3 includes "the sign of thy coming and the end of the world," showing that these tragic events are brought before Jesus by the disciples. See discussion of the interpretation of this discourse on Matthew 24:3. This chapter in Mark is often called "The Little Apocalypse" with the notion that a Jewish apocalypse has been here adapted by Mark and attributed to Jesus. Many of the theories attribute grave error to Jesus or to the Gospels on this subject. The view adopted in the discussion in Matthew is the one suggested here, that Jesus blended in one picture his death, the destruction of Jerusalem within that generation, the second coming and end of the world typified by the destruction of the city. The lines between these topics are not sharply drawn in the report and it is not possible for us to separate the topics clearly. This great discourse is the longest preserved in Mark and may be due to Peter. Mark may have given it in order "to forewarn and forearm" (Bruce) the readers against the coming catastrophe of the destruction of Jerusalem. Both Matthew {Matthew 24} and Luke {Luke 21:5-36} follow the general line of Mark 13 though Matthew 24:43-25:46 presents new material (parables).
 
Mark 13:22
 
22 (AV) For false Christs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect. (AV)
22 (IGNT) εγερθησονται {THERE WILL ARISE} γαρ {FOR} ψευδοχριστοι {FALSE CHRISTS} και {AND} ψευδοπροφηται {FALSE PROPHETS,} και {AND} δωσουσιν {WILL GIVE} σημεια {SIGNS} και {AND} τερατα {WONDERS,} προς το {TO} αποπλαναν { DECEIVE} ει {IF} δυνατον {POSSIBLE} και {EVEN} τους {THE} εκλεκτους {ELECT.} (IGNT)
 
Mark 13:22 (RWP)
 
That they may lead astray (προς το αποπλαναν). With a view to leading off (προς and the infinitive). Matthew 24:24 has ωστε αποπλασθαι, so as to lead off.
 
Mark 16:17
 
17 (AV) And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; (AV)
17 (IGNT) σημεια δε {AND SIGNS} τοις {THOSE THAT} πιστευσασιν {BELIEVE} ταυτα {THESE} παρακολουθησει {SHALL FOLLOW:} εν τω {IN} ονοματι μου {MY NAME} δαιμονια {DEMONS} εκβαλουσιν {THEY SHALL CAST OUT;} γλωσσαις {WITH TONGUES} λαλησουσιν {THEY SHALL SPEAK } καιναις {NEW;} (IGNT)
 
Mark 16:17 (RWP)
 
They shall speak with new tongues (γλωσσαις λαλησουσιν καιναις). Westcott and Hort put καιναις (new) in the margin. Casting out demons we have seen in the ministry of Jesus. Speaking with tongues comes in the apostolic era. {Acts 2:3 10:46 19:6 1 Corinthians 12:28 14}
 
Mark 16:20
 
20 (AV) And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen. (AV)
20 (IGNT) εκεινοι δε {AND THEY} εξελθοντες {HAVING GONE FORTH} εκηρυξαν {PREACHED} πανταχου {EVERYWHERE,} του {THE} κυριου {LORD} συνεργουντος {WORKING WITH THEM,} και {AND} τον {THE} λογον {WORD} βεβαιουντος {CONFIRMING} δια {BY} των {THE} επακολουθουντων {FOLLOWING UPON IT} σημειων {SIGNS.} αμην {AMEN.} (IGNT)
 
Mark 16:20 (RWP)
 
The Lord working with them (του κυριου συνεργουντος). Genitive absolute. This participle not in Gospels elsewhere nor is βεβαιουντος nor the compound επακολουθουντων, all in Paul’s Epistles. πανταχου once in Luke. Westcott and Hort give the alternative ending found in L: "And they announced briefly to Peter and those around him all the things enjoined. And after these things Jesus himself also sent forth through them from the east even unto the west the holy and incorruptible proclamation of the eternal salvation."
 
 
Luke 2:12
 
12 (AV) And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. (AV)
12 (IGNT) και {AND} τουτο {THIS IS} υμιν {TO YOU} το {THE} σημειον {SIGN:} ευρησετε {YE SHALL FIND} βρεφος {A BABE} εσπαργανωμενον { WRAPPED IN SWADDLING CLOTHES,} κειμενον {LYING} εν {IN} τη {THE} φατνη {MANGER. } (IGNT)
 
Luke 2:18
 
18 (AV) And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds. (AV)
18 (IGNT) και {AND} παντες {ALL} οι {WHO} ακουσαντες {HEARD } εθαυμασαν {WONDERED} περι {CONCERNING} των {THE THINGS WHICH} λαληθεντων {HAD BEEN SPOKEN} υπο {BY} των {THE} ποιμενων {SHEPHERDS} προς {TO} αυτους {THEM.} (IGNT)
 
Luke 2:34
 
34 (AV) And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel; and for a sign which shall be spoken against; (AV)
34 (IGNT) και {AND} ευλογησεν {BLESSED} αυτους {THEM} συμεων {SIMEON,} και {AND} ειπεν {SAID} προς {TO} μαριαμ την {MARY} μητερα αυτου {HIS MOTHER,} ιδου {LO,} ουτος {THIS CHILD} κειται {IS SET} εις {FOR THE} πτωσιν {FALL} και {AND} αναστασιν {RISING UP} πολλων {OF MANY} εν τω {IN} ισραηλ {ISRAEL,} και {AND} εις { FOR} σημειον {A SIGN} αντιλεγομενον {SPOKEN AGAINST;} (IGNT)
 
Luke 2:34 (RWP)
 
Is set for the falling and the rising up of many in Israel (κειται εις πτωσιν και αναστασιν πολλων εν τω ισραηλ). Present indicative of the old defective verb appearing only in present and imperfect in the N.T. Sometimes it is used as the passive of τιθημι as here. The falling of some and the rising up of others is what is meant. He will be a stumbling-block to some {Isaiah 8:14 Matthew 21:42,44 Romans 9:33 1 Peter 2:16} who love darkness rather than light, {John 3:19} he will be the cause of rising for others. {Romans 6:4,9 Ephesians 2:6} "Judas despairs, Peter repents: one robber blasphemes, the other confesses" (Plummer). Jesus is the magnet of the ages. He draws some, he repels others. This is true of all epoch-making men to some extent.
 
Spoken against (αντιλεγομενον). Present passive participle, continuous action. It is going on today. Nietzsche regarded Jesus Christ as the curse of the race because he spared the weak.
 
Luke 4:22
 
22 (AV) And all bare him witness, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth. And they said, Is not this Joseph’s son? (AV)
22 (IGNT) και {AND} παντες {ALL} εμαρτυρουν {BORE WITNESS} αυτω {TO HIM,} και {AND} εθαυμαζον {WONDERED} επι {AT} τοις {THE} λογοις της {WORDS} χαριτος {OF GRACE} τοις {WHICH} εκπορευομενοις {PROCEEDED} εκ του {OUT OF} στοματος αυτου {HIS MOUTH;} και {AND} ελεγον {THEY SAID,} ουχ {NOT} ουτος {THIS} εστιν {IS} ο {THE} υιος {SON} ιωσηφ {OF JOSEPH?} (IGNT)
 
Luke 4:22 (RWP)
 
Bare him witness (εμαρτυρουν). Imperfect active, perhaps inchoative. They all began to bear witness that the rumours were not exaggerations {Luke 4:14} as they had supposed, but had foundation in fact if this discourse or its start was a fair sample of his teaching. The verb μαρτυρεω is a very old and common one. It is frequent in Acts, Paul’s Epistles, and the Johannine books. The substantive μαρτυρ is seen in our English μαρτθρ, one who witnesses even by his death to his faith in Christ.
 
And wondered (και εθαυμαζον). Imperfect active also, perhaps inchoative also. They began to marvel as he proceeded with his address. This verb is an old one and common in the Gospels for the attitude of the people towards Jesus.
 
At the words of grace (επι τοις λογοις της χαριτος). See RWP on "Lu 1:30"; See RWP on "Lu 2:52" for this wonderful word χαρις so full of meaning and so often in the N.T. The genitive case (case of genus or kind) here means that the words that came out of the mouth of Jesus in a steady stream (present tense, εκπορευομενοις) were marked by fascination and charm. They were "winning words" as the context makes plain, though they were also "gracious" in the Pauline sense of "grace." There is no necessary antithesis in the ideas of graceful and gracious in these words of Jesus.
 
Is not this Joseph’s son? (ουχι υιος εστιν ιωσηφ ουτος; ). Witness and wonder gave way to bewilderment as they began to explain to themselves the situation. The use of ουχι intensive form of ουκ in a question expects the answer "yes." Jesus passed in Nazareth as the son of Joseph as Luke presents him in Luke 3:23. He does not stop here to correct this misconception because the truth has been already amply presented in Luke 1:28-38 2:49. This popular conception of Jesus as the son of Joseph appears also in John 1:45. The puzzle of the people was due to their previous knowledge of Jesus as the carpenter (Mark 6:3; the carpenter’s son, Matthew 13:55). For him now to appear as the Messiah in Nazareth where he had lived and laboured as the carpenter was a phenomenon impossible to credit on sober reflection. So the mood of wonder and praise quickly turned with whispers and nods and even scowls to doubt and hostility, a rapid and radical transformation of emotion in the audience.
 
Luke 8:25
 
25 (AV) And he said unto them, Where is your faith? And they being afraid wondered, saying one to another, What manner of man is this! for he commandeth even the winds and water, and they obey him. (AV)
25 (IGNT) ειπεν δε {AND HE SAID} αυτοις {TO THEM,} που {WHERE} εστιν η {IS} πιστις υμων {YOUR FAITH?} φοβηθεντες δε {AND BEING AFRAID} εθαυμασαν {THEY WONDERED,} λεγοντες {SAYING} προς {TO} αλληλους {ONE ANOTHER,} τις {WHO} αρα {THEN} ουτος {THIS} εστιν {IS,} οτι {THAT} και {EVEN} τοις {THE} ανεμοις {WINDS} επιτασσει {HE COMMANDS} και {AND} τω {THE} υδατι {WATER,} και {AND} υπακουουσιν {THEY OBEY} αυτω {HIM?} (IGNT)
 
Luke 9:43
 
43 ¶ (AV) And they were all amazed at the mighty power of God. But while they wondered every one at all things which Jesus did, he said unto his disciples, (AV)
43 (IGNT) εξεπλησσοντο δε {AND WERE ASTONISHED} παντες {ALL} επι {AT} τη {THE} μεγαλειοτητι του {MAJESTY} θεου {OF GOD.} παντων δε {AND AS ALL} θαυμαζοντων {WERE WONDERING} επι {AT} πασιν {ALL} οις {WHICH} εποιησεν ο { DID} ιησους {JESUS,} ειπεν {HE SAID} προς τους {TO} μαθητας αυτου {HIS DISCIPLES, } (IGNT)
 
Luke 11:14
 
14 ¶ (AV) And he was casting out a devil, and it was dumb. And it came to pass, when the devil was gone out, the dumb spake; and the people wondered. (AV)
14 (IGNT) και {AND} ην {HE WAS} εκβαλλων {CASTING OUT} δαιμονιον {A DEMON,} και {AND} αυτο {IT} ην {WAS} κωφον {DUMB;} εγενετο δε του {AND IT CAME TO PASS} δαιμονιου {ON THE DEMON} εξελθοντος {HAVING GONE OUT,} ελαλησεν { SPOKE} ο {THE} κωφος {DUMB.} και {AND} εθαυμασαν {WONDERED} οι {THE} οχλοι {CROWDS.} (IGNT)
 
Luke 11:14 (RWP)
 
When (του δαιμονιου εξελθοντος). Genitive absolute ana asyndeton between και εγενετο and ελαλησεν as often in Luke (no οτι or και).
 
Luke 11:16
 
16 (AV) And others, tempting him, sought of him a sign from heaven. (AV)
16 (IGNT) ετεροι δε {AND OTHERS,} πειραζοντες {TEMPTING,} σημειον {A SIGN} παρ {FROM} αυτου {HIM} εζητουν {WERE SEEKING} εξ {FROM} ουρανου { HEAVEN.} (IGNT)
 
Luke 11:16 (RWP)
 
Tempting him (πειραζοντες). These "others" (ετεροι) apparently realized the futility of the charge of being in league with Beelzebub. Hence they put up to Jesus the demand for "a sign from heaven" just as had been done in Galilee (Matthew 12:38). By "sign" (σημειον) they meant a great spectacular display of heavenly power such as they expected the Messiah to give and such as the devil suggested to Jesus on the pinnacle of the temple.
 
Sought (εζητουν). Imperfect active, kept on seeking.
 
Luke 11:29
 
29 ¶ (AV) And when the people were gathered thick together, he began to say, This is an evil generation: they seek a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas the prophet. (AV)
29 (IGNT) των δε {BUT THE} οχλων {CROWDS} επαθροιζομενων {BEING THRONGED TOGETHER} ηρξατο {HE BEGAN} λεγειν η {TO SAY,} γενεα {GENERATION} αυτη {THIS} πονηρα {WICKED} εστιν {IS;} σημειον {A SIGN} επιζητει {IT SEEKS AFTER,} και {AND} σημειον {A SIGN} ου {NOT} δοθησεται {SHALL BE GIVEN} αυτη ει {TO IT } μη {EXCEPT} το {THE} σημειον {SIGN} ιωνα {OF JONAH} του {THE} προφητου {PROPHET.} (IGNT)
 
Luke 11:29 (RWP)
 
Were gathering together unto him (επαθροιζομενων). Genitive absolute present middle participle of επαθροιζω, a rare verb, Plutarch and here only in the N.T., from επι and αθροιζω (a common enough verb). It means to throng together (αθροος, in throngs). Vivid picture of the crowds around Jesus.
 
