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Old Testament Theology Outline [message #6441] Fri, 11 December 2009 16:06
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*This outline is a work in progress. Thanks for your patience!*

*Old Testament Theology Outline provided and written by Dr. Freeman at FA as a supplemental guide for the Old Testament Theology series.*

*These are not my personal notes. I am just transcribing them for this site. *



A. Reasons for the Study of Old Testament Theology

1. It’s Place in Biblical Studies

a) The vital distinction between Old Testament Theology and Christian Theology.

b) The relationship between Old Testament Theology and New Testament Theology.

c) The relationship between Old Testament Theology and the other Old Testament branches.

2. Its Importance

B. Definition of Old Testament Theology

C. Sources of Old Testament Theology


A. Revelation in the Old Testament

1. The Source and Purpose of Old Testament Revelation

a) Biblical texts

b) Purpose

2. The Critical Hypothesis

a) The origin of Israel's religion according to the Critical School.

b) The evolutionary theory of religion.

3. The Biblical View of Revelation

a) Revelation is supernatural.

b) Biblical revelation is a revelation of "facts" through historical events.

4. The Media of Revelation in the Old Testament

a) Revelation in nature.

b) Theophanies.

c) The sacred lot - Urim and Thummim.

d) Dreams and Visions

B. Inspiration of the Old Testament

1. The Fact of Inspiration.

a) The New Testament claims that the Old Testament is inspired.

b) The content of the Old Testament Scriptures indicates revelation and inspiration.

c) Tradition witnesses to the fact of inspiration.

d) The evidence of religious and moral experience.

2. The Character of the Inspiration of the Old Testament

3. Definition of Revelation and Inspiration

a) Revelation

b) Inspiration

c) The relation between revelation and inspiration.


A. Concepts of God or Supernatural Powers and Beings

1. Animism

2. Polytheism

3. Henotheism

4. Monolatry

5. Idolatry

6. Monotheism

B. The Divine Nature

1. God's Existence

a) Assumed by the Old Testament.

b) The Problem of Psalm 14:1

2. The Unicity of God

a) Biblical Texts.

b) The Critical View of the origin of Israel's monotheism and reply.

(1) The use of the plural Elohim in the early narratives.
(2) Monolatry characterized the earlier stages of Israel's national religion.
(3) The problem of I Samuel 26:19

3. The Living God

a) Biblical usage of the phrase.

b) The false gods.

c) Meaning of the phrase.

4. The Spirit of God

a) The term - ruach.

b) What is the "Spirit of God" conceived to be in the Old Testament?

c) The problem of I Samuel 16:14 and I Kings 22:19-23

d) Conclusion.

C. The Divine Attributes

1. The Holiness of God

a) The Terms.

b) The Non-moral usage.

c) The moral usage.

d) Conclusion.

2. The Righteousness of God

a) The terms.

b) The root meaning of righteousness.

c) Righteousness as conformity to a proper standard or norm is the basic Old Testamentmeaning.

d) Righteousness is not simply an abstract moral principle.

e) Righteousness is also expressed in judgment.

f) Righteousness and justice are two sides of God's holiness.

3. The Love of God

a) The terms.

b) The distinction between the terms.

c) Old Testament usage of the terms.

4. The Names of God

a) Significance of Names in Hebrew.

b) The meaning of the Divine Names.

(1) El.
(2) Elohim.
(3) Eloah
(4) El-Elyon.
(5) El-Shaddai
(6) Adhon
(7) Yahweh.
(8) Other names.
(9) Usage of the term ba'al.


A. The Idea and Nature of Man in the Old Testament

1. The Origin of Man

a) Introduction to the problem

b) The facts of science and the theory of evolution.

c) The three views of the origin of man.

d) The origin of the modern evolutionary theory and the weaknesses of Darwinism.

e) The refutation of organic evolution in the fields of Biology, Embryology, Paleontology, and Human Antiquity.

f) The refutation of theistic evolution.

