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OT Theology # 1 Introduction [message #6441] Fri, 11 December 2009 16:06 Go to next message
GWB  is currently offline GWB
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Its mark here.
I've been studying through my OT theology notes and putting them on my computer so I thought I would post them here as well. Using of course the excellent outline that Gillian has provided. My headings are slightly different then the ones she used.

It will take me a while to get them all up. Months at least.

*Old Testament Theology Outline provided and written by Dr. Freeman at FA as a supplemental guide for the Old Testament Theology series.*

I was moving stuff around and accidentally lost all the formatting. Sorry Gillian. All your hard work went for nothing.


A lot of the info here is covered in more detail under Biblical Theology ie: inspiration/revelation/historical theories/ views of the atonement etc. The notes here only cover the info from an ancient Hebrew perspective.
Old Testament Theology [message #12282 is a reply to message #6441 ] Sun, 05 November 2017 13:09 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Reasons for the Study of Old Testament Theology

1/ Because of the vital distinction between Old Testament Theology and Christian Theology.

a) OT theology limits itself exclusively to the books of the OT
b) The interpretation and understanding of OT religious and theological concepts will be always from the point of view of the Hebrew mind in the OT dispensation. -you have to consciously avoid reading back into the OT your understanding of the NT revelations
c) OT theology is by its very nature incomplete as its full meaning is revealed in Christ.
d) The difference between OT & NT is not that the same truths aren't found in both but in the OT they are in a less degree of development. - the OT is as good an authority for a truth or teaching or doctrine as the NT if we don't go beyond that dispensations revelation.
11 Tim 3/16-17

2/ Because of the importance of Old Testament Theology.

a) The OT was the bible of the early church
b) The OT was the only religious document in the world that taught an exclusive monotheism. Duet 6/4
c) The ethical teachings of the prophets are still the inspiration and moral life of the church.
d) The OT was constantly used by Jesus and the disciples. Matt 4- he rebuked the devil with it. - he used the OT to announce himself being messiah- to authenticate his teaching
e) The OT saints including Jesus and the apostles never looked at the OT as a shape of things to come- it was adequate for the dispensation it served in.
f) The disciples constantly refer to the OT
- selecting a successor to Judas (Acts 1)
- explaining Pentecost (Acts 2)
- showing the sufferings death and resurrection of Messiah (Acts 3/18)
- extending the gospel to the gentiles (Acts 15/14-17)
g) The entire OT is a foundation to the NT
h) Jesus sacrifice is meaningless without the OT
i) The book of Hebrews can't be interpreted without the OT revelation of priesthood,sacrifice,covenant law,atonement
j) Much of the symbolism in the book of Revelation is built on Danial/Zechariah etc.
k) Other than the doctrine of the church all NT doctrines are found in the OT
l) The NT is the fulfillment of the OT
m) The OT lays the foundation for the incarnation and the cross
n) The knowledge of the OT enables the christian to reach the ideal laid down by Jesus in the Matt 13/51-52
o) Most the destructive criticism by the Liberals is against the OT. Undermining confidence in the OT weakens the foundation of the NT. It calls into question the validity of the new

Definition of Old Testament Theology

OT theology is the systematic study of the revelation of God through the religion life and history of Israel aw it is contained within the books of the OT

It is the Biblical Theology of the OT systematically presented.

Sources of Old Testament Theology

a) The canonical books of the OT
b) The Apocrypha
c) The rabbinic literature of post exilic Israel

Some of the theology of the NT was developed in the intertestement period. eg. Paradise – its not explained in OT or NT – the doctrine was developed during this period.

[Updated on: Fri, 10 November 2017 22:55]

Old Testament Theology [message #12283 is a reply to message #12282 ] Sun, 05 November 2017 13:35 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Purpose of Old Testament Revelation (Or Gods purpose in revealing himself to Israel)

1/Exodus 19/1-6

a) so they would be Gods own possession
b) a Kingdom of Priests
c) a holy nation

Exodus 19/7- rest of the book

Following a 3 day fast the rest of the revelation was given. It started with the 10 commandments ans went into the whole system of Law/priesthood/temple/sacrifice/substitutionary atonement.