But the sign of Jonah (ει μη το σημειον ιωνα). Luke does not give here the burial and resurrection of Jesus of which Jonah’s experience in the big fish was a type (Matthew 12:39), but that is really implied (Plummer argues) by the use here of "shall be given" (δοθησεται) and "shall be" (εσται), for the resurrection of Jesus is still future. The preaching of Jesus ought to have been sign enough as in the case of Jonah, but the resurrection will be given. Luke’s report is much briefer and omits what is in Matthew 12:41.
30 (AV) For as Jonas was a sign unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of man be to this generation. (AV)
30 (IGNT) καθως γαρ {FOR AS} εγενετο {WAS} ιωνας {JONAH} σημειον {A SIGN} τοις {TO THE} νινευιταις {NINEVITES,} ουτως {THUS} εσται {SHALL BE } και {ALSO} ο {THE} υιος του {SON} ανθρωπου τη {OF MAN} γενεα ταυτη {TO THIS GENERATION.} (IGNT)
 
Luke 21:7
 
7 (AV) And they asked him, saying, Master, but when shall these things be? and what sign will there be when these things shall come to pass? (AV)
7 (IGNT) επηρωτησαν δε {AND THEY ASKED} αυτον {HIM,} λεγοντες {SAYING,} διδασκαλε {TEACHER,} ποτε {WHEN} ουν {THEN} ταυτα {THESE THINGS} εσται { WILL BE?} και {AND} τι {WHAT} το {THE} σημειον {SIGN} οταν {WHEN} μελλη {ARE ABOUT} ταυτα {THESE THINGS} γινεσθαι {TO TAKE PLACE?} (IGNT)
 
Luke 21:11
 
11 (AV) And great earthquakes shall be in divers places, and famines, and pestilences; and fearful sights and great signs shall there be from heaven. (AV)
11 (IGNT) σεισμοι τε {ALSO EARTHQUAKES} μεγαλοι {GREAT} κατα {IN DIFFERENT} τοπους {PLACES} και {AND} λιμοι {FAMINES} και {AND} λοιμοι { PESTILENCES} εσονται {SHALL THERE BE,} φοβητρα {FEARFUL SIGHTS} τε {AND} και {AND } σημεια {SIGNS} απ {FROM} ουρανου {HEAVEN} μεγαλα {GREAT} εσται {SHALL THERE BE.} (IGNT)
 
Luke 21:11 (RWP)
 
Famines and pestilences (λοιμοι και λιμοι). Play on the two words pronounced just alike in the Koin‚ (itacism).
 
And terrors (φοβηθρα τε). The use of τε  …  τε in this verse groups the two kinds of woes. This rare word φοβηθρα is only here in the N.T. It is from φοβεω, to frighten, and occurs only in the plural as here.
 
Luke 21:25
 
25 (AV) And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; (AV)
25 (IGNT) και {AND} εσται {THERE SHALL BE} σημεια {SIGNS} εν {IN} ηλιω {SUN} και {AND} σεληνη {MOON} και {AND} αστροις {STARS,} και {AND} επι {UPON} της {THE} γης {EARTH} συνοχη {DISTRESS} εθνων {OF NATIONS} εν {WITH} απορια {PERPLEXITY,} ηχουσης {ROARING} θαλασσης {OF THE SEA} και {AND} σαλου {ROLLING SURGE,} (IGNT)
 
Luke 21:25 (RWP)
 
Distress (συνοχη). From συνεχω. In the N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 2:4. Anguish.
 
In perplexity (εν απορια). State of one who is απορος, who has lost his way (α privative and πορος). Here only in the N.T. though an old and common word.
 
For the roaring of the sea (ηχους θαλασσης). Our word echo (Latin echo) is this word ηχος, a reverberating sound. Sense of rumour in Luke 4:37.
 
Billows (σαλου). Old word σαλος for the swell of the sea. Here only in the N.T.
 
Luke 23:8
 
8 (AV) And when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad: for he was desirous to see him of a long season, because he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by him. (AV)
8 (IGNT) ο δε {AND} ηρωδης {HEROD} ιδων τον {SEEING} ιησουν { JESUS} εχαρη {REJOICED} λιαν {GREATLY,} ην γαρ {FOR HE WAS} θελων εξ {WISHING } ικανου {FOR LONG} ιδειν {TO SEE} αυτον {HIM,} δια το {BECAUSE OF} ακουειν {HEARING} πολλα {MANY THINGS} περι {CONCERNING} αυτου {HIM,} και {AND} ηλπιζεν {HE WAS HOPING} τι {SOME} σημειον {SIGN} ιδειν {TO SEE} υπ {BY} αυτου {HIM} γινομενον {DONE.} (IGNT)
 
Luke 23:8 (RWP)
 
Was exceeding glad (εχαρη λιαν). Second aorist passive indicative of χαιρω, ingressive aorist, became glad.
 
Of a long time (εξ ικανων χρονων). For this idiom see 8:27; 20:9; Acts 8:11).
 
He hoped (ηλπιζεν). Imperfect active. He was still hoping. He had long ago gotten over his fright that Jesus was John the Baptist come to life again (9:7-9).
 
Done (γινομενον). Present middle participle. He wanted to see a miracle happening like a stunt of a sleight-of-hand performer.
 
Luke 24:12
 
12 (AV) Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass. (AV)
12 (IGNT) ο δε {BUT} πετρος {PETER} αναστας {HAVING RISEN UP} εδραμεν {RAN} επι {TO} το {THE} μνημειον {TOMB,} και {AND} παρακυψας {HAVING STOOPED DOWN} βλεπει {HE SEES} τα {THE} οθονια {LINEN CLOTHES} κειμενα {LYING} μονα {ALONE,} και {AND} απηλθεν προς {WENT AWAY} εαυτον {HOME} θαυμαζων {WONDERING AT} το {THAT WHICH} γεγονος {HAD COME TO PASS.} (IGNT)
 
Luke 24:12 (RWP)
 
This entire verse is a Western non-interpolation. This incident is given in complete form in John 18:2-10 and most of the words in this verse are there also. It is of a piece with many items in this chapter about which it is not easy to reach a final conclusion.
 
Stooping and looking in (παρακυψας). First aorist active participle of παρακυπτω, to stoop besides and peer into. Old verb used also in John 20:5,11; James 1:25; 1 Peter 1:12.
 
By themselves (μονα). Without the body.
 
To his home (προς αυτον). Literally, "to himself."
 
Luke 24:41
 
41 (AV) And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat? (AV)
41 (IGNT) ετι δε {BUT YET} απιστουντων αυτων {WHILE THEY WERE DISBELIEVING} απο της {FOR} χαρας {JOY} και {AND} θαυμαζοντων {WERE WONDERING,} ειπεν {HE SAID} αυτοις {TO THEM,} εχετε {HAVE YE} τι {ANYTHING} βρωσιμον {EATABLE} ενθαδε {HERE?} (IGNT)
 
Luke 24:41 (RWP)
 
Disbelieved for joy (απιστουντων αυτων απο της χαρας). Genitive absolute and a quite understandable attitude. They were slowly reconvinced, but it was after all too good to be true.
 
Anything to eat (βρωσιμον). Only here in the N.T., though an old word from βιβρωσκω, to eat.
 
John 2:11
 
11 (AV) This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him. (AV)
11 (IGNT) ταυτην {THIS} εποιησεν την {DID} αρχην {BEGINNING} των {OF THE} σημειων ο {SIGNS} ιησους {JESUS} εν {IN} κανα της {CANA} γαλιλαιας {OF GALILEE,} και {AND} εφανερωσεν την {MANIFESTED} δοξαν αυτου {HIS GLORY; } και {AND} επιστευσαν {BELIEVED} εις {ON} αυτον οι {HIM} μαθηται αυτου {HIS DISCIPLES.} (IGNT)
 
John 2:11 (RWP)
 
This beginning of his signs did Jesus (ταυτην εποιησεν αρχην των σημειων ο ιησους). Rather, "this Jesus did as a beginning of his signs," for there is no article between ταυτην and αρχην. "We have now passed from the ‘witness’ of the Baptist to the ‘witness’ of the works of Jesus" (Bernard). This is John’s favourite word "signs" rather than wonders (τερατα) or powers (δυναμεις) for the works (εργα) of Jesus. σημειον is an old word from σημαινω, to give a sign (12:33). He selects eight in his Gospel by which to prove the deity of Christ (20:30) of which this is the first.
 
Manifested his glory (εφανερωσεν την δοξαν αυτου). First aorist (effective) active indicative of φανεροω, that glory of which John spoke in 1:14.
 
Believed on him (επιστευσαν εις αυτον). First aorist active indicative of πιστευω, to believe, to put trust in, so common in John. These six disciples (learners) had already believed in Jesus as the Messiah (1:35-51). Now their faith was greatly strengthened. So it will be all through this Gospel. Jesus will increasingly reveal himself while the disciples will grow in knowledge and trust and the Jews will become increasingly hostile till the culmination.
 
John 2:18
 
18 (AV) Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things? (AV)
18 (IGNT) απεκριθησαν {ANSWERED} ουν {THEREFORE} οι {THE} ιουδαιοι {JEWS} και {AND} ειπον {SAID} αυτω {TO HIM,} τι {WHAT} σημειον {SIGN} δεικνυεις {SHEWEST THOU} ημιν {TO US} οτι {THAT} ταυτα {THESE THINGS} ποιεις {THOU DOEST?} (IGNT)
 
John 2:18 (RWP)
 
What sign shewest thou unto us? (τι σημειον δεικνυεις ημιν; ). They may have heard of the "sign" at Cana or not, but they have rallied a bit on the outside of the temple area and demand proof for his Messianic assumption of authority over the temple worship. These traders had paid the Sadducees and Pharisees in the Sanhedrin for the concession as traffickers which they enjoyed. They were within their technical rights in this question.
 
John 2:23
 
23 ¶ (AV) Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, in the feast day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did. (AV)
23 (IGNT) ως δε {BUT WHEN} ην {HE WAS} εν {IN} ιεροσολυμοις { JERUSALEM} εν {AT} τω {THE} πασχα {PASSOVER,} εν {AT} τη {THE} εορτη {FEAST,} πολλοι {MANY} επιστευσαν {BELIEVED} εις το { ON} ονομα αυτου {HIS NAME,} θεωρουντες {BEHOLDING} αυτου τα {HIS} σημεια {SIGNS } α {WHICH} εποιει {HE WAS DOING.} (IGNT)
 
John 2:23 (RWP)
 
In Jerusalem (εν τοις ιεροσολυμοις). The form ιεροσολυμα as in 2:13 always in this Gospel and in Mark, and usually in Matthew, though ιερουσαλημ only in Revelation, and both forms by Luke and Paul.
 
During the feast (εν τη εορτη). The feast of unleavened bread followed for seven days right after the passover (one day strictly), though το πασχα is used either for the passover meal or for the whole eight days.
 
Believed on his name (επιστευσαν εις το ονομα αυτου). See on "Jn 1:12" for this phrase. Only one has to watch for the real import of πιστευω.
 
Beholding his signs (θεωρουντες αυτου τα σημεια). Present active participle (causal use) of θεωρεω.
 
Which he did (α εποιει). "Which he was doing" (imperfect tense). He did his first sign in Cana, but now he was doing many in Jerusalem. Already Jesus had become the cynosure of all eyes in Jerusalem at this first visit in his ministry.
 
John 3:2
 
2 (AV) The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him. (AV)
2 (IGNT) ουτος {HE} ηλθεν {CAME} προς τον {TO} ιησουν { JESUS} νυκτος {BY NIGHT,} και {AND} ειπεν {SAID} αυτω {TO HIM,} ραββι {RABBI,} οιδαμεν {WE KNOW} οτι {THAT} απο {FROM} θεου {GOD} εληλυθας {THOU HAST COME} διδασκαλος {A TEACHER,} ουδεις γαρ {FOR NO ONE} ταυτα τα {THESE} σημεια {SIGNS} δυναται {IS ABLE} ποιειν {TO DO} α {WHICH } συ {THOU} ποιεις εαν {DOEST} μη {UNLESS} η ο {BE} θεος {GOD} μετ {WITH} αυτου {HIM.} (IGNT)
 
John 3:2 (RWP)
 
The same (ουτος). "This one."
 
By night (νυκτος). Genitive of time. That he came at all is remarkable, not because there was any danger as was true at a later period, but because of his own prominence. He wished to avoid comment by other members of the Sanhedrin and others. Jesus had already provoked the opposition of the ecclesiastics by his assumption of Messianic authority over the temple. There is no ground for assigning this incident to a later period, for it suits perfectly here. Jesus was already in the public eye (2:23) and the interest of Nicodemus was real and yet he wished to be cautious.
 
Rabbi (ραββει). See on 1:38. Technically Jesus was not an acknowledged Rabbi of the schools, but Nicodemus does recognize him as such and calls him "My Master" just as Andrew and John did (1:38). It was a long step for Nicodemus as a Pharisee to take, for the Pharisees had closely scrutinized the credentials of the Baptist in 1:19-24 (Milligan and Moulton’s Comm.).
 
We know (οιδαμεν). Second perfect indicative first person plural. He seems to speak for others of his class as the blind man does in 9:31. Westcott thinks that Nicodemus has been influenced partly by the report of the commission sent to the Baptist (1:19-27).
 
Thou art a teacher come from God (απο θεου εληλυθας διδασκαλος). "Thou hast come from God as a teacher." Second perfect active indicative of ερχομαι and predicative nominative διδασκαλος. This is the explanation of Nicodemus for coming to Jesus, obscure Galilean peasant as he seemed, evidence that satisfied one of the leaders in Pharisaism.
 
Can do (δυναται ποιειν). "Can go on doing" (present active infinitive of ποιεω and so linear).
 