2. The Psychology of the Hebrews

a) The body.

b) The nephesh.

c) The spirit.

d) The heart.

e) The inward parts.

3. Man in the Image of God

a) The purpose.

b) Meaning.

B. The Doctrine of Sin in the Old Testament

1. Man as a Sinner

a) The Biblical view of man.

b) The Liberal view of man.

2. The Nature of Sin and Guilt in the Old Testament

a) The Hebrew concept of Sin.

(1) The term chata'
(2) The term rasha'
(3) The term 'asham
(4) The term pasha'

b) The Hebrew concept of Guilt.

(1) The Hebrew term.
(2) The nature of guilt in the Old Testament.

V. Salvation in the Old Testament

A. The Hebrew Idea of Salvation

1. The Hebrew Terms

2. General Usage

3. Spiritual Usage

B. The Wrath of God

1. The Liberal View

2. The Biblical View

a) The Hebrew terms.

b) Usage.

c) The nature of God's wrath

C. The Doctrine of Propitiation

1. Introduction

2. The Linguistic Basis of Propitiation.

a) Greek and Hebrew terms.

b) Significance of the Hebrew term.

3. The Old Testament Concept of Propitiation and the Vicarious Sacrifices of Christ

a) The emendation of the term "propitiation" to "expiation" by the critical interpreters.

b) Weaknesses of the Liberal view.

D. The Doctrine of Atonement in the Old Testament

1. The Necessity for a Re-examination of the Doctrine of Substitutionary Atonement

2. Historical Theories of the Atonement

a) The Patristic Period.

(1) The Recapitulation Theory.
(2) The Ransom Theory.

b) The Medieval Period.

(1) The Satisfaction Theory.
(2) The Moral Influence Theory.
(3) The Merit Theory.

c) The Reformation Period.

(1) The Socinian or Example Theory.
(2) The Government Theory.
(3) The Penal Substitutionary Theory.

d) The Modern Period.

(1) The Mystical Theory.
(2) The Vicarious Penitence Theory.
(3) The Vicarious Sacrificial Theory of Horace Bushnell.

3. The Theological Meaning of the word Atonement

a) The English term "atonement."

b) The intended meaning.

4. The Subject and Object of Atonement

a) The object - sin.

b) The subject - God.

c) God as subject and object.

5. The concept of Imputation

a) The nature of imputation.

b) The Old Testament terms for imputation

(1) The terms.
(2) Usage.

6. The Necessity of Blood Atonement

a) The historical views.

b) The critical argument.

c) Reply


A. Angels

1. The Hebrew Terms

a) Mal'ak.

b) Bene elohim

c) 'abbir.

2. The Origin of Angels

a) The view of negative criticism.

b) The Biblical view.

3. The Old Testament Idea of Angels

a) Mediators.

b) Personalities.

c) Orders

d) Characteristics

B. Cherubim

1. The Hebrew Term

2. Etymology

a) A compound word.

b) A transposition.

c) From a cognate language.

3. Usage in the Old Testament

4. Description

5. Meaning and Function of the Cherubim

C. Seraphim

1. The Hebrew Term

2. Etymology

a) From Saraph, "fiery serpent".

b) From the verb, saraph, "to burn".

c) Egyptian etymology, Serref.

d) Arabic etymology, Sharupha.

3. Usage in the Old Testament.

4. Meaning and Function of the Seraphim.

D. Demonology in the Old Testament

1. The Se'irim.

2. The Shedim.

3. The Lilith

E. Spiritualism in the Old Testament

1. Witchcraft or Sorcery.

a) The Hebrew Terms.

b) Etymology.

c) Its practice

2. Divination

a) The Hebrew Term.

b) Meaning.

c) Usage.

3. The Necromancer ("Familiar spirit").

a) The Hebrew Term.

b) Meaning.

c) Usage.

d) "Familiar spirit" an inaccurate translation

4. The Wizard

a) The Hebrew Term.

b) Usage.