2/ the means whereby a sinful and unholy nation or people can be cleansed and a fit habitation for God to dwell among them.

The Media of Revelation in the Old Testament

1/ Revelation in nature.

Many heathen nations worshiped the sun stars etc. its called nature worship.
The OT revelation was that the God of Israel stands behind creation as its author& sustainer & controller. He uses nature to reveal something of himself. His nature and his glory.
Duet. 17/3-5 11 Kings 17/16 Jeremiah 8/2 Ezek. 8/16

Deut.4/15-19 Nature worship is forbidden.

In the OT nature is designed as an arena for the revelation of Gods existence & glory. Ps. 8 Ps. 19/1

Job 38. Gods power is revealed in nature Ps. 138 Ps 104
Rom. 1 speaks of this revelation being perverted by man.

Natural or General Revelation
Psalm 19/1-2 This is a supernatural revelation of God to humanity. It speaks to every group language nation and person.
God has revealed something of himself through nature to man. It is quite limited as it cannot lead a sinner to repentance. that takes special revelation.
A person can look at nature and see there is a creator. They can see something of his nature ie. his goodness (he provided sun and rain) and his wisdom in putting it together.

God has revealed himself to man.

a) through nature Ps. 19
b) through providence Ps. 104 & Acts 14/ 13-17
c) through conscience
man perverts everything God gives him. Jer. 10 Jer.2/26-28 Isaiah 40/18-20

What is the value of Natural Revelation

a) a revelation of Gods existence
Isaiah 40/26,28
b) a revelation of Gods glory
Ps. 19/1, Ps. 8
c) a revelation of his power & omnipotence.
Job 38, Ps. 104
d) it leaves the sinner without excuse.
Ps. 19/1

2/ Revelation through Theophanies.

The word theophany comes from two words that mean manifestations of God.

a) nature theophanies. in nature form
ie: the burning bush. Ex. 6
piller of fire and cloud Ex.13/21-22

b) subjective theophanies
-auditory theophanies. Ex 19/1-3
-dreams and visions Gen 20/3 Dan 7/1 Isaiah 6

c) objective theophanies
An actual appearance of the Lord/Angel of the Lord Gen.16/7
The OT context where the Angel of the Lord appears always shows it to be a temporary descent to earth by the Lord himself for a special purpose.

d) The sacred lot - Urim and Thummim.
The Hebrew words mean lights & completeness. Some believe they were two square stones. They were worn in a pouch under the breastplate over the heart of the High Priest.
They were used as a supernatural means of determining Gods will on important occasions. God would answer the high priest with these. The words signify a full complete revelation.

We can't be 100% sure but it seems from the passages that Urim meant No & Thummin meant yes.
Ex.28/29-30, Num.27/18-21, 1Sam.28/6
They are not mentioned in scripture after David and were probably lost in the exile. Ezra and Nehemiah disn't have them. Neh.7/64-65

e) The sacred writings. Gods written word was a revelation

f) Prophetic revelation. God would speak through the prophets

Inspiration of the Old Testament

The New Testament claims that the Old Testament is inspired.
11 Tim 3/16, 11 Peter 1/19-21

Jesus came to fulfill OT scripture
Matt.1/22-23 Matt 8/16-17 Matt12/17

The OT itself indicates it was inspired.
Zech. 7/12, Neh. 9/30

In the historical books the technical phrase used to indicate inspiration was "The Lord spake saying"
In the prophets it was " the word of the Lord came to me saying"

Extra-Canonical writings indicate inspiration of scripture
The approcypha calls the OT the "Holy Book"
Josephus called the OT "the sacred Scriptures"

The divine / Human relationship in Inspiration is seen from several passages.
Heb. 1/1-2, 11 Peter 1/21, Zech.7/12, Neh.9/30

[Updated on: Fri, 10 November 2017 22:54]

Old Testament Theology [message #12285 is a reply to message #12283 ] Tue, 07 November 2017 19:00 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Concepts of God

The concept that there is no such thing as inanimate objects. everything in nature is alive. term comes from the word animate.

