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OT Theology # 2 Man [message #12374] Mon, 01 January 2018 13:14 Go to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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[Updated on: Thu, 04 January 2018 19:42]

Re: OT Theology # 2 Man [message #12375 is a reply to message #12374 ] Mon, 01 January 2018 13:15 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Origin and Nature of Man in the Old Testament

The OT gives man a special place of value and dignity. Because in the beginning God created us in the image and likeness of God. In the OT man is portrayed with a vivid realism.
- in his 1st test he fails
- Cain kills Abel
- The flood because of evil
- Destroyed in Moses desert
- over & over sold into slavery in the promised land

The OT shows that man is not only what God made him but what he made himself : a sinner!

Terms for man

a) Adam the word means Adams name. It also has a generic use which means man or mankind. The word comes from a Heb. root that means red "Adom"
- Adomah- Heb. is land ground soil earth
- Edom red, soil earth. The area in the middle east known as Edom is all red sandstone

God made man out of the red soil hence the name Adam was given to "man" and when applied to 'that man" it meant his name.

b) Esh man masc. ;Eshah feminine. Gen.2/23

c) Esh- man sometimes used of God
man of war. esh of war.

d) Enosh ( also the name of Seth's son Gen. 4/26)
man or mankind in his mortality. -frail weak mortal subject to death. Job 25/6
Why call him Enosh? He is expressing that man is mortal.

This term Enosh is never used of the messiah in the OT. Dan.7/13 being the supposed exception. It simply means "like" the son of man. Identifying with us.

e) Giver. the opposite of Enosh. A strong & heroic man. ie; David Mainly used poetically.


This next section on evolution in the notes provided here I do not have in my notes. It was not in the original tape series. If anyone has notes on it please put them in. Or send them to me and I will put them in. PM me or email me.

b) The facts of science and the theory of evolution.

c) The three views of the origin of man.

d) The origin of the modern evolutionary theory and the weaknesses of Darwinism.

e) The refutation of organic evolution in the fields of Biology, Embryology, Paleontology, and Human Antiquity.

f) The refutation of theistic evolution.

[Updated on: Sun, 20 May 2018 19:11]

Re: OT Theology # 2 Man [message #12486 is a reply to message #12374 ] Sun, 20 May 2018 18:22 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Psychology of the Hebrews

The OT is filled with references to the body and parts of it that have spiritual and moral significance.

The body The nephesh. The spirit. The heart. The inward parts.

The body.

Heb. geviggah
- Gen.47/18 used of a living human body
- 1 Sa. 31/10 used of a dead body

Heb. Basar. flesh. A more common term. This word lends itself to a more comprehensive use.
- Lev.14/9 it is equates with the body
- Is. 58/7 it can refer to blood relations
- Num.16/22 It is used of all mankind
- Gen.7 it is used of the animals

It also has a ethical and moral usage in the OT. This is where Paul got his idea of flesh vs spirit. The moral useage of the term Basar is seen in ceremonial defilement.

Ceremonial defilement resulted from
- various diseases
- touching a dead body
- women in childbirth
- etc

For any of these things a sin offering had to be offered. In Gods sight it was a defilement of the spirit & hence the sin offering.
This is the basis of Pauls teaching in the NT on flesh vs spirit. External purification was symbolic of internal cleansing. The moral defilement of the body was seen in the fact that a sin offering was required to be offered.
Lev. 12, Lev 14 Num.6


Why did a sin offering have to be offered for ceremonial defilement?

a) All disobedience even disobedience to levitical law was sin. It wasn't ceremonial uncleanness. It was disobedience to God's revealed will.

b) Man as flesh is mortal creaturely & impure. All manner of disease, sexual emission, touching the dead etc. tended to emphasize man's mortality and impurity in his basic form. To the Hebrews these things along with ceremonial defilement eventually brought a natural relationship between them and mans natural corruption.

c) Man is flesh in contrast to a holy righteous God was sinful and impure and could not come into the presence of God. The blood of the sacrifice provided a covering for the person who had sinned (ceremonially or otherwise)so they could come back into fellowship with God.

Jer.17/5 11 Chron. 32/8 Is. 31/3
flesh is used all through the bible as more than a word meaning the body. Gen.6/3,12-13 Job 10/4 Ps.78/39

Moral & ethical uses of the word flesh. There is often a relationship beteen sickness and sin
- Ps.103/3- a direct relationship between sickness & forgiveness.
- Deut.28 sickness in the body is a direct result of sin.
- Jesus said to the man at the pool of Siloam- go and sin no more
- James 5- confess your sins and be healed
= 1 Cor.11 communion
- Ps.78/38-39
- Job 4/17-19 mans moral impurity & the flesh are equated

Sin is not in the flesh but in the heart. Flesh becomes a figure for the carnal man, the worldly man, unregenerate man or the normal appetites when allowed to run wild.