5. Magician

a) The Hebrew Term.

b) Usage.

6. Soothsayer

a) The Hebrew Term

b) Usage.

7. Enchanter

a) The Hebrew Term.

b) Usage.

8. Charmer

a) The Hebrew Term.

b) Usage.

F. Satan

1. Meaning of the Term

2. Usage of the Term in the Old Testament

3. Problem Passages

a) The serpent.

b) The spirit of evil.

c) Baalzebub.

d) The king of Babylon and the king of Tyre.

4. Conclusion

G. The Angel of the Lord


A. Mosaism

1. Essential Character of this Worship

a) Ritualism.

b) The place of the Scriptures in public worship.

2. The Place of Worship

a) The requisites for a place of worship.

(1) The Patriarchal period.
(2) The Mosaic period.
(3) The problem of Exodus 20 and Deut. 12.
(4) The locations of the tabernacle.

b) The arrangement of the Mosaic sanctuary - the tabernacle.

(1) General description.
(2) The furnishings of the tabernacle.

(a) Altar of burnt-offering
(b) Laver.
(c) Table of shewbread.
(d) Golden lampstand.
(e) Altar of incense.
(f) Ark of the Covenant
(g) Veil.

c) The meaning and symbolism of the sanctuary.

(1) Its three divisions.
(2) The sacred furnishings.

3. The Content of Mosaic Worship

a) The doctrine of sacrifice.

(1) The origin of sacrifice

(a) Critical theories of origin.

i) The gift theory.
ii) The magic theory.
iii) The table-bond theory.
iv) The sacramental-communion theory.
v) The homage theory.
vi) The religious-instinct theory.
vii) The Canaanite theory.

(b) Reply: Divine origin

i) The contrast between Israel's worship and her neighbor's.
ii) Logical considerations.
iii) Biblical considerations.

(2) The essential idea in sacrifice.

(a) Incorrect ideas.

i) A sacrificial meal.
ii) Self-surrender.
iii) Self-interest.
vi) A fine.
v) A gift.

(b) The essential idea: Vicarious Atonement.

(3) The definition of sacrifice.

(a) Incorrect and inadequate definitions.
(b) The problem of defining sacrifice.
(c) Suggested definition.

(4) Hebrew sacrificial terminology.

(a) The generic terms.

i) Minchah.
ii) Zevach.
iii) 'ishsheh
(iv) Qorban

(b) The specific terms.

i) 'olah.
ii) Zevach shelamim.
iii) Chattath.
iv) 'asham.
v) Minchah.
vi) Nesek.
vii) Shemen
viii) Libation of water.

(c) The prominent Old Testament sacrificial term: Kipper.

(5) The classification of the Levitical Sacrifices

(a) The national sacrifices.

i) The serial offerings.

(i) Daily offerings.
(ii) Weekly offerings.
(iii) Monthly offerings.

ii) The festal offerings.

(i) The passover cycle.
(ii) The cycle of the seventh month.

iii) The offerings for the service of the Holy Place.
iv) The extraordinary offerings.

(b) The official sacrifices.

i) The priestly offerings.
ii) The offerings for rulers.

(c) The personal sacrifices for the individual.

i) The blood sacrifices.
ii) The bloodless sacrifices.

(6) The material of the offerings

(a) Material of the animal or blood offerings.

i) Classification of clean and unclean animals.
ii) The reason for this distinction.
iii) Animals acceptable for sacrifices.

(b) Materials of the vegetable or bloodless offerings.
(c) The principle upon which the material of the offerings was fixed.

(7) The offerings

(a) Burnt-offering.

i) Text.
ii) Hebrew term.
iii) Meaning and significance.
iv) Ritual of the burnt-offering.
v) The continual burnt-offering.

