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OT Theology # 6 The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12402] Tue, 09 January 2018 19:32 Go to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Origin of Sacrifices

Critical theories of their origin- Most think that Israel got their sacrifices is Egypt and added to it from the heathen in Canaan.

1. Gift theory ; Sacrifices were originally gifts given to their God to get some favor.

2. Magic theory: Through the offering of the blood of a substitute on an alter the disease or sin of the people would be magically transferred to the animal (JDS believe this although they use the term mystical)

3. The table bond theory: Sacrifices were meals which the man and his participated in eating and thus establishing a bond of fellowship. Their God didn't actually eat but the idea of communion was there. Some believe this was the original meaning.

4. Sacramental communion theory: A modification of the table bond theory. The sacrifice represented the God and when the worshiper ate it he incorporated into himself the life and power of his God. (this is the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation)

5. The Homage theory ; Sacrifice is rooted in the desire to pay homage to the deity.

6. The Religious Instinct theory: Man is by nature religious so he desired to give something of himself to his deity. Its an instinct.

7. The Canaanite view: Israel picked up the religious sacrifice from her Canaanite neighbors .


The Reply: Israelite Sacrifice was of Divine Origin

This is seen in the contrast between Israel and her neighbors. The purity of Israel versus cruelty and fertility rites etc.

Logical Considerations


How did Israels get so pure? Much heathen worship had fertility rites (Canaan) and human sacrifice. Israels was completely free of this.
Issac? This was a test of Abrahams loyalty
Jephthah? Judges 11. There is no evidence he actually sacrificed her and may have simply consecrated her to a life of perpetual virginity.
Duet.18/10 prohibited human sacrifice as an abomination to God.

Biblical Considerations


Sacrifice didn't originate in Canaan or Egypt but goes right back to the garden. Sacrifices were the only acceptable method of worship by the patriarchs from whom the nation descended. It goes right back to Abel and all of Genesis.
Gen.8/20-=22 Noah offers a burnt offering which appeased Gods wrath and caused him to enter into a covenant with mankind.
Job 1/4-5 - about 2000 BC. (in marks opinion . . . Job lived before the flood)
From the beginning righteous men have seen the need of blood sacrifices to appease Gods wrath against sin. Gen. 22/7 Issac expressed surprise that Abraham hadn't brought a sacrifice.
The book of Genesis know of no other sacrifice than a whole burnt offering. In the history of Abel, Noah, Abraham, Issac, Jacob, Job we have evidence of the rite of sacrifice. Long before Moses and Israel in Egypt. Where ever the patriarchs pitched their tents they built an alter.

Gen.31/54 There was one sacrifice other than a whole bunt offering.
Israel came into Egypt with a knowledge of sacrifice. In Leviticus there is a positive admonition against adopting any of the sacrifices of Canaan and Egypt. Prior to the flood there was no meat eaten. All the animals killed before the flood wern't for food it is therefore implied they were for sacrifice.

The conclusion was that sacrifice was the acceptable form of worship by the patriarchs long before Israel ever came on the scene. We see blood sacrifice from Gen. 4 on.

[Updated on: Tue, 09 January 2018 19:33]

Re: OT Theology # 6 The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12403 is a reply to message #12402 ] Tue, 09 January 2018 20:12 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 610
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
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The essential idea in sacrifice

Critical Views and incorrect ideas

1. A sacrificial meal: A communion of God and man. This doesn't explain the many types of sacrifice in Israel. It also doesn't explain why prior to Israel and Moses the only sacrifice was whole burnt offering with no meal or communion involved.

2. Self Surrender: You find this idea in burnt offering but it doesn't explain all the other sacrifices. It is also confusing the emotions of the giver with the purpose of the sacrifice. What is being surrendered is the victim.

3. Self Interest: By giving something to your God you get something in return. (seed faith) You don't serve God because it pays.

4. A Fine: like violating a traffic law

5. A Gift: This idea comes from Gen.4. Their offerings were gifts. This whole theory stands or falls or the use of the Heb. term here. The technical terms for sacrifices didn't come into use until Moses. The word in Genesis for gift is just a generic term. A general term.

Some think the reason Abels sacrifice was received and Cains wasn't was because of the value of the gift. Abels was much more valuable. Some think it was because (Heb.11/4) Abel offered his in faith. It says his faith caused him to make a certain action. The point though is the kind of sacrifice he offered by faith.