The Hebrew did not divide the body up as body soul & spirit like the Greeks. A man "is" body soul & spirit but he doesn't "have" a body a soul a spirit. The Hebrews saw man as a unit Ge. 2/7. A living being came alive when God breathed in the spirit and he became a living soul.

To the Hebrew he could understand why Adams body had to die when he sinned. When you divide body & spirit something unnatural occurs ie: death. This is why the NT calls the gospel the resurrection of the body. The Hebrew concept of the unity of man emphasizes the truth that there is an inseparable relationship between the body and spirit.
Rom. 5/12,Rom.7/18

It is significant that in the OT sickness is viewed as defilement and a sin offering had to be offered for certain diseases. touching a dead body, leprosy, childbirth, etc. signified that man was a sinner.
Re: OT Theology # 2 Man [message #12488 is a reply to message #12374 ] Sun, 20 May 2018 18:29 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Nephesh or Soul

The word is translated as soul, life, self, person, emotion, or appetite

The Greek word is Psuche (used in the Septuagint) The Hebrew writing this NT Greek saw this word the same as the to word Nephesh.There is a difference between NT Greek and Greek philosophical thought.

OT uses of the word.

The Life the self the person and as consequence of that means the seat of the emotions appetites & desires. The soul is never to be thought of as an entity apart from the person himself. In the OT at death it is the person or personality that survives as the nephesh.

1/ the life or self or person

a) it is used of the inner being of man or the immortal part of man as distinguished from his flesh. It is not something just stuck inside.
Is.10/18, Deut.12/23, Job 14/22

Ps. 16/10 Its often said in the OT that the soul is delivered from death. Acts 2- Jesus. The body was in the grave and the desire was to have the soul delivered from death.

b) The nephesh is the life of the person.
Ex. 21/23, 11Sam.23/17
Jonah 1/14 Heb. word here is nephesh but it properly translated life.
Lev.17/11 the life process.

c) It is a synonym for the person
- Gen.49/6 me
- Ps.25/13 he
- Ps.124/7 we
- all have a pronoun attached to word nephesh.
- Job 9/21 myself
- Duet.4/9 thyself
Gen. 2/7 We were created out of dust with spirit breathed into us and the result was a living soul.

2/ Nephesh stands for the source of the emotions appetites & desires.
- Ps.107/9 hunger
- Deut. 12/20 desire
- Lev.26/11 loathing or abhorring
- Jer. 13/17
- Gen.42/21 anguish
- Ps. 35/9 joy
- Son of Sol. 1/7 love
-b Ps 11/5 hate

The soul is sometimes said to be one of the functions of rational personality ie: capable of mental acts. almost a synonym for the mind.
- Ester 4/13 soul meaning mind
- Ps. 19/2 Knowledge- mind

That the nephesh signifies the life or the person is seen in the OT concept of the state of the nephesh after death. It is the nephesh that leaves the body at death but it is the life of the person thats leaving. The Heb went onto say that the nephesh survived and would one day be restored to normal personality with a body.
Gen.35/18 at death the nephesh left the body. 1King 17/22

The OT concept that the nephesh departs at death (that is the person) is found in the Heb. belief of the life of the person continuing in the after life.
1Sam.28, Ps.16/10,Ps. 49/15, Job 19/25-27

The nephesh departs at death. The person departs at death. The soul is not some abstract thing that floats away at death. It is the person. The source of sin or righteousness in the nephesh not the body. The Bosar(flesh) is merely the instrument through which the appetites & desires can be expressed.

The eyes can express the hate love compassion etc of the person but can only express what is inside. The tongue will lie idle until the nephesh puts it in operation. Strong emotions like joy grief anxiety can be felt in the stomach region.

It is the basar that requires nourishment but it is the nephesh that desires it. Without the nephesh the basar would have no consciousness of these things. That it is the nephesh and not the basar that desires these things is shown in that the body loses all interest in them when the nephesh leaves the body.
Ps.51/6-10, Prov.20/9, Matt 5/27-28
Re: OT Theology # 2 Man [message #12489 is a reply to message #12374 ] Sun, 20 May 2018 18:30 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The spirit.

Gen. 2/7 The body plus the spirit makes a living nephesh.

a) Lev.17/14 The blood is the nephesh of the basar. The blood is the life of the body. Not the life of the person. Without blood your body would die.

b) The life of the person is not in the nephesh.The soul of the person results from the impartation of life to the body. Once it comes into existence it is immortal. After Adam it happens at conception. In the NT the soul always meant the life of the person or the person himself.