(b) Meal-Offering.

i) Text.
ii) Hebrew term.
iii) Ingredients.
iv) Meaning and significance
v) The ritual.
vi) The daily meal-offering.

(c) Peace-offering.

i) Text.
ii) Hebrew Term.
iii) Kinds of peace-offerings.
iv) The ritual.
v) Meaning and significance.

(d) Sin-offering.

i) Text.
ii) Hebrew term.
iii) Purpose.
iv) Limitation.
v) The Law of the sin-offering.
vi) The ritual.
vii) The sanctity of the sin-offering.

(e) Trespass-offering.

i) Text.
ii) Hebrew term.
iii) The ritual.
iv) Kinds of trespass-offerings.

(8) The moral and ethical nature of the Levitical sacrifices.

(a) The problem.
(b) The Biblical viewpoint.

(9) The problem of the efficacy of Old Testament sacrifices.

(a) Views as to the efficacy.

i) Ceremonial efficacy.
ii) Temporary efficacy.
iii) Complete atonement.

(b) Weaknesses of the first and second views.

(c) The Biblical view.

i) The Divine promises.
ii) The problem of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
iii) Reconciliation of the problem.

(i) The two-fold efficacy of Old Testament sacrifice.
(ii) The two-fold divine purpose in sacrifice.

a. The revealed purpose
b. The hidden and future purpose

b) The vow

(1) The positive vow

(a) Persons and possessions.
(b) The vow of devotion.

(2) The negative vow

(a) Fasting.
(b) Nazaritism.
(c) Conclusion.

c) Nazaritism

(1) Text.
(2) Hebrew term
(3) Two types
(4) Requirements
(5) Breaking the vow
(6) Meaning

d) Purifications

(1) Ceremonial defilement

(a) Death.
(b) Childbirth.
(c) Leprosy.
(d) Sexual issues.
(e) Nazarite defilement.

(2) Moral defilement

(a) The trial of jealousy.
(b) Suspicion of bloodguiltiness.

e) The oath

(1) Its nature.
(2) Hebrew term.
(3) Kinds of oaths.
(4) Usage.

(a) Formal oaths.
(b) Informal oaths

(5) Signs of the oath.
(6) Sanctity of the oath

f) Theocratic taxes

(1) Male first-born.
(2) First-fruits.
(3) Tax for the service of the sanctuary.

g) Sacred seasons

(1) Designations of the sacred times and seasons.
(2) Biblical texts.
(3) Their significance.
(4) Celebration of the holy days.
(5) The Sabbatical seasons.

(a) The weekly Sabbath.

i) Origin of the Sabbath.
ii) The Sabbath in the Mosaic period.
iii) The Sabbath in the post-Mosaic period.
iv) The Sabbath in the post-exilic period.
v) The eschatological Sabbath.

(b) The sabbatical year.

i) Introduction.
ii) Meaning and purpose.

(c) The Year of Jubilee.

i) Hebrew term.
ii) Observance.
iii) Reasons for the Jubilee year.

(6) The Pilgrimage feasts.

(a) The Passover.

i) Origin and celebration.
ii) The first celebration of the Passover.
iii) The celebration of the Passover in later times.
iv) Mode and order of the Paschal meal.
v) The Passover as a "type".
iv) The Passover as a sacrifice.

(b) Pentecost.

i) Hebrew term.
ii) Observance
iii) Meaning of the Day of Pentecost.

(c) The Feast of Tabernacles.

i) Hebrew term.
ii) Observance.
iii) Later observance.

(d) The Day of Atonement.

i) Introduction.
ii) The ritual.
iii) The "goat for Azazel".

(i) Text.
(ii) Interpretations.

a. A place.
b. A person.
c. A verb used as an abstract noun.
d. The goat itself.

B. Judaism

1. The Origin and Meaning of the Term

2. The Background of Post-Exilic Judaism

a) The Political background

(1) The Biblical period.

(a) The Persian period.
(b) The nature of post-exilic worship during this period.