These signs that thou doest (ταυτα τα σημεια α συ ποιεις). Those mentioned in 2:23 that convinced so many in the crowd and that now appeal to the scholar. Note συ (thou) as quite out of the ordinary. The scorn of Jesus by the rulers held many back to the end (John 12:42), but Nicodemus dares to feel his way.
 
Except God be with him (εαν μη η ο θεος μετ αυτου). Condition of the third class, presented as a probability, not as a definite fact. He wanted to know more of the teaching accredited thus by God. Jesus went about doing good because God was with him, Peter says (Acts 10:38).
 
John 4:48
 
48 (AV) Then said Jesus unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye will not believe. (AV)
48 (IGNT) ειπεν {SAID} ουν ο {THEREFORE} ιησους {JESUS} προς {TO} αυτον εαν {HIM,} μη {UNLESS} σημεια {SIGNS} και {AND} τερατα {WONDERS} ιδητε ου {YE SEE} μη {IN NO WISE} πιστευσητε {WILL YE BELIEVE.} (IGNT)
 
John 4:48 (RWP)
 
Except ye see (εαν μη ιδητε). Condition of the third class (εαν μη, negative, with second aorist active subjunctive of οραω). Jesus is not discounting his "signs and wonders" (σημεια και τερατα, both words together here only in John, though common in N.T. as in Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22; Acts 2:19,22,43; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; Hebrews 2:4), though he does seem disappointed that he is in Galilee regarded as a mere miracle worker.
 
Ye will in no wise believe (ου μη πιστευσητε). Strong double negative with aorist active subjunctive of πιστευω, picturing the stubborn refusal of people to believe in Christ without miracles.
 
John 4:54
 
54 (AV) This is again the second miracle that Jesus did, when he was come out of Judaea into Galilee. (AV)
54 (IGNT) τουτο {THIS} παλιν {AGAIN} δευτερον {A SECOND} σημειον {SIGN} εποιησεν ο {DID} ιησους {JESUS,} ελθων {HAVING COME} εκ της {OUT OF } ιουδαιας {JUDEA} εις την {INTO} γαλιλαιαν {GALILEE.} (IGNT)
 
John 4:54 (RWP)
 
The second sign that (δευτερον σημειον). No article, simply predicate accusative, "This again a second sign did Jesus having come out of Judea into Galilee." The first one was also in Cana (2:1), but many were wrought in Jerusalem also (2:23).
 
John 6:2
 
2 (AV) And a great multitude followed him, because they saw his miracles which he did on them that were diseased. (AV)
2 (IGNT) και {AND} ηκολουθει {FOLLOWED} αυτω {HIM} οχλος { A CROWD} πολυς {GREAT,} οτι {BECAUSE} εωρων {THEY SAW} αυτου {OF HIM} τα {THE} σημεια {SIGNS} α {WHICH} εποιει {HE WROUGHT} επι {UPON} των {THOSE WHO} ασθενουντων {WERE SICK.} (IGNT)
 
John 6:2 (RWP)
 
Followed (ηκολουθει). Descriptive imperfect active, picturing the crowd, but without the details of the boat for Christ and the rapid race of the crowd on foot (Mark 6:32; Matthew 14:13).
 
They beheld (εθεωρουν). Imperfect active of θεωρεω. They had been beholding the signs which Jesus had been doing (εποιει, imperfect again) for a long time (2:23), most of which John has not given (Mark 1:29; 2:1; 3:1; 6:5). The people were eager to hear Jesus again (Luke 9:11) and to get the benefit of his healing power "on them that were sick" (επι των ασθενουντων, the weak or feeble, without strength, α privative and σθενος, strength).
 
John 6:14
 
14 (AV) Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, This is of a truth that prophet that should come into the world. (AV)
14 (IGNT) οι ουν ανθρωποι {THE MEN THEREFORE} ιδοντες {HAVING SEEN} ο {WHAT} εποιησεν {HAD DONE} σημειον ο {SIGN} ιησους {JESUS,} ελεγον οτι {SAID,} ουτος {THIS} εστιν {IS} αληθως {TRULY} ο {THE} προφητης {PROPHET} ο {WHO} ερχομενος {IS COMING} εις {INTO} τον {THE} κοσμον {WORLD.} (IGNT)
 
John 6:14 (RWP)
 
Saw the sign which he did (ιδοντες α εποιησεν σημεια). "Signs" oldest MSS. have. This sign added to those already wrought (verse 2). Cf. 2:23; 3:2.
 
They said (ελεγον). Inchoative imperfect, began to say.
 
Of a truth (αληθως). Common adverb (from αληθης) in John (7:40).
 
The prophet that cometh (ο προφητης ο ερχομενος). There was a popular expectation about the prophet of Deuteronomy 18:15 as being the Messiah (John 1:21; 11:27). The phrase is peculiar to John, but the idea is in Acts (3:22; 7:37). The people are on the tiptoe of expectation and believe that Jesus is the political Messiah of Pharisaic hope.
 
John 6:26
 
26 (AV) Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did eat of the loaves, and were filled. (AV)
26 (IGNT) απεκριθη {ANSWERED} αυτοις ο {THEM} ιησους {JESUS} και {AND} ειπεν {SAID,} αμην {VERILY} αμην {VERILY} λεγω {I SAY} υμιν {TO YOU,} ζητειτε {YE SEEK} με {ME,} ουχ {NOT} οτι { BECAUSE} ειδετε {YE SAW} σημεια {SIGNS,} αλλ {BUT} οτι {BECAUSE} εφαγετε {YE ATE} εκ {OF} των {THE} αρτων {LOAVES} και { AND} εχορτασθητε {WERE SATISFIED.} (IGNT)
 
John 6:26 (RWP)
 
Not because ye saw signs (ουχ οτι ειδετε σημεια). Second aorist active indicative of the defective verb οραω. They had seen the "signs" wrought by Jesus (verse 2), but this one had led to wild fanaticism (verse 14) and complete failure to grasp the spiritual lessons.
 
But because ye ate of the loaves (αλλ οτι εφαγετε εκ των αρτων). Second aorist active indicative of εσθιω, defective verb.
 
Ye were filled (εχορτασθητε). First aorist passive indicative of χορταζω, from χορτος (grass) as in verse 10, to eat grass, then to eat anything, to satisfy hunger. They were more concerned with hungry stomachs than with hungry souls. It was a sharp and deserved rebuke.
 
John 6:30
 
30 (AV) They said therefore unto him, What sign shewest thou then, that we may see, and believe thee? what dost thou work? (AV)
30 (IGNT) ειπον {THEY SAID} ουν {THEREFORE} αυτω {TO HIM,} τι {WHAT} ουν {THEN} ποιεις {DOEST} συ {THOU} σημειον {SIGN,} ινα {THAT} ιδωμεν {WE MAY SEE} και {AND} πιστευσωμεν {MAY BELIEVE} σοι {THEE?} τι {WHAT} εργαζη {DOST THOU WORK?} (IGNT)
 
John 6:30 (RWP)
 
For a sign (σημειον). Predicate accusative, as a sign, with τι (what). As if the sign of the day before was without value. Jesus had said that they did not understand his signs (verse 26).
 
That we may see, and believe thee (ινα ιδωμεν και πιστευσωμεν). Purpose clause with ινα and the second aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of οραω and the first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of πιστευω, "that we may come to see and come to have faith in thee." It is hard to have patience with this superficial and almost sneering mob.
 
What workest thou? (τι εργαζη; ). They not simply depreciate the miracle of the day before, but set up a standard for Jesus.
 
John 7:31
 
31 (AV) And many of the people believed on him, and said, When Christ cometh, will he do more miracles than these which this man hath done? (AV)
31 (IGNT) πολλοι δε {BUT MANY} εκ {OF} του {THE} οχλου { CROWD} επιστευσαν {BELIEVED} εις {ON} αυτον {HIM,} και {AND} ελεγον οτι {SAID,} ο {THE} χριστος {CHRIST,} οταν {WHEN} ελθη μητι {HE COMES,} πλειονα {MORE} σημεια {SIGNS} τουτων {THAN THESE} ποιησει {WILL HE DO} ων {WHICH} ουτος {THIS MAN} εποιησεν {DID?} (IGNT)
 
John 7:31 (RWP)
 
When the Christ shall come (ο χριστος οταν ελθη). Proleptic position of ο χριστος again as in 27, but ελθη with οταν rather than ερχηται, calling more attention to the consummation (whenever he does come).
 
Will he do? (μη ποιησει; ). Future active indicative of ποιεω with μη (negative answer expected). Jesus had won a large portion of the pilgrims (εκ του οχλου πολλοι) either before this day or during this controversy. The use of επιστευσαν (ingressive aorist active) looks as if many came to believe at this point. These pilgrims had watched closely the proceedings.
 
Than those which (ων). One must supply the unexpressed antecedent τουτων in the ablative case after πλειονα (more). Then the neuter plural accusative relative α (referring to σημεια signs) is attracted to the ablative case of the pronominal antecedent τουτων (now dropped out).
 
Hath done (εποιησεν). First aorist active indicative of ποιεω, a timeless constative aorist summing up all the miracles of Jesus so far.
 
John 9:16
 
16 (AV) Therefore said some of the Pharisees, This man is not of God, because he keepeth not the sabbath day. Others said, How can a man that is a sinner do such miracles? And there was a division among them. (AV)
16 (IGNT) ελεγον {SAID} ουν {THEREFORE} εκ {OF} των {THE } φαρισαιων {PHARISEES} τινες {SOME,} ουτος ο {THIS} ανθρωπος ουκ {MAN} εστιν {IS NOT} παρα του {FROM} θεου {GOD,} οτι {FOR} το { THE} σαββατον ου {SABBATH} τηρει {HE DOES NOT KEEP.} αλλοι {OTHERS} ελεγον {SAID, } πως {HOW} δυναται {CAN} ανθρωπος {A MAN} αμαρτωλος {A SINNER} τοιαυτα {SUCH} σημεια {SIGNS} ποιειν {DO?} και {AND} σχισμα { A DIVISION} ην {WAS} εν {AMONG} αυτοις {THEM.} (IGNT)
 
John 9:16 (RWP)
 
Because he keepeth not the sabbath (οτι το σαββατον ου τηρει). This is reason (causal οτι) enough. He violates our rules about the Sabbath and therefore is a Sabbath-breaker as charged when here before (5:10,16,18). Hence he is not "from God" (παρα θεου). So some.
 
How can a man that is a sinner do such signs? (πως δυναται ανθρωπος αμαρτωλος τοιαυτα σημεια ποιειν; ). This was the argument of Nicodemus, himself a Pharisee and one of the Sanhedrin, long ago (3:2). It was a conundrum for the Pharisees. No wonder there was "a division" (σχισμα, schism, split, from σχιζω) as in 7:43; 10:19.
 
John 10:41
 
41 (AV) And many resorted unto him, and said, John did no miracle: but all things that John spake of this man were true. (AV)
41 (IGNT) και {AND} πολλοι {MANY} ηλθον {CAME} προς {TO } αυτον {HIM,} και {AND} ελεγον οτι {SAID,} ιωαννης {JOHN} μεν {INDEED} σημειον {SIGN} εποιησεν {DID} ουδεν {NO;} παντα δε { BUT ALL} οσα {WHATSOEVER} ειπεν {SAID} ιωαννης {JOHN} περι {CONCERNING} τουτου {THIS MAN,} αληθη {TRUE} ην {WERE.} (IGNT)
 
John 10:41 (RWP)
 
Many came to him (πολλοι ηλθον προς αυτον). Jesus was busy here and in a more congenial atmosphere than Jerusalem. John wrought no signs the crowds recall, though Jesus did many here (Matthew 19:2). The crowds still bear the impress of John’s witness to Christ as "true" (αληθη). Here was prepared soil for Christ.
 
John 11:47
 
47 (AV) Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said, What do we? for this man doeth many miracles. (AV)
47 (IGNT) συνηγαγον {GATHERED} ουν {THEREFORE} οι {THE} αρχιερεις {CHIEF PRIESTS} και {AND} οι {THE} φαρισαιοι {PHARISEES} συνεδριον {A COUNCIL, } και {AND} ελεγον {SAID,} τι {WHAT} ποιουμεν {DO WE?} οτι {FOR} ουτος ο {THIS} ανθρωπος {MAN} πολλα {MANY} σημεια {SIGNS } ποιει {DOES.} (IGNT)
 
John 11:47 (RWP)
 
Gathered a council (συνηγαγον συνεδριον). Second aorist active indicative of συναγω and συνεδριον, the regular word for the Sanhedrin (Matthew 5:22, etc.), only here in John. Here a sitting or session of the Sanhedrin. Both chief priests (Sadducees) and Pharisees (mentioned no more in John after Jo 11:57 save 12:19,42; 18:3) combine in the call (cf. 7:32). From now on the chief priests (Sadducees) take the lead in the attacks on Jesus, though loyally supported by their opponents (the Pharisees).
 
And said (και ελεγον). Imperfect active of λεγω, perhaps inchoative, "began to say."
 
What do we? (τι ποιουμεν; ). Present active (linear) indicative of ποιεω. Literally, "What are we doing?"
 
Doeth (ποιει). Better, "is doing" (present, linear action). He is active and we are idle. There is no mention of the raising of Lazarus as a fact, but it is evidently inoluded in the "many signs."
 
John 12:18
 
18 (AV) For this cause the people also met him, for that they heard that he had done this miracle. (AV)
18 (IGNT) δια {ON ACCOUNT OF} τουτο {THIS} και {ALSO} υπηντησεν {MET} αυτω {HIM} ο {THE} οχλος {CROWD,} οτι {BECAUSE} ηκουσεν {IT HEARD} τουτο {THIS} αυτον {OF HIS} πεποιηκεναι το {HAVING DONE} σημειον {SIGN.} (IGNT)
 
John 12:18 (RWP)
 
The multitude (ο οχλος). The multitude of verse 13, not the crowd just mentioned that had been with Jesus at the raising of Lazarus. There were two crowds (one following Jesus, one meeting Jesus as here).
 
