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OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12454] Sat, 14 April 2018 20:32 Go to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Origin and Meaning of the Term "Judaism

The reason why we study this is because one can't understand much in the NT without understanding between the testaments. There is much in the NT that just appears without explanation. eg: synagogue, pharisees, Sanhedrin

The term "Judaism" occurs in 11 Maccabees 2/21,14/38. During this period (between the testaments) Judaism refers to the religion of the Jews as contrasted to Greek Hellenism.

The term in the NT is used to contrast non-christian Jewish religion with Christianity. Gal.1/13 Jews religion. The greek word is Judaism. Titus 1/14 Jewish fables. Gal 2/14 jewish customs

There is no word in the OT that can be translated "Jew" There is a word that is a persons name. "Yehudi" it means jewish or jew. A noun or adjective.
11 Kings 16/6, Ester 5/13, Neh. 1/2
The term comes from the kingdom of Judah. Jew or Judaism. Jew was originally a Judite from the kingdom of Judah. After the exile the name Yehudi began to applied to anyone who was a jew anywhere.

There is a difference between legalistic Judaism and classical Judaism. The point being that there is nothing wrong with Ezra and Nehemiah calling the people back to mosaic worship. This legalistic Judaism arose between the testaments after prophecy had ceased and there was no king and Israel was ruled mostly by priestly families.

Re: OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12456 is a reply to message #12454 ] Sat, 14 April 2018 20:56 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Background to Post-Exilic Judaism

The Political Background

1. The biblical period - under Ezra and Nehemiah

a) The Babylonian period 586-536 BC
b) The Persian period. 536-400 BC

536 BC the Persians allow the Jews to return to Israel
Ezra 3/1-7 Burnt offering is restored
535 BC the foundation of the temple is laid. Ezra 3/8-13
Ezra 4 for 15 yrs no more work is done
520 BC the work resumes under Haggai and Zechariah
515 BC the temple is finished
478 BC Esther becomes queen
458 BC Ezra comes as a teacher/priest Ezra 7-10
445 BC Nehemiah comes a governor and begins to rebuild the city
Neh. 1-7
433 BC Nehemiah goes back to Babylon Neh. 13/6
432 BC Malachi preaches
425 BC Nehemiah returns and initiates reforms

It is during this period the Jews have returned rebuilt their temple and resumed their sacrifices.

[Updated on: Sat, 14 April 2018 20:57]

Re: OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12457 is a reply to message #12454 ] Sat, 14 April 2018 21:10 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Political Background

2. The Inter biblical Period

a) The Persian Period 400-333 BC
b) The Greek Period 333-167 BC
- Macedonian Supremacy (Alexander the Great)333-320 BC
- The Ptolemaic Supremacy (Egypt) 320-198 BC
- The Seleucid Supremacy (Syria) 198-167 BC This was Anticanis 4th. He was the worst oppressor of the Jews until Hitler arose. He ruled over Egypt Syria Palestine after Alexanders Kingdom broke up. He tried to Hellenize the Jews.
c) The Maccabean Period 167-37 BC
63 BC Pompey (Roman) took Palestine
37 BC Herod the Great begins to rule. Appointed by the Romans

[Updated on: Sat, 28 April 2018 21:32]

Re: OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12459 is a reply to message #12454 ] Tue, 08 May 2018 11:07 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The religious Background The rise of the Jewish sects and the development of legalistic Judaism

The Maccabean revolt

They were originally called Hasmoneans named after a priestly family from Modim in Judea. They were faithful to the Lord and the law of Moses. Antiochus required the Jews to follow Greek culture.
Matthias (a priest) refused. See 1 Maccabeas 2f (apocrypha)
This is the origin of Hanukah.
In 165 BC Judas Maccabees recaptured Jerusalem and rededicated the the alter and the temple and Hanukah celebrates this.
1 Maccabeas 4/38-61, 11 Maccabeas 10/6-7
The feast of dedication or Hanukah is celebrated in Dec. It is also called the feast of lights because of the use of lights in the homes and synagogues. In Israel today the emphasis is on the patriotic aspect of Hanukah.
Re: OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12460 is a reply to message #12454 ] Tue, 08 May 2018 11:22 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Jewish Sects