The belief in and worship of many Gods. Often the personification of nature.

The belief in one supreme God among many Gods. One supreme God for each nation.

The worship of one god among many

a) Idolatry - The personification of God in a man made object and the worship of it as sacred
b) Fetishism - any object regarded as sacred

The belief in and worship of the one and only God who as creator and sustainer of all things and revealed himself as Yahveh to Israel.

[Updated on: Sat, 11 November 2017 20:24]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12286 is a reply to message #12285 ] Thu, 09 November 2017 17:38 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Divine Nature

1.God's Existence

a) Assumed by the Old Testament.
Gen.1/1, Ps.14/1

The question of gods existence is not even raised in the OT. Prior to Moses leaving Egypt both Israel & Egypt believed in many Gods.
The question was . . . was there only one true God? That revelation came to them in Duet 6/4

-denies Atheism as it assumes the existence of god
-denies polytheism
-denies dualism (matter & spirit are both eternal)
-denies pantheism (everything is god & god is everything)- Gen.1/1 asserts that God is before all things and apart from all things.

b)Gods existence is revealed by him in Nature
Ps.14/1, Ps.8, Ps.104, Ps.135, Ps.33, Ps. 136, Ps. 96, Isaiah 40/21-22, Rom 1/18-23

c) Gods existence is revealed in the OT by his mighty acts
-judgements ie. the flood. everyone laughed until it began to rain.
-Salvation or deliverance -plaques of Egypt/Exodus from Egypt/parting of the Red Sea

Psalm 14/1 God doesn't deal with them at all. Just calls them fools.

2. The Unicity of God (or unity)

The Oneness of God was the fundamental distinguishing mark of Israels religion which set it apart from all the other religions of the world.
Deut.6/4, Is 43/10, Is. 45/5, Ex.20/2-3, Ex.22/20

a) The origin of Israel's monotheism

The Critical View . . .

Israels religion came out of polytheism. It evolved from polytheism to monotheism.

Reply . . .
As in the NT true religion comes as revelation. They didn't reason up to god.

b) The use of the plural Elohim in the early narratives.

The critical view . . .

The use of this term is evidence of their polytheistic background.

Reply . . .

1) the plural Elohim was employed by Israel not only of their one god but also of the individual deity of other nations.
- Moabite god Chemosh Judges 11/24
- Philistine god Dagon 1Sam.5/7
- Ashtoreth 1 Kings 11/5
- the golden calf Ex.32
- Moses is referred to this way in Ex.4/16 & Samuel in 1Sam.28/13

They used the plural constantly in a singular sense. Which they didn't have to do as there were plenty of other words to choose from.

2) It is unlikely that the writers of the OT who continually insist on one God would select a noun which carries with it polytheistic ideas.

3) The explanation has to do with the peculiarities of the Hebrew language. There exists in Hebrew certain nouns which always or only occur in the plural. Gen 1 heavens & waters. The words for old age and youth are both plural.
Why would they do this? Why do we do this? eg deer, sheep

The point here is you don't prove anything by pointing out that it occurs in the plural because a lot of others do as well. These are called "nouns of indefinite extension"or "intensive plurals"

"Elohim" A common name for god in the OT is a plural of majesty or excellence. It describes God as a being who is infinitely greater in every respect than man. It is describing his infiniteness.

"Adonai" another plural noun meaning Lord used of god and man but pronounced differently with each. It refers to a plural of majesty. Without exception where the plural noun "Elohim" is used of God the verbs and modifiers with it are singular.

c) The critics maintain Israels national religion in its early stages was monolatry.

The critical view . . .

The worship of one god over the land among many gods. A chief God over every nation. From this it evolved to a monotheistic religion.
Duet. 10/17, Ex.15/11, Ex.12/12, Ps. 95/3

Reply . . .