Went and met him (υπηντησεν αυτω). First aorist active indicative of υπανταω, old compound verb (υπο, ανταω) to go to meet, with associative instrumental case αυτω . Cf. John 4:51.
 
That he had done this sign (τουτο αυτον πεποιηκεναι το σημειον). Perfect active infinitive in indirect discourse after ηκουσαν (first aorist active indicative of ακουω, to hear) (instead of a οτι clause) with the accusative of general reference αυτον (as to him) and another accusative (σημειον, sign) the object of the infinitive. Clearly there was much talk about the raising of Lazarus as the final proof that Jesus in truth is the Messiah of Jewish hope.
 
John 12:33
 
33 (AV) This he said, signifying what death he should die. (AV)
33 (IGNT) τουτο δε {BUT THIS} ελεγεν {HE SAID,} σημαινων {SIGNIFYING} ποιω {BY WHAT} θανατω {DEATH} ημελλεν {HE WAS ABOUT} αποθνησκειν {TO DIE.} (IGNT)

John 12:33 (RWP)
 
Signifying (σημαινων). Present active participle of σεμαινω, old verb to give a sign (σημειον) as in Acts 25:27, and the whole phrase repeated in Jo 18:32 and nearly so in 21:19. The indirect question here and in 18:32 has the imperfect εμελλεν with present infinitive rather than the usual present μελλει retained while in 21:19 the future indicative δοξασει occurs according to rule. The point in ποιω (qualitative relative in the instrumental case with θανατω) is the Cross (lifted up) as the kind of death before Christ.
 
John 12:37
 
37 ¶ (AV) But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him: (AV)
37 (IGNT) τοσαυτα δε {BUT THOUGH SO MANY} αυτου {HE} σημεια {SIGNS} πεποιηκοτος {HAD DONE} εμπροσθεν {BEFORE} αυτων ουκ {THEM} επιστευον {THEY BELIEVED NOT} εις {ON} αυτον {HIM,} (IGNT)
 
John 12:37 (RWP)
 
Though he had done so many signs before them (τοσαυτα αυτου σημεια πεποιηκοτος εμπροσθεν αυτων). Genitive absolute with perfect active participle in concessive sense of ποιεω.
 
Yet they believed not on him (ουκ επιστευον εις αυτον). No "yet" in the Greek. Negative imperfect active of πιστευω, "they kept on not believing on him," stubborn refusal in face of the light (verse 35).
 
John 18:32
 
32 (AV) That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die. (AV)
32 (IGNT) ινα {THAT} ο {THE} λογος του {WORD} ιησου {OF JESUS} πληρωθη {MIGHT BE FULFILLED} ον {WHICH} ειπεν {HE SPOKE} σημαινων {SIGNIFYING } ποιω {BY WHAT} θανατω {DEATH} ημελλεν {HE WAS ABOUT} αποθνησκειν {TO DIE.} (IGNT)
 
John 18:32 (RWP)
 
By what manner of death (ποιω θανατω). Instrumental case of the qualitative interrogative ποιος in an indirect question, the very idiom used in John 12:32 concerning the Cross and here treated as prophecy (Scripture) with ινα πληρωθη like the saying of Jesus in verse 9 which see.
 
John 20:30
 
30 (AV) And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book: (AV)
30 (IGNT) πολλα μεν {MANY} ουν {THEREFORE} και {ALSO} αλλα { OTHER} σημεια {SIGNS} εποιησεν ο {DID} ιησους {JESUS} ενωπιον των {IN PRESENCE } μαθητων αυτου {OF HIS DISCIPLES,} α {WHICH} ουκ εστιν {ARE NOT} γεγραμμενα {WRITTEN } εν τω {IN} βιβλιω τουτω {THIS BOOK;} (IGNT)
 
John 20:30 (RWP)
 
Many other signs (πολλα αλλα σημεια). Not only those described in the Synoptic Gospels or referred to in general statements, but many alluded to in John’s Gospel (2:23; 4:45; 12:37).
 
Are not written (ουκ εστιν γεγραμμενα). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of γραφω, do not stand written, are not described "in this book." John has made a selection of the vast number wrought by Jesus "in the presence of the disciples" (ενωπιον των μαθητων), common idiom in Luke, not in Mark and Matthew, and by John elsewhere only in 1 John 3:22. John’s book is written with a purpose which he states.
 
John 21:19
 
19 (AV) This spake he, signifying by what death he should glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow me. (AV)
19 (IGNT) τουτο δε {BUT THIS} ειπεν {HE SAID} σημαινων {SIGNIFYING} ποιω {BY WHAT} θανατω {DEATH} δοξασει τον {HE SHOULD GLORIFY} θεον {GOD.} και {AND} τουτο {THIS} ειπων {HAVING SAID} λεγει {HE SAYS} αυτω {TO HIM,} ακολουθει {FOLLOW} μοι {ME.} (IGNT)
 
John 21:19 (RWP)
 
By what manner of death (ποιω θανατω). Undoubtedly John, who is writing long after Peter’s death, seems to mean that Peter was to die (and did die) a martyr’s death. "Whither thou wouldest not." There is a tradition that Peter met death by crucifixion and asked to be crucified head downwards, but that is not made plain here.
 
 
Acts 2:19
 
19 (AV) And I will shew wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and vapour of smoke: (AV)
19 (IGNT) και {AND} δωσω {I WILL GIVE} τερατα {WONDERS} εν { IN} τω {THE} ουρανω {HEAVEN} ανω {ABOVE} και {AND} σημεια {SIGNS} επι {ON} της {THE} γης {EARTH} κατω {BELOW,} αιμα {BLOOD} και {AND} πυρ {FIRE} και {AND} ατμιδα { VAPOUR} καπνου {OF SMOKE.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 2:19 (RWP)
 
Wonders (τερατα). Apparently akin to the verb τηρεω, to watch like a wonder in the sky,
 
miracle (μιραχυλυμ), marvel, portent. In the New Testament the word occurs only in the plural and only in connection with σημεια (signs) as here and in verse 43. But
 
signs (σημεια) here is not in the LXX. See on Matthew 11:20. In verse Acts 2:22 all three words occur together: powers, wonders, signs (δυναμεσι, τερασι, σημειοις).
 
As above (ανω). This word is not in the LXX nor is "beneath" (κατω), both probably being added to make clearer the contrast between heaven and earth.
 
Blood and fire and vapour of smoke (αιμα και πυρ και ατμιδα καπνου). A chiasm as these words illustrate bloodshed and destruction by fire as signs here on earth.
 
Acts 2:19 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
19. I will shew (δωσω). Lit., I will give.
 
Wonders (τερατα). Or portents. See on "Mt 11:20".
 
Signs. See on "Mt 11:20".
 
Acts 2:22
 
22 (AV) Ye men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know: (AV)
22 (IGNT) ανδρες {MEN} ισραηλιται {ISRAELITES,} ακουσατε {HEAR} τους {THESE} λογους τουτους {WORDS:} ιησουν {JESUS} τον {THE} ναζωραιον { NAZARENE,} ανδρα {A MAN} απο του {BY} θεου {GOD} αποδεδειγμενον {SET FORTH } εις {TO} υμας {YOU} δυναμεσιν {BY WORKS OF POWER} και {AND} τερασιν {WONDERS} και {AND} σημειοις {SIGNS,} οις {WHICH} εποιησεν {WROUGHT} δι {BY} αυτου ο {HIM} θεος {GOD} εν {IN} μεσω {MIDST} υμων {YOUR,} καθως {AS} και {ALSO} αυτοι {YOURSELVES } οιδατε {KNOW:} (IGNT)
 
Acts 2:22 (RWP)
 
Hear these words (ακουσατε τους λογους τουτους). Do it now (aorist tense). With unerring aim Peter has found the solution for the phenomena. He has found the key to God’s work on this day in his words through Joel.
 
as ye yourselves know (καθως αυτοι οιδατε). Note αυτοι for emphasis. Peter calls the audience to witness that his statements are true concerning "Jesus the Nazarene." He wrought his miracles by the power of God in the midst of these very people here present.
 
Acts 2:22 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
22. Approved (αποδεδειγμενον). The verb means to point out or shew forth. Shewn to be that which he claimed to be.
 
Miracles (δυναμεσι). Better, Rev., mighty works. Lit., powers. See on "Mt 11:20".
 
Acts 2:43
 
43 (AV) And fear came upon every soul: and many wonders and signs were done by the apostles. (AV)
43 (IGNT) εγενετο {THERE CAME} δε {AND} παση {UPON EVERY} ψυχη {SOUL} φοβος {FEAR,} πολλα τε {AND MANY} τερατα {WONDERS} και {AND} σημεια {SIGNS} δια {THROUGH} των {THE} αποστολων {APOSTLES} εγινετο {TOOK PLACE.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 2:43 (RWP)
 
Came (εγινετο). Imperfect middle, kept on coming.
 
Were done (εγινετο). Same tense. Awe kept on coming on all and signs and wonders kept on coming through the apostles. The two things went on παρι πασσυ, the more wonders the more fear.
 
Acts 2:43 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
43. Fear (φοβος) Not terror, but reverential awe: as Mark 4:41; Luke 7:16; 1 Peter 1:17, etc.
 
Acts 3:10
 
10 (AV) And they knew that it was he which sat for alms at the Beautiful gate of the temple: and they were filled with wonder and amazement at that which had happened unto him. (AV)
10 (IGNT) επεγινωσκον τε {AND THEY RECOGNIZED} αυτον {HIM} οτι {THAT} ουτος {HE} ην {IT WAS} ο {WHO} προς την {FOR} ελεημοσυνην {ALMS} καθημενος {WAS SITTING} επι {AT} τη {THE} ωραια {BEAUTIFUL} πυλη {GATE} του {OF THE} ιερου {TEMPLE,} και {AND} επλησθησαν {THEY WERE FILLED} θαμβους {WITH WONDER} και {AND} εκστασεως {AMAZEMENT} επι {AT } τω {THAT WHICH} συμβεβηκοτι {HAD HAPPENED} αυτω {TO HIM.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 3:10 (RWP)
 
They took knowledge of him (επεγινωσκον). Imperfect active, inchoative, began to perceive.
 
Were filled (επλησθησαν). Effective first aorist passive.
 
At that which had happened (τω συμβεβηκοτι). Perfect active participle of συμβαινω.
 
Acts 3:10 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
10. They knew (επεγινωσκον). Or recognized. Rev., took knowledge.
 
Wonder (θαμβους). Used by Luke only. See on "Lu 4:36".
 
Amazement (εκστασεως). See on "Mark 5:42"; and compare Luke 5:26.
11 (AV) And as the lame man which was healed held Peter and John, all the people ran together unto them in the porch that is called Solomon’s, greatly wondering. (AV)
11 (IGNT) κρατουντος δε {AND AS HELD} του {THE} ιαθεντος {WHO HAD BEEN HEALED} χωλου τον {LAME MAN} πετρον {PETER} και {AND} ιωαννην {JOHN,} συνεδραμεν {RAN TOGETHER} προς {TO} αυτους {THEM} πας {ALL} ο {THE } λαος {PEOPLE} επι {IN} τη {THE} στοα τη {PORCH} καλουμενη {CALLED} σολομωντος {SOLOMON’S,} εκθαμβοι {GREATLY AMAZED.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 3:11 (RWP)
 
The Codex Bezae adds "as Peter and John went out."
 
As he held (κρατουντος αυτου). Genitive absolute of κρατεω, to hold fast, with accusative rather than genitive to get hold of (Acts 27:13). Old and common verb from κρατος (strength, force). Perhaps out of gratitude and partly from fear (Luke 8:38).
 
In the porch that is called Solomon’s (επι τη στοα τη καλουμενη σολομωντος). The adjective Stoic (στοικος) is from this word στοα (porch). It was on the east side of the court of the Gentiles (Josephus, Ant. XX. 9, 7) and was so called because it was built on a remnant of the foundations of the ancient temple. Jesus had once taught here (John 10:23).
 
Greatly wondering (εκθαμβοι). Wondering out of (εκ) measure, already filled with wonder (θαμβους, verse 10). Late adjective. Construction according to sense (plural, though λαος singular) as in 5:16; 6:7; 11:1, etc.
 
Acts 3:11 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
11. The lame man which was healed. The best texts omit. Render as he held.
 
Held (κρατουντος). Held them firmly, took fast hold. The verb from κρατος, strength.
 
Greatly wondering (εκθαμβοι). Wondering out of measure (εκ). Compare wonder. (ver. 10).
 
Acts 4:16
 
16 (AV) Saying, What shall we do to these men? for that indeed a notable miracle hath been done by them is manifest to all them that dwell in Jerusalem; and we cannot deny it. (AV)
16 (IGNT) λεγοντες {SAYING,} τι {WHAT} ποιησομεν τοις {SHALL WE DO} ανθρωποις {TO MEN} τουτοις {THESE?} οτι {THAT} μεν {INDEED} γαρ {FOR } γνωστον {A KNOWN} σημειον {SIGN} γεγονεν {HAS COME TO PASS} δι {THROUGH} αυτων {THEM,} πασιν {TO ALL} τοις {THOSE} κατοικουσιν {INHABITING} ιερουσαλημ {JERUSALEM} φανερον {IS MANIFEST,} και {AND} ου {WE} δυναμεθα {ARE UNABLE} αρνησασθαι {TO DENY IT.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 4:16 (RWP)
 
What shall we do? (τι ποιησωμεν). Deliberative aorist active subjunctive (ingressive and urgent aorist).
 
Notable miracle (γνωστον σημειον). Or sign. It was useless to deny it with the man there.
 