Hasideans or Hasidim

This was a Jewish sect before Christ. The name comes from the word Hasid which means pious. This name "the pious ones" was given to the orthodox Jews who opposed the Hellenization of Palestine.
1 Mac2/42,7/13
They still exist today in Israel and elsewhere. Their origin is uncertain but they existed as a religious group before the Maccabeas. They might have arose after Alexanders conquest by withdrawing from the world
1 Mac. 1/63, 11 mac.6/18f, Judith 12/2 Josephus book 14 4/3 (apocrypha)
These were active supporters of the maccabeans religiously but had little interest in politics and later separated totally when maccabean interest became more political.

The Essenes or pious ones

They inhabited the Qumran community. Their origin is uncertain but it is believed they came from the Hassadim and fled to the wilderness during antiochus persecutions because they refused to fight with the maccabeas.
They were a monastic brotherhood devoted to the ascetic life. Self supporting, zealous for the law, copied the scriptures
They did not go up to the temple to worship.
Some try to relate Jesus and John Baptist to this group. But Jesus ate with sinners worshiped a the temple and drank wine. All things the essenes wouldn't do.

Re: OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12461 is a reply to message #12454 ] Tue, 08 May 2018 12:45 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Pharisees

The term
Is from a Heb verb that means to separate or make distinct

Their Origin
It is believed they are the successors of the Hasidim when they became more political. The religious ones then changed their name. Josephus book 13 10/5

The beginning of Legalistic Judaism

The Pharisees as successors of the Hasadim were very zealous for the law unlike most Jews. They took vows in the most strict manner to observe ceremonial ritual and purity. The party was called a brotherhood in addition to being called pharisees. They wouldn't buy or sell to an unclean person. ie one who didn't keep ritual law. They separated themselves from the common people. John 7/49

They included in their observance of Moses law the oral law and required everyone else to do it too. They interpreted the law and made strict obedience to the letter of the law and divided phrases and sentences and words with ridiculous meanings.


There were two schools of pharisees.

1/ The Hilail school - he founded a school with a rigid strict dissecting of the word
2/ The Shammai school - A rival of the Hilail. He was an extreme formalist and founded a school of legalistic Judaism which totally ignored the spirit of the law.

By the time of Jesus these two schools had along with all the oral interpretation completely superseded the scriptures.

The Talmud lists 7 different kinds of pharisees.

1/ The shoulder pharisee - He parades his good deeds like a badge on his shoulder
2/ The wait a bit pharisee - He begs for time so he can perform another good deed.
3/ The bleeding pharisee - He is so pious that when he sees a women he would close his eyes and end up running into a wall and bleeding. He would rather bleed than sin
4/ The painted pharisee - He advertises his holiness so no one will touch him and defile his holiness
5/ The reckoning pharisee - He always says . . . what good deeds have I to do to balance the bad I've done
6/ The fearing pharisee - He serves God because he fears not to.
7/ The pharisee of love - He serves God because he loves God

This is the Talmuds recognition of their own legalism. They were saying a true pharisee is one who loves God

The Talmud was a collection of writings about the interpretation of the law in the Torah. The Torah is the Heb bible or OT. Jesus called the Talmud the Traditions of the Elders and said they made the scriptures of no effect.

Re: OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12462 is a reply to message #12454 ] Tue, 08 May 2018 13:14 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Sadducees

According to Josephus they arose at the same time as the Pharisees. It comes from a plural Heb word "to be righteous" By the time of Jesus the Sadducees had gained control of the temple with its worship and the pharisees controlled the synagogues with their worship.