(2) The Interbiblical period.

(a) The Persian Period - 400-333 B.C.
(b) The Greek Period - 333-167 B.C.

i) The Macedonian Supremacy - 333-320 B.C.
ii) The Ptolemaic Supremacy - 320-198 B.C.
iii) The Seleucid Supremacy - 198-167 B.C.

(c) The Maccabean Period - 167-37 B.C.

b) The Religious background: The rise of the Jewish sects and the development of legalistic Judaism

(1) The names of the sects.
(2) The Maccabean revolt.
(3) The Jewish sects.

(a) The Hasideans or Hasidim.

i) The name.
ii) Their origin.

(b) The Essenes.

i) The name.
ii) Their origin.

(c) The Pharisees

i) The name.
ii) Their origin.
iii) The beginning of Legalistic Judaism.

(d) The Sadducees.

i) The name,
ii) Their origin.

3. The Literary Productions of the Post-Exilic Judaism

a) The Canonical books.

b) The Septuagint

c) The Apocrypha of the Old Testament

d) The Targums

e) The Mishnah

f) The Talmud

g) The Midrash

4. Other Institutions of Judaism

a) The Sanhedrin

(1) The term.
(2) Origin.
(3) Its function.

b) The Synagogue

(1) Origin.
(2) Organization.
(3) Function.
(4) Services.

c) Scribes

(1) Origin.
(2) Function.

C. Idolatry in Israel

1. Baalism

a) Introduction

b) The meaning and origin of the name – Baal

c) Forms of Baal used in the Old Testament

(1) Compounded with Proper names.
(2) Compounded with Place names.
(3) Compounded with other terms.

d) The Nature of Canaanite Baalism

(1) The pantheon.
(2) Form of worship.

e) Baalism in the religious life of Israel

(1) Origin.
(2) Baalism in the Northern Kingdom – Israel.
(3) Baalism in Judah.

f) The danger of Baalism to Israel came from two sources

(1) Its appeal to their lustful nature.
(2) In their transition from a nomadic to urban life.

2. Asherah and Ashtoreth

a) Introduction

b) The Goddess Asherah

(1) Name and origin.
(2) Appearance in the Old Testament.

c) The Goddess Ashtoreth

(1) Name and origin.
(2) Appearance in the Old Testament.

3. Conclusion


A. Introduction: The Nature of Old Testament Prophecy

1. The Biblical Concept

2. The Critical View

B. The Historical Development of Old Testament Prophecy

1. The Origin of the Prophetic Institution in Israel

a) Biblical text

b) Moses and the prophetic institution

2. The Literary and Non-Literary Prophets

a) The Pre-Canonical prophets

(1) The pre-Mosaic period.
(2) The Mosaic period.
(3) The period of Samuel.
(4) The period of the early monarchy.
(5) The period of the divided monarchy.
(6) The “sons of the prophets”

(a) Introduction.
(b) Origin.
(c ) Meaning of the term.
(d) Characteristics of theses groups.

i) Means of support.
ii) Dwellings.
iii) Dress.
iv) Behavior.

(e) Function and purpose.

b) The Canonical prophets

(1) The prophetic books.
(2) Their arrangement in the Hebrew Bible.

(a) The former prophets.
(b) The latter prophets.

c) The prophetess in Israel

(1) Their appearance in the Scriptures.
(2) Their function.