We cannot deny it (ου δυναμεθα αρνεισθαι). That is, it will do no good.
 
Acts 4:22
 
22 (AV) For the man was above forty years old, on whom this miracle of healing was shewed. (AV)
22 (IGNT) ετων {YEARS OLD} γαρ {FOR} ην {WAS} πλειονων {ABOVE} τεσσαρακοντα {FORTY} ο {THE} ανθρωπος {MAN} εφ {ON} ον {WHOM} εγεγονει το {HAD TAKEN PLACE} σημειον τουτο {THIS SIGN} της {OF} ιασεως {HEALING.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 4:22 (RWP)
 
Was wrought (γεγονει). Second past perfect active without augment from γινομαι.
 
Acts 4:30
 
30 (AV) By stretching forth thine hand to heal; and that signs and wonders may be done by the name of thy holy child Jesus. (AV)
30 (IGNT) εν {IN} τω {THAT} την {THY} χειρα σου {HAND } εκτεινειν {STRETCHEST OUT} σε {THOU} εις {FOR} ιασιν {HEALING,} και {AND} σημεια {SIGNS} και {AND} τερατα {WONDERS} γινεσθαι { TAKE PLACE} δια {THROUGH} του {THE} ονοματος του {NAME} αγιου {HOLY} παιδος {SERVANT} σου {OF THY} ιησου {JESUS.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 4:30 (RWP)
 
While thou stretchest forth thy hand (εν τω την χειρα εκτεινειν σε). Luke’s favourite idiom, "In the stretching out (articular present active infinitive) the hand as to thee" (accusative of general reference), the second allusion to God’s "hand" in this prayer (verse 28).
 
To heal (εις ιασιν). For healing. See verse 22.
 
And that signs and wonders may be done (και σημεια και τερατα γινεσθαι). Either to be taken as in the same construction as εκτεινειν with εν τω as Revised Version has it here or to be treated as subordinate purpose to εν τω εκτεινειν (as Knowling, Page, Wendt, Hackett). The latter most likely true. They ask for a visible sign or proof that God has heard this prayer for courage to be faithful even unto death.
 
Acts 5:12
 
12 ¶ (AV) And by the hands of the apostles were many signs and wonders wrought among the people; (and they were all with one accord in Solomon’s porch. (AV)
12 (IGNT) δια {AND} δε {BY} των {THE} χειρων {HANDS } των {OF THE} αποστολων {APOSTLES} εγενετο {CAME TO PASS} σημεια {SIGNS} και {AND} τερατα {WONDERS} εν {AMONG} τω {THE} λαω { PEOPLE} πολλα {MANY;} και {(AND} ησαν {THEY WERE} ομοθυμαδον {WITH ONE ACCORD } απαντες {ALL} εν {IN} τη {THE} στοα {PORCH} σολομωντος {OF SOLOMON,} (IGNT)
 
Acts 5:12 (RWP)
 
Were wrought (εγινετο). Imperfect middle, wrought from time to time.
 
With one accord (ομοθυμαδον). As already in 1:14; 2:46; 4:24 and later 7:57; 8:6; 12:20; 15:25; 18:21; 19:29, old adverb and only in Acts in the N.T. Here "all" is added. In Solomon’s Porch again as in 3:11 which see.
 
Acts 5:12 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
12. Were wrought (εγενετο). The best texts read εγινετο, the imperfect, were being wrought from time to time.
 
All. The whole body of believers.
 
Acts 6:8
 
8 ¶ (AV) And Stephen, full of faith and power, did great wonders and miracles among the people. (AV)
8 (IGNT) στεφανος δε {AND STEPHEN,} πληρης {FULL} πιστεως {OF FAITH} και {AND} δυναμεως {POWER,} εποιει {WROUGHT} τερατα {WONDERS} και {AND } σημεια {SIGNS} μεγαλα {GREAT} εν {AMONG} τω {THE} λαω {PEOPLE.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 6:8 (RWP)
 
Wrought (εποιει). Imperfect active, repeatedly wrought. Evidently a man like Stephen would not confine his "ministry" to "serving tables." He was called in verse 5 "full of faith and the Holy Spirit." Here he is termed "full of grace (so the best MSS., not faith) and power." The four words give a picture of remarkable attractiveness. The grace of God gave him the power and so "he kept on doing great wonders and signs among the people." He was a sudden whirlwind of power in the very realm of Peter and John and the rest.
 
Acts 6:8 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
8. Did (εποιει). Imperfect: was working wonders during the progress of the events described in the previous verse.
 
Acts 7:31
 
31 (AV) When Moses saw it, he wondered at the sight: and as he drew near to behold it, the voice of the Lord came unto him, (AV)
31 (IGNT) ο δε {AND} μωσης {MOSES} ιδων {SEEING IT} εθαυμασεν {WONDERED AT} το {THE} οραμα {VISION;} προσερχομενου δε {AND COMING NEAR} αυτου {HE} κατανοησαι {TO CONSIDER IT,} εγενετο {THERE WAS} φωνη {A VOICE} κυριου {OF THE LORD} προς {TO} αυτον {HIM,} (IGNT)
 
Acts 7:31 (RWP)
 
The sight (το οραμα). Used of visions in the N.T. as in Matthew 17:9.
 
As he drew near (προσερχομενου αυτου). Genitive absolute with present middle participle of προσερχομαι.
 
A voice of the Lord (φωνη κυριου). Here the angel of Jehovah of verse 30 is termed Jehovah himself. Jesus makes powerful use of these words in his reply to the Sadducees in defence of the doctrine of the resurrection and the future life (Mark 12:26; Matthew 22:32; Luke 20:37) that God here describes himself as the God of the living.
 
Trembled (εντρομος γενομενος). Literally, becoming tremulous or terrified. The adjective εντρομος (εν, τρομος from τρεμω, to tremble, to quake) occurs in Plutarch and the LXX. In the N.T. only here and Acts 16:29.
 
Durst not (ουκ ετολμα). Imperfect active, was not daring, negative conative imperfect.
 
Acts 7:31 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
31. The sight (το οραμα). Always in the New Testament of a vision. See on "Mt 17:9".
 
To behold (κατανοησαι). see on "Mt 7:3". Compare Luke 12:24,27.
 
Acts 7:36
 
36 (AV) He brought them out, after that he had shewed wonders and signs in the land of Egypt, and in the Red sea, and in the wilderness forty years. (AV)
36 (IGNT) ουτος {THIS ONE} εξηγαγεν {LED OUT} αυτους {THEM,} ποιησας {HAVING WROUGHT} τερατα {WONDERS} και {AND} σημεια {SIGNS} εν {IN THE} γη {LAND} αιγυπτου {OF EGYPT} και {AND} εν {IN THE } ερυθρα {RED} θαλασση {SEA,} και {AND} εν {IN} τη {THE} ερημω {WILDERNESS} ετη {YEARS} τεσσαρακοντα {FORTY.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 8:6
 
6 (AV) And the people with one accord gave heed unto those things which Philip spake, hearing and seeing the miracles which he did. (AV)
6 (IGNT) προσειχον {GAVE HEED} τε {AND} οι {THE} οχλοι { CROWDS} τοις {TO THE THINGS} λεγομενοις {SPOKEN} υπο του {BY} φιλιππου {PHILIP } ομοθυμαδον εν {WITH ONE ACCORD,} τω {WHEN} ακουειν {HEARD} αυτους {THEY} και {AND} βλεπειν {SAW} τα {THE} σημεια {SIGNS} α { WHICH} εποιει {HE DID.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 8:6 (RWP)
 
Gave heed (προσειχον). Imperfect active as in verses 10,11, there with dative of the person (αυτω), here with the dative of the thing (τοις λεγομενοις). There is an ellipse of νουν (mind). They kept on giving heed or holding the mind on the things said by Philip, spell-bound, in a word.
 
When they heard (εν τω ακουειν αυτους). Favourite Lukan idiom, εν and the locative case of the articlar infinitive with the accusative of general reference "in the hearing as to them."
 
Which he did (α εποιει). Imperfect active again, which he kept on doing from time to time. Philip wrought real miracles which upset the schemes of Simon Magus.
 
Acts 8:13
 
13 (AV) Then Simon himself believed also: and when he was baptized, he continued with Philip, and wondered, beholding the miracles and signs which were done. {miracles…: Gr. signs and great miracles} (AV)
13 (IGNT) ο δε {AND} σιμων {SIMON} και {ALSO} αυτος {HIMSELF } επιστευσεν {BELIEVED,} και {AND} βαπτισθεις {HAVING BEEN BAPTIZED} ην {WAS} προσκαρτερων {STEADFASTLY CONTINUING} τω {WITH} φιλιππω {PHILIP;} θεωρων {BEHOLDING} τε {AND} σημεια {SIGNS} και {AND} δυναμεις {WORKS OF POWER} μεγαλας {GREAT} γινομενας {BEING DONE,} εξιστατο {WAS AMAZED.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 8:13 (RWP)
 
And Simon also himself believed (ο δε σιμων και αυτος επιστευσεν). Note the same verb in the aorist tense επιστευσεν. What did he believe? Evidently that Jesus was this "power of God" not himself (Simon). He saw that the miracles wrought by Philip in the name of Christ were genuine while he knew that his own were frauds. He wanted this power that Philip had to add to his own pretensions. "He was probably half victim of self-delusion, half conscious impostor" (Furneaux). He was determined to get this new "power," but had no sense of personal need of Jesus as Saviour for his sins. So he submitted to baptism (βαπτισθεις, first aorist passive participle of βαπτιζω), clear proof that baptism does not convey salvation.
 
He continued with Philip (ην προσκαρτερων τω φιλιππω). Periphrastic imperfect of the verb προσκαρτερεω (see on 2:46). He stuck to Philip (dative case) to find out the secret of his power.
 
Beholding (θεωρων). Watching the signs and miracles (powers, δυναμεις that threw his "power" in the shade) as they were wrought (γινομενας, present middle participle of γινομαι ). The more he watched the more the wonder grew (εξιστατο). He had "amazed" (verse 9) the people by his tricks and he was himself more "amazed" than they by Philip’s deeds.
 
Acts 8:13 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
13. Continued with. see on "Acts 1:14".
 
Miracles and signs (σημεια και δυναμεις). Lit., signs and powers. See on "Mt 11:20"; {see} on "Ac 2:22".
 
Which were done (γινομεας). The present participle. Lit., are coming to pass.
 
He was amazed. After having amazed the people by his tricks. See Acts 8:9. The same word is employed.
 
Acts 11:28
 
28 (AV) And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar. (AV)
28 (IGNT) αναστας δε {AND HAVING RISEN UP} εις {ONE} εξ {FROM AMONG} αυτων {THEM,} ονοματι {BY NAME} αγαβος {AGABUS,} εσημανεν {HE SIGNIFIED} δια {BY} του {THE} πνευματος {SPIRIT,} λιμον {A FAMINE} μεγαν {GREAT} μελλειν {IS ABOUT} εσεσθαι {TO BE} εφ {OVER} ολην {WHOLE} την {THE} οικουμενην {HABITABLE WORLD;} οστις {WHICH} και {ALSO} εγενετο { CAME TO PASS} επι {UNDER} κλαυδιου {CLAUDIUS} καισαρος {CAESAR.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 11:28 (RWP)
 
Signified (εσημαινεν). Imperfect active in Westcott and Hort, but aorist active εσημανεν in the margin. The verb is an old one from σημα (σημειον) a sign (cf. the symbolic sign in 21:11). Here Agabus (also in 21:10) does predict a famine through the Holy Spirit.
 
Should be (μελλειν εσεσθαι). μελλω occurs either with the present infinitive (16:27), the aorist infinitive (12:6), or the future as here and 24:15; 27:10.
 
Over all the world (εφ ολην την οικουμενην). Over all the inhabited earth (γην, understood). Probably a common hyperbole for the Roman empire as in Luke 2:1. Josephus (Ant. VIII. 13, 4) appears to restrict it to Palestine.
 
In the days of Claudius (επι κλαυδιου). He was Roman Emperor A.D. 41-44. The Roman writers (Suetonius, Dio Cassius, Tacitus) all tell of dearths (assiduae sterilitates) during the brief reign of Claudius who was preceded by Caligula and followed by Nero.
 
Acts 11:28 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
28. The world. see on "Lu 2:1".
 
Acts 13:41
 
41 (AV) Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish: for I work a work in your days, a work which ye shall in no wise believe, though a man declare it unto you. (AV)
41 (IGNT) ιδετε {BEHOLD} οι {YE} καταφρονηται {DESPISERS,} και {AND} θαυμασατε {WONDER} και {AND} αφανισθητε {PERISH;} οτι {FOR} εργον {A WORK} εγω {I} εργαζομαι {WORK} εν ταις {IN} ημεραις {DAYS} υμων {YOUR,} εργον {A WORK} ω {WHICH} ου {IN NO} μη {WISE} πιστευσητε {YE WOULD BELIEVE} εαν {IF} τις {ONE} εκδιηγηται {SHOULD DECLARE IT} υμιν {TO YOU.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 13:41 (RWP)
 
Ye despisers (οι καταφρονηται). Not in the Hebrew, but in the LXX. It is pertinent for Paul’s purpose.
 
Perish (αφανισθητε). Or vanish away. First aorist passive imperative. Added by the LXX to the Hebrew.
 
If one declare it unto you (εαν τις εκδιηγηται ημιν). Condition of third class with present middle subjunctive, if one keep on outlining (double compound, εκ-δι-ηγεομαι) it unto you. Paul has hurled a thunderbolt at the close.
 
Acts 13:41 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
41. Perish (αφανισθητε). Lit., vanish.
 
Declare (εκδιηγηται). Only here and Acts 15:3. shew, see on "Lu 8:39". The word is a very strong expression for the fullest and clearest declaration: declare throughout.
 