Spirit Heb. Ruach- spirit breath wind
In the OT the context determined which word is used.

a) It stands for the life principle. The animation in man and animals

b) It stands for disposition, temperament, attitudes
- Prov. 16/18 a haughty spirit
- Prov.29/23 a humble spirit
- Prov.14/29 a patient spirit
- Ps. 51/17 a contrite spirit
- Gen.45/17 a synonym for animation
- 11Kings 10/5
- Joshua 5/1 2/11 courage
- Judges 15/19 strength
- Isaiah 11/2 sometimes used for mental endowment
- Ex.28/3 a spirit of wisdom
- Prov.17/27 a prudent spirit
- Job 20/3 an understanding spirit

You have to make a distinction between soul and spirit but occasionally the spirit express emotions (anger,hate). The spirit is not the seat of the emotions and speaking of the spirit in relation to the emotions is to speak of ones temperament or disposition

When the spirit is used to express emotions it is used to express the attitude of the nephesh. It is the person who is angry but it can be expressed as a spirit of anger.

The spirit also stands for the life principle.

The spirit comes from God. He is the source Zech.12/1 Eccl.12/7 It is sustained by God. Job 10/12

It can be designated the spirit of life and thus it is the life principle.It can be expressed just as easily spirit of life as breath of life. Gen.6/17, Gen.7/15. It is translated breath but the word used is spirit.

Ezek.37/5 breath is spirit. Breath is just air and should be translated spirit. We're saying it is spirit not breath because at death the spirit leaves not breath.
Eccl.12/7, Ps. 146/4

The spirit is the life or animating principle. When it departs death occurs. The spirit and soul are to be distinguished because there are separate terms for them in OT & NT.

The uniqueness of man does not lie in the fact he has a nephesh. Both man and beast have a soul. Gen.2/17,19.
There is a 3/fold distinction.

a) Animals and creatures came into existence at Gods command. Gen. 1/20-25. Man was the workmanship of Gods own hands. He is unique

b) Man received a personal divine inbreathing.

c)Man is created in the image & likeness of God
Gen.1/26-27 2/18-20

There is a similarity and a distinction between the spirit that man & beast receive.

a) the similarity is both man & beast have the spirit from God ie: the life principle. Eccl.3/21, Ps. 104/21-30

b) The difference is the spirit imparted to man as a consequence of the divine inbreathing is not only the animating life but the divine image.
It is also the spirit of man is the seat of mental endowment and temperament. The spirit of man like God is morally oriented
Ps.51/10, Num.14/24, Ezek. 11/19,36/26
An animal has the life of God but in man it is the divine image.
Re: OT Theology # 2 Man [message #12490 is a reply to message #12374 ] Sun, 20 May 2018 18:31 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The relationship between body Soul & Spirit

The spirit comes from God so that makes it Gods. The soul comes from man so that makes it mans. The soul is the man himself, his personality, his individuality. The soul is him but the spirit is Gods. Eccl. 12/7

Man in not spirit but he is soul. As long as the spirit is united with the body the "you" is there. God is spirit man is flesh.

Gen.2/7 man is formed out of the earth. God breathed in his spirit and the result was a living person. A soul. Over and over in the bible the word translated soul should be translated person.
Ps. 23/3 Soul is me.

Man is not spirit. Luke 24/36-39. This was following the resurrection. In eternity Jesus was eternal spirit but following the incarnation he became and remains God and man forever. Is Jesus a spirit? No he has taken on flesh and bones even after the resurrection.

The life of the body is the blood. After the resurrection it is a spiritual body. It no longer requires blood. But it is a body. The resurrection body he had then is what he has now. The bodies of the saints who have died & crumbled to dust. somewhere a speck of that dust remains & God will use it to make a new resurrection body out of.

1 Cor. 15/42-47 a natural body vs a spiritual body.
Matt. 27/51-53, Heb. 1/7, Heb. 2/7, John 4/24

Man is not spirit he is soul. The soul came into existence by virtue of the union between the spirit of God and our flesh. When that happens an immortal being comes into existence which had no prior existence until the spirit met flesh. Adam was only clay until the spirit was breathed into him.

Once that immortal soul is created by the union of Gods spirit & flesh that immortal soul is no longer dependent on the flesh for existence. it will continue to exist but in an incomplete state.
Dan.12/2, Is. 26/19, Ps. 49/15

The spirit or animating life within man is Gods but once it is imparted to man the bible speaks of it as being mans spirit.
Ps.104/29, Job. 32/8,18 - for both man & animal.
Job 10/12, Eccl.3/21

The nephesh indicates that man is a conscious creature with personal life or personality, appetites, drives & emotions. The ruach indicates he is a moral spiritual rational & immortal being in the image of God
Animals have irrational souls but we have rational. They have spirits but it is just the animating principle or life force. In us it is the image of God. This is why men prior to salvation are like beasts. At salvation we desire the things of God.
A bull can gore you a lion can eat someone but they have no moral awareness of the act as they have irrational souls.