C. The Meaning of the Terms “Prophet” and “Prophesy”

1. The Basic Term for Prophet

a) Nabhi’

b) Etymology

(1) From the verb root: nabha’, “to flow, or bubble forth.”
(2) From the Accadian nabu, “to speak.”
(3) From nabha’ - translated “to rave”.
(4) The noun taken in a passive sense as, “one who is called.”
(5) The verb nabha’ is a denominative from the noun nabhi.’

c) Old Testament usage determines its meaning

2. Other Terms

a) Ro’eh

b) Chozeh

3. The Distinction Between the Three Terms.

D. The Prophet and His Relation to the Priesthood in Israel

1. The Earlier Liberal Viewpoint: The Prophets as Antagonists of the Priests

2. The Biblical View

a) The liberal viewpoint based upon misunderstanding

b) The critical view is incompatible with the Book of Jeremiah

c) The critical view is not in harmony with Hebrew history

d) The inner spiritual meaning of sacrifice

e) Other factors indicating a harmonious relation between the prophet and priest

E. The Function of the Prophet

1. The Later Critical Theory: The Prophets as Temple Personnel

2. The Biblical View

a) Guardians of the Theocracy

b) Messengers of Divine revelation

3. The Historical Situation Out of Which the Prophetic Institution Arose

F. The Prophetic Consciousness

1. Introduction

a) Meaning of prophetic consciousness

b) The Critical view

2. The Nature of the Hebrew Prophetic Consciousness

a) The distinction between the “nebhi’im and the Canonical prophets

(1) An argument from silence.
(2) The Canonical prophets were possessed of the Spirit.
(3) The pre-canonical prophets’ use of the phrase: “the Word of the Lord”.

b) Were the Hebrew prophets ecstatics?

(1) The nature of the problem.
(2) The solution.
(3) Problem passages.

(a) I Samuel 10:5.
(b) I Kings 20:35.
(c ) II Kings 3:15.
(d) I Samuel 19:19-24

3. The Inspiration of the Hebrew Prophets

a) The diffused consciousness theory

b) The corporate personality theory

c) The extension of personality theory

d) The Biblical concept of the prophetic consciousness – Divine Inspiration

(1) Biblical description of Divine Inspiration.
(2) Inspiration not a suppression of the human consciousness.
(3) Inspiration not a suppression of the personality.
(4) Apparent exceptions.

(a) I Samuel 10:ll; 19:24.
(b) Numbers 23.
(c ) John 11:51.

(5) Inspiration included the words of the prophet.
(6) Apparent exception – II Samuel 7:3ff.

G. The Predictive Element in Old Testament Prophecy

1. The Rationalistic View

2. Reply

3. The Place of Fulfillment in Prophecy

4. The Conditional Element in Old Testament Prophecy

H. The Distinction between the True and the False Prophets

1. Incorrect Ideas

a) Ecstatic versus canonical prophets

b) True prophecy an outgrowth of false

2. Biblical Tests

a) The true prophet spoke only in the name of Yahweh

b) The true prophet spoke only by revelation

c) The extrinsic test

d) The intrinsic test

I. The Language of Prophecy

1. The Forms of Prophetic Language

a) Plain language

b) Symbolic language

c) Figures of speech

d) Typical language

2. The Hebrew Concepts of “the Word of the Lord’ – “the Symbolic Act” – and “the Prophetic Perfect.”

J. The Cessation of Old Testament Prophecy and its Beginnings in the New Testament Era

1. Cessation in the Old Testament Dispensation

2. Beginnings in the New Testament Dispensation


A. Typological Interpretation – Its Justification

1. Type a Species of Prophecy

2. The Distinction between Allegorical and Typological Interpretation

a) Allegory

b) Allegorical interpretation

c) Typological interpretation

(1) Its basis.
(2) Its misuse.

3. The Distinction between Symbol and Type

B. Objections to the Typical Nature of Old Testament Sacrifices and Institutions

1. The Objection

a) Why is not their typical and symbolical character taught in the Pentateuch?

b) The reply

2. The objection

a) What meaning could Mosaic worship have for the people of its own day if the institutions were merely typical and symbolical?