Acts 14:3
 
3 (AV) Long time therefore abode they speaking boldly in the Lord, which gave testimony unto the word of his grace, and granted signs and wonders to be done by their hands. (AV)
3 (IGNT) ικανον μεν {A LONG} ουν {THEREFORE} χρονον {TIME} διετριψαν {THEY STAYED,} παρρησιαζομενοι {SPEAKING BOLDLY,} επι {CONFIDING IN} τω {THE} κυριω {LORD,} τω {WHO} μαρτυρουντι {BORE WITNESS} τω {TO THE} λογω { WORD} της {OF} χαριτος {GRACE,} αυτου {HIS} και {AND} διδοντι {GIVING} σημεια {SIGNS} και {AND} τερατα {WONDERS} γινεσθαι { TO BE DONE} δια των {THROUGH} χειρων {HANDS.} αυτων {THEIR} (IGNT)
 
Acts 14:3 (RWP)
 
Long time therefore (ικανον μεν ουν χρονον). Accusative of duration of time (possibly six months) and note μεν ουν. There is an antithesis in εσχισθη δε (verse 4) and in verse 5 (εγενετο δε). After the persecution and vindication there was a season of great opportunity which Paul and Barnabas used to the full, "speaking boldly" (παρρησιαζομενοι as in 13:46 at Antioch in Pisidia, "in the Lord" (επι τω κυριω), upon the basis of the Lord Jesus as in 4:17. And the Lord Jesus "bore witness to the word of his grace" as he always does, "granting signs and wonders to be done by their hands" (διδοντι σημεια και τερατα γινεσθαι δια των χειρων αυτων). Present participle (διδοντι) and present infinitive (γινεσθαι) repetition of both signs and wonders (note both words) just as had happened with Peter and John and the other apostles (2:43; 4:29; 5:12; cf. Hebrews 2:4). The time of peace could not last forever with such a work of grace as this. A second explosion of persecution was bound to come and some of the MSS. actually have εκ δευτερου (a second time).
 
Acts 14:3 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
3. Long (ικανον). see on "Luke 7:6".
 
Abode. see on "Acts 12:19".
 
In the Lord. Lit., upon (επι) the Lord: in reliance on him.
 
Acts 15:12
 
12 (AV) Then all the multitude kept silence, and gave audience to Barnabas and Paul, declaring what miracles and wonders God had wrought among the Gentiles by them. (AV)
12 (IGNT) εσιγησεν {KEPT SILENCE} δε {AND} παν {ALL} το { THE} πληθος {MULTITUDE,} και {AND} ηκουον {HEARD} βαρναβα {BARNABAS} και {AND} παυλου {PAUL} εξηγουμενων {RELATING} οσα {WHAT} εποιησεν ο {DID} θεος {GOD} σημεια {SIGNS} και {AND} τερατα {WONDERS } εν {AMONG} τοις {THE} εθνεσιν {NATIONS} δι {BY} αυτων {THEM.} (IGNT)
 
Acts 15:12 (RWP)
 
Kept silence (εσιγησεν). Ingressive first aorist active of σιγαω, old verb, to hold one’s peace. All the multitude became silent after Peter’s speech and because of it.
 
Hearkened (ηκουον). Imperfect active of ακουω, descriptive of the rapt attention, were listening.
 
Unto Barnabas and Paul (βαρναβα και παυλου). Note placing Barnabas before Paul as in verse 25, possibly because in Jerusalem Barnabas was still better known than Paul.
 
Rehearsing (εξηγουμενων). Present middle participle of εξηγεομαι, old verb, to go through or lead out a narrative of events as in Luke 24:35; Acts 10:8 which see. Three times (14:27; 15:4,12) Paul is described as telling the facts about their mission work, facts more eloquent than argument (Page). One of the crying needs in the churches is fuller knowledge of the facts of mission work and progress with enough detail to give life and interest. The signs and wonders which God had wrought among the Gentiles set the seal of approval on the work done through (δια) Barnabas and Paul. This had been Peter’s argument about Cornelius (11:17). This same verb (εξηγησατο ) is used by James in verse 15:14 referring to Peter’s speech.
 
Acts 15:12 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
12. Hearkened. The imperfect (ηκουον) denotes attention to a continued narrative.
 
Declaring (εξηγουμενων). Better, as Rev., rehearsing. see on "Luke 24:35".
 
What miracles, etc. Lit., how many (οσα).
 
Acts 19:11
 
11 (AV) And God wrought special miracles by the hands of Paul: (AV)
11 (IGNT) δυναμεις τε {AND WORKS OF POWER} ου τας {NOT} τυχουσας {COMMON} εποιει ο {WROUGHT} θεος {GOD} δια {BY} των {THE} χειρων {HANDS } παυλου {OF PAUL,} (IGNT)
 
Acts 19:11 (RWP)
 
Special miracles (δυναμεις ου τασ τυχουσας). "Powers not the ones that happen by chance," "not the ordinary ones," litotes for "the extraordinary." All "miracles" or "powers" (δυναμεις) are supernatural and out of the ordinary, but here God regularly wrought (εποιει), imperfect active) wonders beyond those familiar to the disciples and completely different from the deeds of the Jewish exorcists. This phrase is peculiar to Luke in the N.T. (also 28:2), but it occurs in the classical Greek and in the Koin‚ as in III Macc. 3:7 and in papyri and inscriptions (Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 255). In Samaria Philip wrought miracles to deliver the people from the influence of Simon Magus. Here in Ephesus exorcists and other magicians had built an enormous vogue of a false spiritualism and Paul faces unseen forces of evil. His tremendous success led some people to superstitious practices thinking that there was power in Paul’s person.
 
 
Romans 4:11
 
11 (AV) And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had yet being uncircumcised: that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also: (AV)
11 (IGNT) και {AND THE} σημειον {SIGN} ελαβεν {HE RECEIVED} περιτομης {OF CIRCUMCISION, AS} σφραγιδα {SEAL} της {OF} δικαιοσυνης {THE RIGHTEOUSNESS } της {OF THE} πιστεως {FAITH} της {WHICH HE HAD} εν {IN} τη {THE} ακροβυστια {UNCIRCUMCISION,} εις {FOR} το {HIM} ειναι { TO} αυτον {BE} πατερα {FATHER} παντων {OF ALL} των {THOSE THAT} πιστευοντων {BELIEVE} δι {IN} ακροβυστιας {UNCIRCUMCISION} εις {FOR} το {TO} λογισθηναι {BE RECKONED} και {ALL} αυτοις {TO THEM} την {THE } δικαιοσυνην {RIGHTEOUSNESS;} (IGNT)
 
Romans 4:11 (RWP)
 
The sign of circumcision (σημειον περιτομης). It is the genitive of apposition, circumcision being the sign.
 
A seal of the righteousness of the faith (σφραγιδα της δικαιοσυνης της πιστεως). σφραγις is old word for the seal placed on books (Revelation 5:1), for a signet-ring (Revelation 7:2), the stamp made by the seal (2 Timothy 2:19), that by which anything is confirmed (1 Corinthians 9:2) as here. The circumcision did not convey the righteousness, but only gave outward confirmation. It came by faith and "the faith which he had while in uncircumcision" (της εν τη ακροβυστια), "the in the state of uncircumcision faith." Whatever parallel exists between baptism and circumcision as here stated by Paul argues for faith before baptism and for baptism as the sign and seal of the faith already had before baptism.
 
That he might be (εις το ειναι αυτον). This idiom may be God’s purpose (contemplated result) as in εις το λογισθαι below, or even actual result (so that he was) as in 1:20.
 
Though they be in uncircumcision (δι ακροβυστιας). Simply, "of those who believe while in the condition of uncircumcision."
 
Romans 4:11 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
11. The sign — a seal (σημειον — σφραγιδα). Sign refers to the material token; seal to its religious import. Compare 1 Corinthians 9:2 Genesis 17:11. to seal, See on "Re 22:10".
 
That he might be (εις το ειναι αυτον). Not so that he became, but expressing the divinely appointed aim of his receiving the sign.
 
Romans 15:19
 
19 (AV) Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ. (AV)
19 (IGNT) εν {IN THE} δυναμει {POWER} σημειων {OF SIGNS} και {AND} τερατων {WONDERS,} εν {IN THE} δυναμει {POWER} πνευματος {OF THE SPIRIT} θεου {OF GOD;} ωστε {SO AS FOR} με {ME} απο { FROM} ιερουσαλημ {JERUSALEM,} και {AND} κυκλω {IN A CIRCUIT} μεχρι του {UNTO } ιλλυρικου {ILLYRICUM,} πεπληρωκεναι {TO HAVE FULLY PREACHED} το {THE} ευαγγελιον { GLAD TIDINGS} του {OF THE} χριστου {CHRIST;} (IGNT)
 
Romans 15:19 (RWP)
 
In power of signs and wonders (εν δυναμει σημειων και τερατων). Note all three words as in Hebrews 2:4, only here δυναμις is connected with σημεια and τερατα. See all three words used of Paul’s own work in 2 Corinthians 12:12 and in 2 Thessalonians 2:9 of the Man of Sin. See 1 Thessalonians 1:5; 1 Corinthians 2:4 for the "power" of the Holy Spirit in Paul’s preaching. Note repetition of εν δυναμει here with πνευματος αγιου.
 
So that (ωστε). Result expressed by the perfect active infinitive πεπληρωκεναι (from πληροω) with the accusative με (general reference).
 
Round about even unto Illyricum (κυκλω μεχρι του ιλλυρικου). "In a ring" (κυκλω, locative case of κυκλος). Probably a journey during the time when Paul left Macedonia and waited for II Corinthians to have its effect before coming to Corinth. If so, see 2 Corinthians 13; Acts 20:1-3. When he did come, the trouble with the Judaizers was over. Illyricum seems to be the name for the region west of Macedonia (Dalmatia). Strabo says that the Egnatian Way passed through it. Arabia and Illyricum would thus be the extreme limits of Paul’s mission journeys so far.
 
Romans 15:19 (Vincent_NTWordStudies)
 
19. Signs — wonders. See on "Mt 11:20".
 
Round about (κυκλω). Not, in a circuitous track to Illyricum, but Jerusalem and the regions round it. For the phrase, see Mark 3:34 6:6,36 Luke 9:12 Revelation 4:6. For the facts, Acts 13,19.
 
Illyricum. Lying between Italy, Germany, Macedonia, and Thrace, bounded by the Adriatic and the Danube. The usual Greek name was Illyris. The name Illyria occurs in both Greek and Latin. Though the shore was full of fine harbors and the coast-land fertile, Greek civilization never spread on the coast. Dyrrachium or Epidamnus was almost the only Greek colony, and its history for centuries was a continuous conflict with the barbarous nations. In the time of the Roman Empire the name spread over all the surrounding districts. In the division between the Eastern and Western Empire it was divided into Illyris Barbara, annexed to the Western Empires and Illyris Graeca, to the Eastern, including, Greece, Epirus, and Macedonia. The name gradually disappeared, and the country was divided between the states of Bosnia, Croatia, Servia, Rascia, and Dalmatia. No mention of a visit of Paul occurs in the Acts. It may have taken place in the journey mentioned Acts 20:1-3. {1}
 
Fully preached (πεπληρωκεναι). Lit., fulfilled Some explain, have given the Gospel its fall development so that it has reached every quarter.
 
{1} See Professor E. A. Freeman’s “Historical Geography of Europe.”
 
1 Corinthians 1:22
 
22 (AV) For the Jews require a sign, and the Greeks seek after wisdom: (AV)
22 (IGNT) επειδη {SINCE} και {BOTH} ιουδαιοι {JEWS} σημειον { A SIGN} αιτουσιν {ASK FOR,} και {AND} ελληνες {GREEKS} σοφιαν {WISDOM} ζητουσιν {SEEK;} (IGNT)
 
1 Corinthians 1:22 (RWP)
 
Seeing that (επειδη). Resumes from verse 21. The structure is not clear, but probably verses 23,24 form a sort of conclusion or apodosis to verse 22 the protasis. The resumptive, almost inferential, use of δε like αλλα in the apodosis is not unusual.
 
Ask for signs (σημεια αιτουσιν). The Jews often came to Jesus asking for signs (Matthew 12:38; 16:1; John 6:30).
 
Seek after wisdom (σοφιαν ζητουσιν). "The Jews claimed to possess the truth: the Greeks were seekers, speculators" (Vincent) as in Acts 17:23.
 
 
1 Corinthians 12:10
 
10 (AV) To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues: (AV)
10 (IGNT) αλλω δε {AND TO ANOTHER} ενεργηματα {OPERATIONS} δυναμεων {OF WORKS OF POWER;} αλλω δε {AND TO ANOTHER} προφητεια {PROPHECY;} αλλω δε {AND TO ANOTHER} διακρισεις {DISCERNING } πνευματων {OF SPIRITS;} ετερω δε {AND TO A DIFFERENT ONE} γενη {KINDS} γλωσσων {OF TONGUES;} αλλω δε {AND TO ANOTHER} ερμηνεια {INTERPRETATION} γλωσσων {OF TONGUES.} (IGNT)
 
1 Corinthians 12:10 (RWP)
 
Workings of miracles (ενεργηματα δυναμεων). Workings of powers. Cf. ενεργων δυναμεις in Galatians 3:5; Hebrews 2:4 where all three words are used (σημεια, signs, τερατα, wonders, δυναμεις, powers). Some of the miracles were not healings as the blindness on Elymas the sorcerer.
 
Prophecy (προφητεια). Late word from προφητης and προφημι, to speak forth. Common in papyri. This gift Paul will praise most (chapter 1 Corinthians 14). Not always prediction, but a speaking forth of God’s message under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.
 