The question here is why was Abels sacrifice better than Cains. It says God testified of his gifts. His faith in action led him to offer a particular offering. If Cain didn't have any faith he wouldn't have offered anything. The point being he didn't obey God and offer a right sacrifice.
The problem wsn't with Cains sacrifice of grain because in Israel there was a most holy meal offering. The difference between them was Cains sacrifice was an inanimate object. Abels was life for a life. A blood sacrifice offered in faith in response to a previous revelation that must have come prior to Gen.4 God accepted Abels offering. Heb.11/4 Abels offering is called a sacrifice. A blood atonement.

The essential idea in Sacrifice: Vicarious atonement

The essential idea in Sacrifice is substitutionary blood offering made to God by his appointed ministers upon his alter with the object of covering sin and appeasing or propitiating the wrath of God. Thus restoring those upon whose behalf it is offered to fellowship and communion with God and expressing either penitence homage gratitude thanksgiving dedication consecration communion and entreaty for divine blessing.

[Updated on: Wed, 10 January 2018 09:48]

Re: OT Theology # 6 The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12404 is a reply to message #12402 ] Wed, 10 January 2018 10:40 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 610
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
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The Definition of Sacrifice

Sacrifice is to be defined as:
A substitutionary blood offering made to God by his appointed ministers upon his alter with the object of covering sin and appeasing or propitiating the wrath of God. Thus restoring those upon whose behalf it is offered to fellowship and communion with God and expressing either penitence homage gratitude thanksgiving dedication consecration communion and entreaty for divine blessing.

Hebrew Sacrificial Terminology

1. The Generic Terms

a) Minchah: A gift or offering. Comes from a word that means to give or lend.
b) Zevach An OT term for sacrifice. Comes from a word which means to slaughter either for food or sacrifice.
c) Ishsheh: An offering made by fire. Comes from the word for fire.
d) Qorban: An offering or gift. Mark 7/11

2. The Specific Terms

a) 'olah: The whole burnt offering. It comes from a word that means to go up or ascend.
b) Zevach shelamim : The peace offering. Comes from a verb that means to be complete or whole. It means a complete or whole peace with God. Literally it is "The sacrifice of completeness"
c) Chattath: The sin offering. Comes from root word meaning to sin. (which means to Miss the mark)
d) 'asham: The guilt or trespass offering.
e) Minchah: The meal offering (grain). KJV is the meat offering.
f) Nesek: A drink offering. Comes from a word that means to pour out.
g) Shemen: The oil burned in the lamp (pure olive oil)
h) Libation of water: 1Sam.7/6, 11Sam.23/16 This must have been revealed to Samuel as it wasn't part of the of the levitical law. It was observed with the feast of tabernacles and poured out on the alter. The Jewish writers in interpreting this said they poured out their hearts like water before the Lord.

The prominent OT sacrificial term: Kipper

It means to cover over the sin.
Gen.6/14 pitch- kipper
Gen.32/20 appease(kipper)his eyes

Re: OT Theology # 6 The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12405 is a reply to message #12402 ] Wed, 10 January 2018 12:08 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
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The classification of Levitical sacrifices

The National Sacrifices

1. The Serial Offerings (a series)

a) Daily offerings: Morning and evening a burnt offering on behalf of the nation (Israel) It was a one year old lamb with meal and drink offerings. It is called continual because it is offered daily.

b) Weekly offerings: Morning and evening double the daily offering.

c) Monthly offering: Offered on the new moon sabbath.
- two bullocks a ram and seven lambs with meal and drink offerings
- the regular daily offerings
- a sin offering- a kid goat

2. The Festal (Festival) Offerings


The Passover Cycle of Feasts

a) The Lords Passover: Ex. 12 Celebrated on the 14th day of Nissan. Nissan is the 1st month of the religious year. There were two calendars in the OT; civil and religious.

b) The feast of unleavened bread: It started on the 15 Nissan and lasted 7 days. (Nissan is a month in the Jewish calendar)
It isn't the same as the Passover but connected to it. The 1st and 7th days were Sabbaths. The daily offerings were offered then two bullocks a ram and seven lambs with meal and drink offerings. In addition to that a kid (goat) was offered for a sin offering on each of the 7 days.

c) Pentecost: The 3thd feast in the Passover cycle.It occurred 50 days after the feat of Pentecost and it lasted one day. It is also called the feast of harvest, feast of first fruits or feast of weeks. In addition to the daily burnt offering were peace offerings and meal offerings.