b) The reply

C. Arguments for the Symbolic and Typical Nature of the Old Testament

1. The Mosaic Rites were Incomplete and Preparatory

2. The Correspondence between the Levitical Ordinances and the Sacrifice of Christ.

3. The Prophetic Testimony

4. The New Testament Evidence

5. Conclusion

D. The Symbolic and Typical Significance of the Mosaic Institutions

1. The Symbolism of the Tabernacle

2. The Symbolism of the Priesthood

3. The Symbolism of the rites of Purification

4. The Symbolism of the Sacred Times and Seasons

5. The Symbolism of the Sacrifices

E. The Typical Significance of the Sacrificial Language

1. Redemption

2. Ransom

3. Reconciliation

4. Sacrifice

a) Burnt-offering

b) Peace-offering

c) Sin-offering

d) Trespass-offering

e) Passover

5. Propitiation

X. The Kingdom of God in the Old Testament

A. The Sovereignty of God

1. Introduction

2. The Nature of God’s Sovereignty in the Old Testament

a) The meaning of God’s sovereignty to the Old Testament writers

b) The Biblical testimony

3. The Ground of God’s Sovereignty in the Old Testament

a) The omnipotence of God

b) The omnipresence of God

c) The omniscience of God

4. God’s Sovereignty Expressed in Creation and Providence

a) The Sovereign Creator

b) God’s sovereignty over nature

c) God’s sovereignty expressed in miracles

d) God’s sovereignty over history.

(1) The Prophetic philosophy of history.
(2) God’s sovereignty over Israel’s history.
(3) God’s universal sovereignty over history.
(4) The purpose of God in history.

B. The Old Testament Theocracy

1. Origin of the Term “Theocracy”

2. The Theocracy

a) Origin of the conception – Yahweh as King.

b) The vice-regency – Yahweh’s representative – the Judge.

c) The vice-regency – Yahweh’s representative – the King.

d) The vice-regency – Yahweh’s representative – the Ideal King.

e) The vice-regency – Yahweh’s representative – the prophet

3. The Purpose of the Theocracy

C. The Election of Israel

1. The Ground for Israel’s Election – Grace and Unconditioned Love

a) God is sovereign in His exercise of grace

b) God’s love is unconditioned

2. The Hebrew Terms for Election

a) The term bachar

b) The term yadha’

c) The term qanah

d) Occurrences of the term “election” in the Old Testament

3. The Meaning of Israel’s Election

a) Recipients of true revelation

b) Obedience

c) Reflection of God’s character

d) Preparation for the Messiah

e) A popular misconception

5. Conclusion: Did Israel Accomplish Her Purpose?

D. The Idea of Covenant

1. The Hebrew Term

2. The Origin of the Covenant Concept in the Old Testament

3. Token of the Covenant

4. The Nature of Israel’s Covenant

5. The Purpose of the Covenant

6. Types of Covenants in the Old Testament

a) Old Testament Covenants are of two types

b) The Book of the Covenant

E. The Eschatological Kingdom and the Messianic King

1. The Kingdom

a) The Two Types of eschatology in the Old Testament

(1) Revealed eschatology.
(2) Apocalyptic eschatology

b) Eschatological Views in the interpretation of the Kingdom of God

(1) Post-Millennialism.
(2) Amillennialism.
(3) Pre-Millennialism.

c) The Biblical View of the Eschatological Kingdom

(1) An eternal kingdom.
(2) A literal, earthly kingdom in its Millennial aspect.
(3) The two-fold nature of the Kingdom of God.

(a) A present possession.
(b) A future realization.

2. The Doctrine of the Messiah


A. The Meaning and Nature of Messianic Prophecy

1. The Meaning

2. The Nature

B. The Meaning and Usage of the Term – Messiah

1. The Hebrew Term: Two meanings

a) “To smear”

b) “To Anoint”