God is referring here to what the nations around Israel believe. They believe in other Gods so he is saying he is against them.

We have to make a distinction here between what the idolatrous Israelites believe and what prophets & pious Israelites believed. Not all Israel was saved. From the time of the Exodus to the time of the Babylonian captivity idolatry was a constant struggle for pious Israelites.

Israels idolatry & polytheism when it was found in Israel was inexcuseable for from the beginning of her establishment as a nation God said he was one. From the beginning of the nation the religion could not have evolved because it condemned polytheism from the beginning.
Duet.6/4, 4/35, 4/39, 32/39 Lev.19/4,

d) The Problem of 1 Sam. 26/18-19

The critical View . . .
"go serve other Gods"
Obviously David himself believed Yahveh was the national God of Palestine and in leaving there he was leaving the presence of God and maybe even salvation if he couldn't get back to into Palestine.

Reply . . .
David was only saying what his enemies said not what he believed.
You have to understand OT religion. It all centered around the temple or tabernacle in Jerusalem.
To be driven out of Palestine was in a real sense a limitation on his worship as he couldn't sacrifice etc.
Ps. 34. David was still praying and god was still answering him.

To say that God is one in the OT is not a mathematical oneness but a oneness of spirit- a qualitative oneness-one divine essence-a oneness of spirit-a oneness of nature or being. One divine Spirit eternally manifested as Father Son & Holy Spirit.

[Updated on: Sun, 12 November 2017 16:09]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12287 is a reply to message #12286 ] Fri, 10 November 2017 22:45 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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3. The Living God

a) Biblical usage of the phrase.

- A God who acts Joshua 3/10
- A God who speaks Duet.5/28
- A god who delivers 1Sam. 17/26,36-37
- A God who has existence Jer.10/10, Dan.6/26-27

The concept of the Living God" was so important that the Jew offered his oath by the life of Yahveh.
Judges 8/19,Ruth 3/13, 1 Sam.19/6,
The technical phrase was " As the Lord liveth"
The true destiny of the Jews was to be the "Sons of the Living God" Hosea 1/10

b) The false gods.
In contrast to the Living god the false Gods are shown to be utterly impotent & unable to help their worshipers. Therefore they don't live.

c) Meaning of the phrase.
The phrase Living god means the other Gods have no life or they have no real existence. It also means he is able to hear and answer his peoples prayers. Also that god is personal not just an idea or concept

4. The Spirit of God

Question . . .
What is the Spirit of God conceived to be in the OT in view of the fact that the OT continually stresses that God is one.

Would he be conceived as personal merely power that comes on man or wisdom that comes from God or is it merely the life principle bestowed on living things?

Answer is at the end of the Spirit of God section.

The Hebrew term - "ruach".
We are not looking at how it is used of God but only its useage in the bible.

a) Its literal useage - spirit wind or breath
- spirit Isaiah 42/5
- wind Ex. 10/13, Gen. 8/1
- breath Job 15/30,Lam.4/20
(the NT Gr. word (pneuma)means exactly t6he same thing. wind or spirit)

b) Metaphoric useage- A metaphor is a figure of speech to show a resemblance
- fortress Ps.91/2
- anger of fury poured out 11Sam. 22/16
- signifying the presence of God Gen.3/8

c)Its useage as a synonym. - one term used for another

Gen.2/7 breath here is a synonym for Gods Spirit. Breath of the mouth stands for the Spirit of God. All through the creation account God speaks as in a divine fiat & calls into existence.
The wind or breath as words of his mouth are synonymous with gods Spirit.

d) Spirit means "life principle"
The life principle in man & animals
Zech.12/1, Eccl.12/7

e) the term Ruach has reference to God himself.