This is why the bible always speaks of the salvation of the soul in both OT & NT. Heb. 12/23, 1 Cor 5. speaking of the immortal part of man a synonym for the soul.
Re: OT Theology # 2 Man [message #12491 is a reply to message #12374 ] Sun, 20 May 2018 18:32 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Heart

It is the central physical organ of the body and as such its the focus of the life of the body. This is why it is referred to so much. It came to be used as a figure of all spiritual functions.

a) A synonym for the nephesh. Ps.51/1, Neh.9/8, Ps. 101/4, Jer. 32/39-40, Ezek.11/19

b) A judicial blinding as judgement on the wicked eg. Pharaoh. a hardening of the heart. Ex. 4/21, Joshua 11/18-20

c) It stands for the feelings and emotions. Duet.6/5, Lev. 19/7, Is 30/29, Ps. 25/17, Deut 15/10, Duet 28/67

d) It also stands for the will which is a function of the nephesh. So the heart means the person. 1 Sam. 14/7, 1 Kings 8/18

e) It is a synonym for the mind. The mind is the rational consciousness of the nephesh. The Hebrew unlike the Greeks & westerners never depicted the source of intelligence as the brain or head.
1 Kings 10/2, Prov.3/3, Ex.31/6, Prov.23/7, Ps.73/7
There is no word for brain in OT Heb. In modern Heb there is one as one is needed.

The varied uses of heart as shown here give more understanding into the nature of & function of man as a nephesh.

Deut 6/5 with Luke 10/27 Heart is a figure of the center of the person (emotions & desires) Soul is the whole person. Strength is all your vitality & power. Mind is all your rational processes. He is using a variety of expressions to show you must love God with all your being.

The inward parts

KJV - the bowels. eg liver intestines etc.
It became a synonym in the OT for the seat of the emotions (OT & NT) & a synonym for the nephesh

Its not just an arbitrary term because we actually experience our feelings and emotions in that area of the body.

solar plexus - Lords anointing and occult seems to originate here.
Jer.31/20 a figure for compassion
Is. 16/10-11
Jer. 4/19 distress
Son of Solomon 5/4 Lit. the inward parts - an expression of love.
Phil.2/1 KJV. bowels & mercies- Gr. inward parts

Belly - Job 20/20 - the seat of the emotions
Job 20/15 - a synonym for greed
Prov.18/8 - a synonym for the nephesh

Liver- As the heaviest organ of the body it was regarded as the seat of the heavy emotions. It signified that part of the person that became weighted down with heavy grief emotion and anger. The Heb. word for liver is the same as the adjective for heavy.Lam. 2/11 - a figure for sorrow
Ezek. 1/21

The neck is used as a figure to signify obstinance & stubbornness. An unyielding heart. A characteristic of the human race. Acts 7 - Stephen Prov. 29/1, 11 Kings 17/14, Neh.9/16-17,29

The significance of the bibles use of the physical organs & the flesh to convey moral spiritual & ethical truths is because man is body soul & spirit in an inseparable bond.

Note from Mark

This is not in my notes here from HEF. Just my opinion. I have long believed our bodies are a unified whole. Freeman points out that we body soul and spirit are in an inseparable bond. I believe the body is as well.

I think removing a part of the body or hindering its effective operation by surgery has an impact on us physically and spiritually. In other words removing an organ because of sickness or pain only creates a problem somewhere in the rest of your life. Gall bladder, hysterectomy, appendix, vasectomy etc. Our bodies are a unified whole. A vasectomy for eg means you lose part of your manhood. Even if you don't notice it. You can't remove a part of your body and not have it have an effect on the rest of your life. It will show up somewhere.

Also I'm not trying to condemn those who needed help and didn't have the faith or whatever and just went and got help. If I didn't have the faith that is what I would do. We need to understand though that there are consequences. ie a disruption in the natural life God gave us. If you're in the situation of having had surgery look to the Lord for restoration and for healing.

Re: OT Theology # 2 Man [message #12492 is a reply to message #12374 ] Sun, 20 May 2018 18:34 Go to previous message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 607
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
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Man in the Image of God

a) The purpose.

This term is ascribed to no other creature but man. Man was given this nature because it was called for by the divine purpose for him. Since the central purpose of God in making man in his image was fellowship with God then he had to bear some resemblance to his maker

b) Meaning.

The image of God is a synonym for the unique inner nature of man. It means he is personal moral ethical & rational. This is not said of the animals and can't be. The image of God does not mean he is like God but that he is in Gods likeness & his likeness is personal moral ethical and rational. The bible shows man is flesh and God is spirit. Man is not spirit but he is spiritual in his inner nature. Zech. 12/1, Eccl.12/7 Prov. 20/27

The image of God denotes a sacredness of personality unlike animals. Ps 8
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