The high priest was always a Sadducee. Compared to the pharisees they were fewer in number. The party was made up of nobles priests levites and the high priestly family.

The pharisees were not priests but they did include any who could meet the requirements. The Sadducee took only the Pentateuch as scripture and denied basic doctrines.
eg resurrection, angels spirits Luke 20/27, Acts 23/8 Mark 12/18

The Scribes

The term
means to write.

Its Origin

All the law had to be copied by hand. They were called Sophorim in the OT. The word means book or writing. It is translated in the OT as scribe, secretary, enumerator. They appeared as a professional class of learned men in Jer.36, 11 Sam.8/17, Ezra 7/6
Jesus didn't rebuke all scribes Matt23/34. They generally came from the priestly clans In the NT they were usually ordinary people who wrote and taught the word. Educated but not priests.

In Matt.22/35 they are called students of the law or lawyers. Luke7/30, 10/25,5/17, Acts 5/34, doctors of the law and also called rabbi. They became prominent with the pharisees between the testaments.

Re: OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12463 is a reply to message #12454 ] Wed, 09 May 2018 12:49 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Zealots

They were the extreme nationalists who were the successors to the Maccabees. They arose after Rome took Palestine in 63 BC. They opposed Roman rule paid no taxes and gave no allegiance to any king but God.

One of Jesus disciples was a zealot. Luke 6/15, Acts 1/13
They are very important in history because they led the revolt in 70 AD which Jesus predicted in Matt.24

The Sanhedrin

This was the Jewish supreme court. Jewish tradition places its origin in Moses selecting 70 elders to help him rule. According to this tradition Ezra reorganized it after the exile.
Other sources say the high priest and elders having much authority under Rome formed it after a group that preceded it during the Maccabees period. (this is Bro Freemans opinion)
As far as a pattern is concerned 11Chron. 19/5-11 could be the origin.

The Sanhedrin exercised some civil but mostly religious authority. They had their own police who could make arrests.
Matt.26.47, Acts 4/3, 5/17, 9/2 Mark 14/43

Re: OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12473 is a reply to message #12454 ] Thu, 10 May 2018 11:13 Go to previous message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Synagogue

It is a greek word that means "the people"

Background

Before the tabernacle and temple there were sacred places where Abraham and others worshiped. Under Moses they had the tabernacle. In Palestine between Joshua and David it was placed in shilo. Solomon built his temple in Jerusalem. All through this time the people sacrificed on the high places to many gods.

The Beginnings of the Synagogue

During the exile they were without a temple and sacrifices and they knew better than to build one in Babylon. They went to Babylon without a synagogue and came back to Israel with one. Jewish tradition says while in Babylon they gradually began to meet on the sabbath and festival days. They did this in priests or prophets homes. Sung the psalms shared from the scriptures. Because pious Jews wanted something and didn't have anything else.
Ezek.8/1,20/1 Here we see the beginnings of the synagogue.

Why did the Synagogue continue after the temple was rebuilt

1/ Because it had become a vital part of the Jewish way of life in the exile
2/ It helped preserve Jewish worship and religious solidarity
3/ As it still is today it became not just for spiritual worship but also social gatherings
4/ From the beginning it was a place to go study the word and study of it became prominent. This was according to Gods plan because Jesus patterned the church after it.

Functions of the synagogue

One could be established anywhere 10 Jewish males gathered.
The head was called the ruler and he presided over the service. Mark 5/22

4 functions
1/worship
2/instruction in the word for adults and children. There were also synagogue schools for for males age 6-16.
3/It was a social center,community life, and a place for legal transactions
4/It was also a place of trial and punishment

The Services

They were held on Shabbat morning.

Recite the Shema (Deut. 6/4-9)
Blessings from the word were pronounced
A cycle of 18 prayers were recited
Readings from the law and prophets
Teaching preaching and instruction
A benediction from the ruler

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