Gen. 1/2 Ruach of God Isaiah 61/1
Isaiah 11/2 Ruach of Yahveh
Ps.51/11 the Holy Spirit
Is.63/10-11 his Holy Spirit
Gen 6/3 my spirit
Ezek. 26/37 my spirit

[Updated on: Mon, 13 November 2017 22:45]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12288 is a reply to message #12287 ] Sat, 11 November 2017 21:04 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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Activities of the Holy Spirit in the OT

1/ The Cosmic sphere or sphere of creation

a) Gods creative power was expressed through his spirit by bringing order out of chaos Gen.1/1-2
b) All that lives in the has its life by the spirit because god God sends forth life by the Spirit Ps.104/30
- When he takes away his spirit they die. Ps. 104/29
- In creation & providence the Spirit of god is seen to be creator & sustainer

2/ In the Sphere of Life.- Biological & Spiritual life

Gen 2/7 The breath of life has a twofold meaning

a) the life principle breathed into man - the vitality or spirit of life. eg. life of the physical body
b) The image of God - that which makes man spiritual rational accountable moral
Gen 2/7 - it is not said of the animals Is. 57/16

3/ In the sphere of Human Experience or History in the OT

a) On individuals
In order to effect deliverance the Spirit of God was sometimes placed on individuals. Gen. 41/38-39
Num.11/16-17 Moses and the 70 elders
Duet 34/9 Joshua
Judges 3/10 6/34, 11/29, 14/6, 15/14
Judges 14 Samson

b) On Kings
1Sam.10/6, 11/6, 16/13-14 11Sam.23/2

c) On artisans
The artisans who built the temple and its furnishings
Ex. 31, 35/31

d) Intellectual understandin
Job 32/8 The anointing of gods spirit for wisdom and understanding

e) Prophecy

The agent of Gods word who reveals his will. The true prophets were conscious of being filled with the Spirit of god Micah 3/8, Zech. 7/12, Neh. 9/30
Ezek. 13/3 The false prophets were those who followed their own spirit. Num.24/1-2, 1 Sam.19/18-24

f) The Spirit of God could pick up a prophet in spirit and transport them 1 Kings 18/12,11Kings 2/16

g) Religion Moral & Spiritual life.

Religious emotions and moral influence were the result of the work of the spirit in the hearts of the Israelites. Influencing them toward good and moral behavior.
Ps.51/11, Ps 143/10,m Neh. 9/20,30

What is the "Spirit of God" conceived to be in the Old Testament?

a) 1 Kings 22/16-23- this early in the OT they were already seeing that a spirit was personal. the spirit of God was perceived to be personal as well.

b) The Spirit of God was not conceived to be a mere power or influence Zech.4/6

c) He is seen to be in the OT as God himself. The Spirit of God in OT thought is not an influence or power exerted by God from a point at which he himself is absent. But god is always present as the Spirit of God.
Is. 31/3, Ps. 139/7

Conclusion . . .

To answer the question originally posed the OT concept of the Spirit of God was that it was God himself who as spirit was present when the Spirit of God was spoken of in relation to the world.

[Updated on: Mon, 13 November 2017 22:47]

OT Theology [message #12290 is a reply to message #12288 ] Sun, 12 November 2017 19:07 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Divine Attributes

1. The Holiness of God

a) The Terms.

"Qadesh" Hebrew- to be set apart , dedicated, consecrated
The English word is holy. The derived meanings are holiness & sacredness. The word in the root meaning is sanctified or apartness.
The term for holy is used in a moral & non-moral sense in the OT. The term occurs in heathen literature as well.

b) The Non-moral usage in the Heathen cultures.

The term has a magical useage and designated certain places persons & objects as taboo. They were set apart from secular useage. In its heathen useage it referred to to things that belonged to the gods or kings that no one else could touch. They were separate or set apart.

In the bible the word Kadesh was a sodomite & a Kadesha was a prostitute. They were anything but holy but the word means "set apart" It is the same word as holy but it was translated according to its context.
1 Kings 1/24, 15/12 22/25, Deut 23/17

c) Ceremonial use of the term.