Discernings of spirits (διακρισεις πνευματων). διακρισις is old word from διακρινω (see 11:29) and in N.T. only here; Romans 14:1; Hebrews 5:14. A most needed gift to tell whether the gifts were really of the Holy Spirit and supernatural (cf. so-called "gifts" today) or merely strange though natural or even diabolical (1 Timothy 4:1; 1 John 4:1).
 
Divers kinds of tongues (γενη γλωσσων). No word for "divers" in the Greek. There has arisen a great deal of confusion concerning the gift of tongues as found in Corinth. They prided themselves chiefly on this gift which had become a source of confusion and disorder. There were varieties (kinds, γενη) in this gift, but the gift was essentially an ecstatic utterance of highly wrought emotion that edified the speaker (14:4) and was intelligible to God (14:2,28). It was not always true that the speaker in tongues could make clear what he had said to those who did not know the tongue (14:13): It was not mere gibberish or jargon like the modern "tongues," but in a real language that could be understood by one familiar with that tongue as was seen on the great Day of Pentecost when people who spoke different languages were present. In Corinth, where no such variety of people existed, it required an interpreter to explain the tongue to those who knew it not. Hence Paul placed this gift lowest of all. It created wonder, but did little real good. This is the error of the Irvingites and others who have tried to reproduce this early gift of the Holy Spirit which was clearly for a special emergency and which was not designed to help spread the gospel among men. See on "Ac 19:6".
 
The interpretation of tongues (ερμηνεια γλωσσων). Old word, here only and 14:26 in N.T., from ερμηνευω from ερμης (the god of speech). Cf. on διερμηνευω in Luke 24:27; Acts 9:36. In case there was no one present who understood the particular tongue it required a special gift of the Spirit to some one to interpret it if any one was to receive benefit from it.
 
1 Corinthians 12:28
 
28 (AV) And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. { diversities: or, kinds} (AV)
28 (IGNT) και {AND} ους μεν {CERTAIN} εθετο ο {DID SET} θεος {GOD} εν {IN} τη {THE} εκκλησια {ASSEMBLY:} πρωτον {FIRST,} αποστολους {APOSTLES;} δευτερον {SECONDLY,} προφητας {PROPHETS;} τριτον {THIRDLY,} διδασκαλους {TEACHERS;} επειτα {THEN} δυναμεις {WORKS OF POWER;} ειτα {THEN} χαρισματα {GIFTS} ιαματων {OF HEALINGS;} αντιληψεις {HELPS;} κυβερνησεις {GOVERNMENTS;} γενη {KINDS} γλωσσων {OF TONGUES.} (IGNT)
 
1 Corinthians 12:28 (RWP)
 
God hath set some (ους μεν εθετο ο θεος). See verse 18 for εθετο ο θεος. Note middle voice (for his own use). Paul begins as if he means to say ους μεν αποστολους, ους δε προφητας (some apostles, some prophets), but he changes the construction and has no ους δε, but instead πρωτον, δευτερον, επειτα (first, second, then, etc.).
 
In the church (εν τη εκκλησια). The general sense of εκκλησια as in Matthew 16:18 and later in Colossians 1:18,24; Ephesians 5:23,32; Hebrews 12:23. See list also in Ephesians 4:11. See on "Mt 10:2" for αποστολους, the official title given the twelve by Jesus, and claimed by Paul though not one of the twelve.
 
Prophets (προφητας). For-speakers for God and Christ. See the list of prophets and teachers in Acts 13:1 with Barnabas first and Saul last. Prophets are needed today if men will let God’s Spirit use them, men moved to utter the deep things of God.
 
Teachers (διδασκαλους). Old word from διδασκω, to teach. Used to the Baptist (Luke 3:12), to Jesus (John 3:10; 13:13), and of Paul by himself along with αποστολος (1 Timothy 2:7). It is a calamity when the preacher is no longer a teacher, but only an exhorter. See Ephesians 4:11.
 
Then miracles (επειτα δυναμεις). Here a change is made from the concrete to the abstract. See the reverse in Romans 12:7. See these words (δυναμεις, ιαμητων, γλωσσων) in verses 9,10 with γλωσσων , last again. But these two new terms (helps, governments).
 
Helps (αντιλημψεις). Old word, from αντιλαμβανομαι, to lay hold of. In LXX, common in papyri, here only in N.T. Probably refers to the work of the deacons, help rendered to the poor and the sick.
 
Governments (κυβερνησεις). Old word from κυβερναω (cf. κυβερνητης in Acts 27:11) like Latin gubernare, our govern. So a governing. Probably Paul has in mind bishops ( επισχοποι) or elders (πρεσβυτεροι), the outstanding leaders (οι προισταμενοι in 1 Thessalonians 5:12; Romans 12:8; οι ηγουμενοι in Acts 15:22; Hebrews 13:7,17,24). Curiously enough, these two offices (pastors and deacons) which are not named specifically are the two that survive today. See Philippians 1:1 for both officers.
29 (AV) Are all apostles? are all prophets? are all teachers? are all workers of miracles? {workers…: or, powers?} (AV)
29 (IGNT) μη {ARE} παντες {ALL} αποστολοι μη {APOSTLES?} παντες {ALL} προφηται μη {PROPHETS?} παντες {ALL} διδασκαλοι μη {TEACHERS? HAVE} παντες {ALL} δυναμεις {WORKS OF POWER?} (IGNT)
 
1 Corinthians 12:29 (RWP)
 
Are all (μη παντες). The μη expects a negative answer with each group.
 
 
1 Corinthians 14:22
 
22 (AV) Wherefore tongues are for a sign, not to them that believe, but to them that believe not: but prophesying serveth not for them that believe not, but for them which believe. (AV)
22 (IGNT) ωστε {SO THAT} αι {THE} γλωσσαι {TONGUES} εις { FOR} σημειον {A SIGN} εισιν {ARE,} ου {NOT} τοις {TO THOSE THAT} πιστευουσιν {BELIEVE,} αλλα {BUT} τοις {TO THE} απιστοις {UNBELIEVERS;} η δε προφητεια {BUT PROPHECY,} ου {NOT} τοις {TO THE} απιστοις {UNBELIEVERS,} αλλα {BUT} τοις {TO THOSE THAT} πιστευουσιν {BELIEVE.} (IGNT)
 
1 Corinthians 14:22 (RWP)
 
For a sign (εις σημειον). Like the Hebrew and occasional Koin‚ idiom also.
 
2 Corinthians 12:12
 
12 (AV) Truly the signs of an apostle were wrought among you in all patience, in signs, and wonders, and mighty deeds. (AV)
12 (IGNT) τα {THE} μεν {INDEED} σημεια {SIGNS} του {OF THE } αποστολου {APOSTLE} κατειργασθη {WERE WORKED OUT} εν {AMONG} υμιν {YOU} εν {IN} παση {ALL} υπομονη {ENDURANCE,} εν {IN} σημειοις {SIGNS} και {AND} τερασιν {WONDERS} και {AND} δυναμεσιν {WORKS OF POWER. } (IGNT)
 
2 Corinthians 12:12 (RWP)
 
Of an apostle (του αποστολου). "Of the apostle" (definite article). Note the three words here for miracles wrought by Paul (σημεια, signs, τερατα, wonders, δυναμεις, powers or miracles) as in Hebrews 2:4.
 
Galatians 3:5
 
5 (AV) He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? (AV)
5 (IGNT) ο {HE WHO} ουν {THEREFORE} επιχορηγων {SUPPLIES} υμιν {TO YOU} το {THE} πνευμα {SPIRIT,} και {AND} ενεργων {WORKS} δυναμεις {WORKS OF POWER} εν {AMONG} υμιν {YOU, IS IT} εξ {BY} εργων {WORKS} νομου {OF LAW} η {OR} εξ {BY} ακοης {REPORT} πιστεως {OF FAITH?} (IGNT)
 
Galatians 3:5 (RWP)
 
Supplieth (επιχορηγων). It is God. See on "2Co 9:10" for this present active participle. Philippians 1:19; 2 Peter 1:5.
 
Worketh miracles (ενεργων δυναμεις). On the word ενεργεω see 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Corinthians 12:6. It is a great word for God’s activities (Philippians 2:13). "In you" (Lightfoot) is preferable to "among you" for εν υμιν (1 Corinthians 13:10; Matthew 14:2). The principal verb for "doeth he it" (ποιει) is not expressed. Paul repeats the contrast in verse 2 about "works of the law" and "the hearing of faith."
 
2 Thessalonians 2:9
 
9 (AV) Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders, (AV)
9 (IGNT) ου {WHOSE} εστιν η {IS} παρουσια {COMING} κατ { ACCORDING TO THE} ενεργειαν του {WORKING} σατανα {OF SATAN} εν {IN} παση { EVERY} δυναμει {POWER} και {AND} σημειοις {SIGNS} και {AND} τερασιν {WONDERS} ψευδους {OF FALSEHOOD,} (IGNT)
 
2 Thessalonians 2:9 (RWP)
 
Whose coming is (ου εστιν η παρουσια). Refers to ον in verse 8. The Antichrist has his παρουσια also. Deissmann (Light from the Ancient East, pp. 374, 378) notes an inscription at Epidaurus in which "Asclepius manifested his παρουσια." Antiochus Epiphanes is called the manifest god (III Macc. 5:35). So the two Epiphanies coincide.
 
Lying wonders (τερασιν ψευδους). "In wonders of a lie." Note here the three words for the miracles of Christ (Hebrews 2:4), power (δυναμις), signs (σημεια), wonders (τερατα ), but all according to the working of Satan (κατα ενεργειαν του σατανα, the energy of Satan) just as Jesus had foretold (Matthew 24:24), wonders that would almost lead astray the very elect.
 
 
Hebrews 2:4
 
4 (AV) God also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will? {gifts: or, distributions} (AV)
4 (IGNT) συνεπιμαρτυρουντος του {HEARING WITNESS WITH THEM} θεου {GOD} σημειοις {BY SIGNS } τε {BOTH} και {AND} τερασιν {WONDERS} και {AND} ποικιλαις {VARIOUS} δυναμεσιν {ACTS OF POWER,} και {AND} πνευματος {OF THE SPIRIT} αγιου {HOLY} μερισμοις {DISTRIBUTIONS,} κατα την {ACCORDING TO} αυτου {HIS} θελησιν {WILL.} (IGNT)
 
Hebrews 2:4 (RWP)
 
God also bearing witness with them (συνεπιμαρτυρουντος του θεου). Genitive absolute with the present active participle of the late double compound verb συνεπιμαρτυρεω, to join (συν ) in giving additional (επι) testimony (μαρτυρεω). Here only in N.T., but in Aristotle, Polybius, Plutarch.
 
Both by signs (σημειοις τε και)
 
and wonders (και τερασιν)
 
and by manifold powers (και ποικιλαις δυναμεσιν)
 
and by gifts of the Holy Ghost (και πνευματος αγιου μερισμοις). Instrumental case used with all four items. See Acts 2:22 for the three words for miracles in inverse order (powers, wonders, signs). Each word adds an idea about the εργα (works) of Christ. τερας (wonder) attracts attention, δυναμις (power) shows God’s power, σημειον reveals the purpose of God in the miracles. For ποικιλαις (manifold, many-coloured) see Matthew 4:24; James 1:2. For μερισμος for distribution (old word, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 4:12) see 1 Corinthians 12:4-30.
 
According to his own will (κατα την αυτου θελησιν). The word θελησις is called a vulgarism by Pollux. The writer is fond of words in - ις.
 
 
Revelation 12:1
 
1 ¶ (AV) And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars: {wonder: or, sign} (AV)
1 (IGNT) και {AND} σημειον {A SIGN} μεγα {GREAT} ωφθη {WAS SEEN} εν {IN} τω {THE} ουρανω {HEAVEN;} γυνη {A WOMEN} περιβεβλημενη {CLOTHED WITH} τον {THE} ηλιον {SUN,} και {AND} η {THE} σεληνη {MOON} υποκατω {UNDER} των ποδων αυτης {HER FEET,} και {AND } επι {ON} της κεφαλης αυτης {HER HEAD} στεφανος {A CROWN} αστερων {OF STARS} δωδεκα {TWELVE;} (IGNT)
 
Revelation 12:1 (RWP)
 
A great sign (σημειον μεγα). The first of the visions to be so described (13:3; 15:1), and it is introduced by ωφθη as in 11:19; 12:3, not by μετα ταυτο or by ειδον or by ειδον και ιδου as heretofore. This "sign" is really a τερας (wonder), as it is so by association in Matthew 24:24; John 4:48; Acts 2:22; 5:12. The element of wonder is not in the word σημειον as in τερας , but often in the thing itself as in Luke 21:11; John 9:16; Revelation 13:13; 15:1; 16:14; 19:20.
 
A woman (γυνη). Nominative case in apposition with σημειον. "The first ‘sign in heaven’ is a Woman — the earliest appearance of a female figure in the Apocalyptic vision" (Swete).
 
Arrayed with the sun (περιβεβλημενη τον ηλιον). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω, with the accusative retained as so often (9 times) in the Apocalypse. Both Charles and Moffatt see mythological ideas and sources behind the bold imagery here that leave us all at sea. Swete understands the Woman to be "the church of the Old Testament" as "the Mother of whom Christ came after the flesh. But here, as everywhere in the Book, no sharp dividing line is drawn between the Church of the Old Testament and the Christian Society." Certainly she is not the Virgin Mary, as verse Revelation 12:17 makes clear. Beckwith takes her to be "the heavenly representative of the people of God, the ideal Zion, which, so far as it is embodied in concrete realities, is represented alike by the people of the Old and the New Covenants." John may have in mind (Isaiah 7:14 Matthew 1:23; Luke 1:31) as well as Micah 4:10; Isaiah 26:17; 66:7 without a definite picture of Mary. The metaphor of childbirth is common enough (John 16:21; Galatians 4:19). The figure is a bold one with the moon "under her feet" (υποκατω των ποδων αυτης) and "a crown of twelve stars" (στεφανος αστερων δωδεκα), a possible allusion to the twelve tribes (James 1:1; Revelation 21:12) or to the twelve apostles (Revelation 21:14).
 