The Cycle of the Seventh Month

a)The Feast of Rams Horns (Trumpets): Celebrated in the month Tisri. The civil new year. The fist day of Tisri was new years. It was also the new moon of the seventh month.Offerings ere the daily burn to offering a new moon offering plus a bullock a ram and 7 lambs.

b) The Day of Atonement: This was the 10 day of the 7th month. A day of fasting and repentance for Israel. The priest had to offer a sin offering for himself first. The sin offering was a bullock and a ram. For the people he offered two goats. This was very important and will be explained later.

c) The feast of Tabernacles (feast of booths): Most Jews today still celebrate it. The 15th day of the 7th month. It was also called the feast of ingathering. They build booths out of leaves and branches to commemorate their wilderness wanderings. It lasted an entire week. 70 bullocks were offered over the week in an ascending scale. This is the only feast mentioned in Zech. 14 as being in the millennium.

3. The Offerings for the Service of the Holy Place


a) Holy oil: pure olive oil was brought (offered) by the people to burn in the lampstand. Lev. 24/1-4
b) Incense for burning on the alter in the holy place
c) Offerings of the showbread

4. The Extraordinary Offerings

a) At the erection of the tabernacle and temple. This was not required by the law but the people desired to do it.
b) At the consecration of Aaron. This was required by law
c) The offerings of the mirrors by the Hebrew women to make a laver for the priests.
d) A sin offering was offered at Achans sin.
e) A sin offering was offered after the sin of Korah.

These were all offerings at special occasions


[Updated on: Wed, 10 January 2018 12:39]

Re: OT Theology # 6 The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12406 is a reply to message #12402 ] Wed, 10 January 2018 13:35 Go to previous message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 610
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
The Official Sacrifices

1. The Priestly Offerings Lev. 4/3

- the priest that sinned had to offer a special sacrifice.
- If he accidentally erred in his responsibilities he had to offer a offering. eg touching a dead body
- The day of atonement began (Lev.16) with priest offering an offering for himself.
- he had to offer offerings at the consecration of a priest into his service.

2. The Offerings for Rulers - Kings princes and civil rulers

Generally these were very elaborate. Lev. 4/22-26 Sin offerings were made for them. This happened at the dedication of the temple by Solomon. At the return of the ark by David

The Personal Sacrifices for the Individuals

1. Blood Sacrifices


- burnt offerings
- peace offerings
- sin offerings
- trespass offerings

2. Bloodless offerings


- vegetable offerings
- meal offerings

In each of the 5 offerings there was s sixfold ritual that had to take place or the offering would not be accepted.
- presentation of the substitute
- the laying on of hands on the head of the substitute by the offerer.
- the slaying of the animal
- the sprinkling of the blood on the alter for the covering
- the burning of the sacrifice on the great alter
- the sacrificial meal (in most sacrifices)

The Material of the Offerings.
Animal and Vegetable

1.Classification of Clean and Unclean Animals for Food

a) Large animals - clean animals chew the cud and divide the hoof
b) Water animals - clean ones had to have scales and fins
c) Birds - there was no classification as to physical characteristics. There 20 named in Lev. In Deut. there are 21. Unclean birds generally were birds of prey, waders, bats, and storks.
d) small creatures - only the grasshopper was clean.(locust) It was a special type locust they ate. Anything that crawled or creeped was unclean.
Generally birds and animals that ate living things were unclean

Why these distinctions in Foods?

Lev. 20/23-26 It was impressed on Israel on every sphere of life the fact that it was people separated form the world into God. This is the reason for distinctions about food.

Animals acceptable for sacrifice

Of the clean animals the distinction was domesticated. ie: cattle sheep goats doves and pigeons. No animal could be offered that was taken in hunting. No fish could be offered (Dagon- the philistine fish god. The animal had to be at least 8 days old or else they were unclean.

There are no more religious distinctions concerning foods in the NT.
Mark 7/14-23 Jesus cleansed meat by his teaching here.
1Tim.4/1-5
Col. 2/14, 20-22

Vegetable or Bloodless sacrifices


a) grain roasted by fire (KJV calls it corn) grains of wheat
b) flour mixed with oil and frankincense.
c )unleavened bread or cakes

The Principle on which the Blood and Bloodless Offerings were fixed

1. It was chosen out of the ordinary food and nourishment of the people. Animals they had raised or food they had grown. They offered an offering for themselves out of these.
2. In doing so they sanctified their calling ie: farmers and shepherds not businessmen
3. It testified to Gods blessings on the labour of their hands.

In the study of book of Levitucus Lev. 17/11 is the key verse. The purpose of the book is Lev.19/2. To make holy. 1 Peter 1/16 quotes this. Out of all the books of the bible Lev. is the most inspired. It bears witness of its divine inspiration. We find God speaking directly. Sacrifice is the heart of the gospel so God himself speaks directly without intermediary so they get it right. All heathen cultures had sacrifice and if you mess up here there is no atonement.

The book of Lev. teaches us:

1. man is sinful
2. God is holy
3. man must have a means of approach to God if he is to have fellowship and communion

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