This is to be distinguished from the moral use of the term. Objects and persons are holy because of their association with the holy God. Because God was holy everything seen in relation to him was holy. Objects in the temple were holy because of their relationship to God. The Nazarite (Num.6/8) was holy because of he was separated & consecrated to God. His inward moral holiness was a completely separate issue.

d) The moral usage of Holy.

We want to to look at how it is used in scripture in relation to God so we can determine its derived meaning.

With reference to God it means " his otherness, his separateness,his divine transcendence"
1 Sam.2/2, Job25/4-6, Hosea 11/9

The term "Holy" so exclusively belongs to God it becomes a synonym for his name.
Isaiah 6, 40/25

The basic meaning is sanctify or set apart. In relation to God it must mean more than that as it is used of a God who is righteous & holy. Therefore the word does speak of his inner character. Lev. 19/1
So in reference to God it does have a derived meaning. Lev. 19/1
It says god is holy or set apart & then the whole chap. tells Israel how to be that way. Unlike all other heathen cultures the word in reference to god has a derived meaning in a moral sense.

Moral holiness in man is a prerequisite for fellowship with a holy God.Ex.19/5-6, Lev.19/1
This requirement enables us to understand the ritual & ceremony in the OT. Since divine holiness means separation from everything sinful (which includes creation as we know it) then that means God cannot have communion with man.

This illustrates the need for education in ceremonial holiness and moral purity. The OT ritual was not just something God gave as a substitute until something better came (grace) but the ritual itself taught holiness.

All the ritual ie: priesthood,sacrifice,separation was written to educate the people in the need for moral holiness.

Divine holiness requires God to separate himself from everything impure & unholy. this means god can't fellowship with man so he instituted the ritual so they could. To the pious Israelite it was educating him in the need for holiness.

ie: The ark was a sacred object. It was just a piece of wook covered with gold. but because of its association with God it became holy.
- the ark when in Philistine hands brought them much trouble.1Sam.4,5
- Uzzah touched it and he died. 11 Sam.6
- Some men looked into it and they died 1Sam.6/19-21

"Holy" places are those places where God has revealed himself or appeared
- Jerusalem Ex.3/5, 48/2
- Palestine Zech.2/12
- The Tabernacle Ex.28/43
- Temple 1 Kings 6/16
- Alter Ex.29/27
- The Furnishings Num.4/15
- Sacrifices Lev.2/3, 6/25
- Priests Ex.29/1, Lev.21/6
- priest clothing Ex.29/29
- first born Israelites Ex.13/2

Everything is Israel because of their association with a morally pure & righteous God was to be morally pure. Ceremonial holiness became a type of spiritual holiness.

The OT wasn't revealed as a substitute until something better could be devised ie: the NT. The OT has its place in the economy of redemption. the church needs to know these were types and lessons of spiritual truth. Isaiah 4/3

Holiness is to be the goal of Gods people. Isaiah 6/12-13 A remnant will escape the day of judgement.

Ceremonial holiness as well as spiritual or moral holiness will one day be restored in the millennium. It will be restored in its meaning as memorials. Zech.14/20-21

Does the term holy have the same meaning in reference to pagan gods as it does in Israel? Dan.4/8-9,18 5/11
In Egypt there was a god called kadesh. study mythology & you will see the pagan gods have reference to the term holy only in their root meaning of separateness. The pagan gods are guilty of all the sins men are.

e) Conclusion.

With respect to Yahveh the god of Israel holiness has reference to his moral purity, his inner character, his otherness which separates him from all other men & all other gods.
His uniqueness, his otherness, his moral & spiritual transcendence.

With respect to man it implies:
a)a separation from sin Isaiah 6/1-8
b) a consecration to the Lord Jer. 1/4-5

[Updated on: Sun, 19 November 2017 11:24]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12291 is a reply to message #12290 ] Mon, 13 November 2017 19:27 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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2. The Righteousness of God

a) The root meaning of righteousness.

The original root meaning in the bible is to be straight. In a moral sense it means uprightness. A state of being right.

b) Righteousness as conformity to a proper standard or norm is the basic Old Testament meaning.