Revelation 12:3
 
3 (AV) And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads. {wonder: or, sign} (AV)
3 (IGNT) και {AND} ωφθη {WAS SEEN} αλλο {ANOTHER} σημειον { SIGN} εν {IN} τω {THE} ουρανω {HEAVEN,} και {AND} ιδου {BEHOLD,} δρακων {A DRAGON} μεγας {GREAT} πυρρος {RED,} εχων { HAVING} κεφαλας {HEADS} επτα {SEVEN} και {AND} κερατα {HORNS} δεκα {TEN,} και {AND} επι {UPON} τας κεφαλας αυτου {HIS HEADS} διαδηματα {DIADEMS} επτα {SEVEN;} (IGNT)
 
Revelation 12:3 (RWP)
 
Another sign (αλλο σημειον). "A second tableau following close upon the first and inseparable from it" (Swete).
 
And behold (και ιδου). As often (4:1; 6:2,5,8, etc.).
 
A great red dragon (δρακων μεγας πυρρος). Homer uses this old word (probably from δερκομαι, to see clearly) for a great monster with three heads coiled like a serpent that ate poisonous herbs. The word occurs also in Hesiod, Pindar, Eschylus. The Babylonians feared a seven-headed hydra and Typhon was the Egyptian dragon who persecuted Osiris. One wonders if these and the Chinese dragons are not race memories of conflicts with the diplodocus and like monsters before their disappearance. Charles notes in the O.T. this monster as the chief enemy of God under such title as Rahab (Isaiah 51:9; Job 26:12), Behemoth (Job 40:15-24), Leviathan (Isaiah 27:1), the Serpent (Amos 9:2). In Psalms 74:13 we read of "the heads of the dragons." On πυρρος (red) see 6:4. Here (12:9) and in 20:2 the great dragon is identified with Satan. See Daniel 7:1ff. for many of the items here, like the ten horns (Daniel 7:7) and hurling the stars (Daniel 8:10). The word occurs in the Apocalypse alone in the N.T.
 
Seven diadems (επτα διαδηματα). Old word from διαδεω (to bind around), the blue band marked with white with which Persian kings used to bind on the tiara, so a royal crown in contrast with στεφανος (chaplet or wreath like the Latin corona as in 2:10), in N.T. only here, 13:1; 19:12. If Christ as Conqueror has "many diadems," it is not strange that Satan should wear seven (ten in 13:1).
 
 
Revelation 13:13
 
13 (AV) And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men, (AV)
13 (IGNT) και {AND} ποιει {IT WORKS} σημεια {SIGNS} μεγαλα { GREAT,} ινα {THAT} και {EVEN} πυρ {FIRE} ποιη {IT SHOULD CAUSE} καταβαινειν {TO COME DOWN} εκ {OUT} του {OF THE} ουρανου {HEAVEN} εις {TO} την {THE} γην {EARTH} ενωπιον των {BEFORE} ανθρωπων {MEN. } (IGNT)
 
Revelation 13:13 (RWP)
 
That he should even make fire come down out of heaven (ινα και πυρ ποιη εκ του ουρανου καταβαινειν). Purpose clause again with ινα and the present active subjunctive of ποιεω and the object infinitive of καταβαινω after ποιει. Christ promised great signs to the disciples (John 14:12), but he also warned them against false prophets and false christs with their signs and wonders (Mark 13:22). So also Paul had pictured the power of the man of sin (2 Thessalonians 2:9). Elijah had called down fire from heaven (1 Kings 18:38; 2 Kings 1:10) and James and John had once even urged Jesus to do this miracle (Luke 9:54).
14 (AV) And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live. (AV)
14 (IGNT) και {AND} πλανα {IT MISLEADS} τους {THOSE WHO} κατοικουντας {DWELL} επι {ON} της {THE} γης {EARTH,} δια {BY REASON OF} τα {THE} σημεια {SIGNS} α {WHICH} εδοθη {IT WAS GIVEN} αυτω {TO IT} ποιησαι {TO WORK} ενωπιον {BEFORE} του {THE} θηριου {BEAST, } λεγων {SAYING} τοις {TO THOSE WHO} κατοικουσιν {DWELL} επι {ON} της {THE} γης {EARTH,} ποιησαι {TO MAKE} εικονα {AN IMAGE} τω { TO THE} θηριω {BEAST,} ο {WHICH} εχει {HAS} την {THE} πληγην {WOUND} της {OF THE} μαχαιρας {SWORD,} και {AND} εζησεν { LIVED.} (IGNT)
 
Revelation 13:14 (RWP)
 
And he deceiveth (και πλανα). Present active (dramatic) indicative of πλαναω, the very thing that Jesus had said would happen (Matthew 24:24, "So as to lead astray" ωστε πλανασθαι , the word used here, if possible the very elect). It is a constant cause for wonder, the gullibility of the public at the hands of new charlatans who continually bob up with their pipe-dreams.
 
That they should make an image to the beast (ποιησαι εικονα τω θηριω). Indirect command (this first aorist active infinitive of ποιεω) after λεγων as in Acts 21:21, not indirect assertion. This "image" (εικων, for which word see Matthew 22:20; Colossians 1:15) of the emperor could be his head upon a coin (Mark 12:16), an imago painted or woven upon a standard, a bust in metal or stone, a statue, anything that people could be asked to bow down before and worship. This test the priests in the provinces pressed as it was done in Rome itself. The phrase "the image of the beast," occurs ten times in this book (13:14,15 ter; 14:9,11; 15:2; 16:2; 19:20; 20:4). Emperor-worship is the issue and that involves worship of the devil.
 
The stroke of the sword (την πληγην της μαχαιρης). This language can refer to the death of Nero by his own sword.
 
And lived (και εζησεν). "And he came to life" (ingressive first aorist active indicative of ζαω). Perhaps a reference to Domitian as a second Nero in his persecution of Christians.
 
Revelation 15:1
 
1 ¶ (AV) And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvellous, seven angels having the seven last plagues; for in them is filled up the wrath of God. (AV)
1 (IGNT) και {AND} ειδον {I SAW} αλλο {ANOTHER} σημειον { SIGN} εν {IN} τω {THE} ουρανω {HEAVEN,} μεγα {GREAT} και {AND} θαυμαστον {WONDERFUL:} αγγελους {ANGELS} επτα {SEVEN,} εχοντας {HAVING} πληγας {PLAGUES} επτα {SEVEN,} τας {THE} εσχατας {LAST;} οτι {BECAUSE} εν {IN} αυταις {THEM} ετελεσθη {WAS COMPLETED} ο {THE} θυμος του {FURY} θεου {OF GOD.} (IGNT)
 
Revelation 15:1 (RWP)
 
Another sign in heaven (αλλο σημειον εν τω ουρανω). Looking back to 12:1,3, after the series intervening. The Seven Bowls are parallel with the Seven Seals (ch. Revelation 6:1) and the Seven Trumpets (chapters Re 8-11), but there is an even closer connection with chapters Re 12-14, "the drama of the long conflict between the church and the world" (Swete).
 
Great and marvellous (μεγα και θαυμαστον). θαυμαστος is an old verbal adjective (from θαυμαζω, to wonder) and is already in Matthew 21:42. The wonder extends to the end of this vision or sign (Rev 16:21).
 
Seven angels (αγγελους επτα). Accusative case in apposition with σημειον after ειδον. Cf. 8:2.
 
Which are the last (τας εσχατας). "Seven plagues the last." As in 21:9, "the final cycle of such visitations" (Swete).
 
Is finished (ετελεσθη). Proleptic prophetic first aorist passive indicative of τελεω as in 10:7. The number seven seems particularly appropriate here for finality and completeness.
 
Revelation 16:14
 
14 (AV) For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. (AV)
14 (IGNT) εισιν γαρ {FOR THEY ARE} πνευματα {SPIRITS} δαιμονων {OF DEMONS} ποιουντα {DOING} σημεια {SIGNS,} εκπορευεσθαι {TO GO FORTH} επι {TO} τους {THE} βασιλεις {KINGS} της {OF THE} γης {EARTH} και {AND} της {OF THE} οικουμενης {HABITABLE WORLD} ολης {WHOLE} συναγαγειν {TO GATHER TOGETHER } αυτους {THEM} εις {UNTO} πολεμον της {BATTLE} ημερας {OF DAY} εκεινης της {THAT} μεγαλης {GREAT} του {OF} θεου {GOD} του { THE} παντοκρατορος {ALMIGHTY.} (IGNT)
 
Revelation 16:14 (RWP)
 
Spirits of devils (πνευματα δαιμονιων). "Spirits of demons." Explanation of the simile ως βατραχοι. See 1 Timothy 4:1 about "deceiving spirits and teachings of demons."
 
Working signs (ποιουντα σημεια). "Doing signs" (present active participle of ποιεω). The Egyptian magicians wrought "signs" (tricks), as did Simon Magus and later Apollonius of Tyana. Houdini claimed that he could reproduce every trick of the spiritualistic mediums.
 
Which go forth (α εκπορευεται). Singular verb with neuter plural (collective) subject.
 
Unto the kings (επι τους βασιλεις). The three evil spirits (dragon and the two beasts) spur on the kings of the whole world to a real world war. "There have been times when nations have been seized by a passion for war which the historian can but imperfectly explain" (Swete).
 
To gather them together (συναγαγειν). Second aorist active infinitive of συναγω, to express purpose (that of the unclean spirits).
 
Unto the war of the great day of God, the Almighty (εις τον πολεμον της ημερας της μεγαλης του θεου του παντοκρατορος). Some take this to be war between nations, like Mark 13:8, but it is more likely war against God (Psalms 2:2) and probably the battle pictured in Rev 17:14; 19:19. Cf. 2 Peter 3:12, "the day of God," his reckoning with the nations. See Joel 2:11; 3:4. Paul uses "that day" for the day of the Lord Jesus (the Parousia) as in 1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 1:10; 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14; Philippians 1:6; 2:16; 2 Timothy 1:12,18; 4:8.
 
 
Revelation 19:20
 
20 (AV) And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone. (AV)
20 (IGNT) και {AND} επιασθη {WAS TAKEN} το {THE} θηριον { BEAST,} και {AND} μετα {WITH} τουτου {HIM} ο {THE} ψευδοπροφητης {FALSE PROPHET} ο {WHO} ποιησας {WROUGHT} τα {THE} σημεια { SIGNS} ενωπιον {BEFORE} αυτου {HIM,} εν {BY} οις {WHICH} επλανησεν {HE MISLED} τους {THOSE WHO} λαβοντας {RECEIVED} το {THE} χαραγμα {MARK} του {OF THE} θηριου {BEAST,} και {AND} τους {THOSE WHO } προσκυνουντας {DO HOMAGE} τη εικονι αυτου {TO HIS IMAGE.} ζωντες {ALIVE} εβληθησαν { WERE CAST} οι {THE} δυο {TWO} εις {INTO} την {THE} λιμνην του {LAKE} πυρος {OF FIRE} την {WHICH} καιομενην {BURNS} εν τω { WITH} θειω {BRIMSTONE;} (IGNT)
 
Revelation 19:20 (RWP)
 
Was taken (επιασθη). First aorist (prophetic) passive indicative of the Doric πιαζω (Attic πιεζω). Cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:8.
 
The false prophet (ο ψευδοπροφητης). Possibly the second beast of 13:11-17; 16:13; 20:10. Charles takes him to be "the priesthood of the Imperial cult, which practised all kinds of magic and imposture to beguile men to worship the Beast."
 
That wrought the signs in his sight (ο ποιεσας τα σημεια ενωπιον αυτου). As in 13:14.
 
Wherewith (εν οις). "In which" signs.
 
He deceived (επλανησεν). First aorist active indicative of πλαναω. He was only able to deceive "them that had received" (τους λαβοντας, articular second aorist active participle of λαμβανω, "those receiving") "the mark of the beast" (13:16; 14:9; 16:2; 20:4) "and them that worshipped his image" (τους προσκυνουντας τη εικονι αυτου) as in 13:15.
 
They twain (οι δυο). "The two."
 
Were cast (εβληθησαν). First aorist passive Indicative of βαλλω. They fall together as they fought together. "The day that sees the end of a false statecraft will see also that of a false priestcraft" (Swete).
 
Alive (ζωντες). Present active participle of ζαω, predicative nominative, "living."
 
Into the lake of fire (εις την λιμνην του πυρος). Genitive πυρος describes this λιμνην (lake, cf. Luke 5:1) as it does γεηεννα in Matthew 5:22. See also Rev 20:10; 21:8. It is a different figure from the "abyss" in 9:1; 20:1. This is the final abode of Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and wicked men.
 
That burneth with brimstone (της καιομενης εν θειω). Note the genitive here in place of the accusative λιμνην, perhaps because of the intervening genitive πυρος (neuter, not feminine). The agreement is regular in 21:8. For εν θειω (with brimstone) see 14:10; 20:10; 21:8. The fact of hell is clearly taught here, but the imagery is not to be taken literally any more than that of heaven in chapters Re 4; 5; 21; 22 is to be so understood. Both fall short of the reality.


I want to believe!
Previous Topic:Revelation Series Outline Tapes 1-12
Next Topic:Luke
Goto Forum:
  


Current Time: Sat Oct 21 07:22:18 CDT 2017

Total time taken to generate the page: 0.00959 seconds
.:: Contact :: Home ::.

OvercomersOnline.com is Powered by: FUDforum 2.7.3.
Copyright ©2001-2004 FUD Forum Bulletin Board Software