It is the standard by which we are measured. Gods righteousness is his own moral holiness and perfection which is the standard for all men.
Deut. 32/4, Ps.11/7, Amos 5/24
The non-moral useage indicates it is conformity to an acceptable standard ie: righteous weights and measures
Ezek.46/10-12, Dan.25/15
Sacrifices of righteousness conformed to a revealed acceptable standard. Ps.51/19, Ps.4/5
Righteous conduct is conduct according to Gods revealed standards.

c) Righteousness is not simply an abstract moral principle.

To the Hebrew righteousness was a righteous act or event. Not something in the abstract. A righteous man performed righteous acts and lived righteously.
Ps.106/3, Isaiah 58/2, Ezek. 18/21-22, Gen 18/19, 1 Sam.12/7-8, Isaiah 1/27, Isaiah 47/12-13

d) Righteousness is also expressed in judgment.

In this sense it is expressed as justice. Gen.18/25 God is called the supreme judge. Righteousness is the standard by which he governs the world. It is also the standard by which he requires us to live. It will be the standard by which he judges the world. Ps.9/7-8

e) Righteousness and justice are two sides of God's holiness.

Justice carries with it the idea of absolute fairness based on a standard of righteousness. Righteousness demands absolute conformity to gods standard and justice visits all non-conformity with punishment.

The terms carry with them a sense of absolute fairness and in that sense it is his justice.

3. The Love of God

a) The terms.
Ahabah -love
Hessed- mercy or loving kindness

b) The distinction between the terms.
Hessed is always conditioned upon there being a covenant. Ahabah is unconditional love in the OT.

c) Old Testament usage of the terms.

Ahabah has only to do with the will of the one who loves. Either he wants to love or he doesn't. Thus it comes to be the term for election love in the OT. Its synonymous with grace.

Hessed is used to denote the attitude of loyalty, faithfulness & moral obligation which both sides of a covenant observe to one another. Hessed was the binding relationship in a covenant. It meant not merely love but steadfast faithfulness.
1 Sam.20/13-16
Hosea is called the prophet of Hessed in the OT. Hosea 6/4,6 2/18-19

[Updated on: Tue, 14 November 2017 19:26]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12292 is a reply to message #12291 ] Mon, 13 November 2017 22:50 Go to previous message
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4. The Names of God

a) Significance of Names in Hebrew.

Among the Hebrews a name was never merely a tittle but often descriptive.

1. Descriptive of the nature character, appearance, or function of a person place or thing.
- Esau- means hairy
- the dead sea was called the salt sea.-
- Eve was named after her function. mother of all living.
- Obed means servant

2. Names represent some relationship
- Simon Barjona- the son of Jona
- a spiritual relationship- Jedidiah (Solomon) means beloved of the Lord.
- geographical relationship.- Zerrubabal born in Babel(Babylon)
- pious parents would compound the name with gods.
Jo-el, Yahveh is my God
Dan-ial God is my judge
Eli-jah my God is Yahveh

3. Names may express piety, sorrow, grief,joy or hope.
Phinehas named her son Ichabod- inglorious
Rachel named her son benomi. son of my sorrow (Benjamin)
Isaiah -Salvation is of Yah or the Lord.

4. Names were sometimes give to express thanks, gratitude, or praise
Ishmael - God hears

5. Sometimes they were peronomastic. eg. a play on words.
Naomi- pleasant She changed her own name to Marah- bitter
Nabel- word means fool
Jacob- means supplanter

6. Sometimes names are prophetic.

Isaiah's children- Shearjashub- a remnant shall return
Maher shahal Hash baz - the spoil speeds and the prey hastens (quick to the plunder and swift to the spoil)- means their enemies would quickly spoil them.
One name reflected hope & the other judgement prophetically.

Hosea's children
Jezreel - God sows - means judgement
Lo Ammi- not my people
Lo Ruhamah- not pitied

In The NT the word Christ is the Hebrew Messiah- means anointed one.

b) The Divine Names and their meaning

1) El.
Translated God. A common name used throughout the middle east by Semitic peoples. Being a common name it is used of false gods as well. Ps.81/9, Duet 32/12
The word means "the strong one". It occurs about 300 times in the OT.
It is often combined with other words to make names.
ie: Isra el, Dani el, Jo el
When the term is used of God it has a definite article with it or an adjective to show it is God. That is not done with the false gods.

(2) Elohim.
Translated God and occurs over 250 times in the OT. It is the plural of El. The word means "the mighty one". It is aalso used of the false gods.
When used of God it has the definite article. Verbs and modifiers with it are always in the singular when the word is used to refer to God.

El & Elohim are used to refer to beings other than God. They refer to false Gods idols angels and men.
angels (heb. is sons of God) Bene Elohim Job 38/7
men (sometimes) because the divinely appointed anointing or position of authority Ex. 4/16, 7/1

3) Eloah
The word means power or might. It is found almost exclusively in the poetic literature. it is also used occasionally of the false gods.

4) El-Elyon.
The most high God or highest God. Its used by Melchizedek in Gen.14/8. The word "Elyon is an adjective which means highest or most high. Num.24/16, Duet. 32/8

(5) El-Shaddai
It means God almighty. It is derived from a verb that means to deal mightily. It is the name God used of himself with Abraham. Gen.17/1
This is the most frequently used name in the patriarchal period. Exodus 6/3 God told Moses that before he had only revealed himself to the patriarchs as the most high God or God almighty.

(6) Adhon
The word means Lord. You can drop the "h" because the "d" is soft. It is also the common word used of man in the OT. The word sometimes means master husband sir
-master - Ex.21/5
-husband - Gen.18/12
-prince - Gen. 42/10
-king - 1 Sam.22/13
-father - Gen.31/25
-priest - 1Sam.1/15
-Moses - Ex.32/22

Gods personal name was Yahveh. The Jews out of respect used the name Adhon. Where it is used of god it is always pronounced Adoni or Adonay

(7) Yahweh.
The modern Heb. word is Yahveh. This is Gods OT personal name revealed to Moses Ex.6/2.

Actual word is YHWH. Heb. as has no vowels. The vowels are added to make sense of the name. The dead sea scrolls for eg were written completely in consonants. Vowels were invented & added in the 6 th century AD by a group known as the Masoretes. Hebrew ceased to be a spoken language after the Romans conquered the world. Only scholars spoke it.

Out of respect the Jews didn't (don't) pronounce YHWH. They pronounced the vowels of Adonay instead. The question is though why would God reveal his name to anyone and not want them to say it. Thats false piety.
3000 yrs after God revealed his personal name to Moses a Catholic priest (about 1500 A.D.)put Adonay & YHWH together to from a name Jehovah. In Hef's opinion that is nonsense.

(8)The compound names of God

- Yahveh Elohim - I am the mighty One. Gen 2/4
- Yahveh Jireh - The Lord will Provide. Gen. 22/14
- Yahveh Shalom - The Lord is our Peace. Judges 6- Yahveh Nissi - The Lord is my Banner. Ex.17/15
- Yahveh Tsidkenu - The Lord is our Righteousness Jer. 23/6
- Yahveh Tsebaoth - The Lord of Hosts Joshua 5/14
- Yahveh Shammah - The Lord is There. Ezek. 48/35
- Yahveh Rophaka or Rapha - The Lord who Heals

(9) Other Names

- The Holy One Of Israel
- The King
- The God of the Heavens
- The mighty One of Jacob
- The Mighty One of Israel
- The rock of Israel
- The Living One
- The Great One
- The Glorious One
- The Eternal One.

(10) Usage of the term ba'al.
The word is sometimes used of God.It was mainly used to designate the Idol that corrupted the Israelites. It means Owner Master Possessor Lord

[Updated on: Fri, 17 November 2017 18:26]

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