2. Usage

a) Literal anointing

b) Metaphorical anointing

3. Origin of the Concept of the “Davidic” Messiah

a) II Samuel 7 (cf. Gen. 49:10)

b) Psalm 2

c) Daniel 9:25-26

d) New Testament confirmation

4. Messianic names and titles in the Old Testament

C. Messianic Prophecies

1. Genesis 3:15. The Protevangelium

2. Genesis 9:25-27. The Blessing of Shem

3. Genesis 12:1-3. The Blessing of Abraham

4. Genesis 49:8-12. The Blessing of Judah

5. Numbers 24:17-19. The Blessing of Israel

6. Deuteronomy 18:16-19 The Prophet Like Moses

7. I Samuel 2:27-36. The Faithful Priesthood and Yahweh’s Anointed

8. II Samuel 7:11-16. The Eternal Kingdom of the Davidic King

9. Messianic Psalms

10. Messianic Concepts

a) The “Immanuel” prophecy – Isaiah 7:14

(1) The background
(2) Various interpretations

(a) The Virgin was Ahaz’s wife; the Son, Hezekiah.
(b) The Virgin was Isaiah’s wife; the Son, Maher-shalal-hash-baz.
(c ) The prophecy has a double fulfillment.
(d) The “absolute” Messianic View.

b) The “Branch” prophecies

(1) Meaning and usage

(a) Usage.
(b) Meaning.

(2) Denial of Messianic reference in Isaiah 4.

(3) The Branch in Zechariah 3 and 6.

(a) Critical view.
(b) Reply.

c) The “Servant” of Isaiah 53

(1) The nature of the prophecy.
(2) Critical and unbiblical interpretations of Isaiah 52:13-53:12.

(a) Introduction.
(b) Interpretations.

i) The Servant as a “Class”.

(i) The Nation of Israel.
(ii) The pious remnant.
(iii) The family of David.
(iv) The priests.
(v) The prophets.

ii) The Servant as an “Individual”.

(i) One of the kings.
(ii) Jeremiah.
(iii) Isaiah.
(iv) An unknown martyr.
(v) The mythological view.

iii) The Biblical View – The Servant as Messiah.

(3) The vicarious and sacrificial nature of Isaiah 52:13-53:12.

(a) He suffers and dies as an innocent person.
(b) He suffers and dies as an innocent person by divine appointment.
(c ) The character and design of the Servant’s sufferings and death are clearly sacrificial.
(d) The nature and effects of his sufferings and death are expiatory and substitutionary.


A. Introduction

B. The Day of the Lord

1. The Day of the Lord as Judgment upon Israel

a) The two key time concepts of the Old Testament

b) The teaching of the prophets

2. The Day of the Lord as Universal Judgment

a) The scope of the Day

b) The teaching of he prophets

3. The Day of the Lord as Deliverance

a) The problem

b) The solution

C. The Old Testament Doctrine of the Remnant

a) The Biblical Teaching

2. The Remnant and the Doctrine of Election

3. The Purpose in the Deliverance of a Remnant – The Kingdom of God

D. The Old Testament Doctrine of Future Life

1. Introduction

2. The Doctrine of Sheol

a) Introduction

b) Origin of the word – Sheol

c) Beliefs regarding the dead

(1) Burial.

(2) The family grave.

d) Sheol and the grave

e) The relation between Sheol and Hades

f) Sheol, Hades, Gehenna

g) The Babylonian Sheol

h) The Hebrew Sheol

(1) Inhabitants of Sheol.
(2) The state of the wicked.
(3) The state of the righteous.

3. The Doctrine of the Future Life

a) The critical view

b) Evidences of Israel’s belief in a future life

(1) The phrase – “gathered to one’s fathers.”
(2) Necromancy.
(3) Creation in God’s image and likeness.
(4) The tree of life.
(5) The sacredness or value of human life.
(6) Eschatology of Israel.
(7) The problem of retribution and rewards.

E. The Old Testament Doctrine of the Resurrection

1. The Concept: Biblical Texts

2. The Hebrew Idea of a National Resurrection

3. Individual Resurrection

a) The ultimate ground for the belief

b) Biblical texts

4. The Problem of Job 19:25-27

5. Conclusion

*Old Testament Theology Outline provided and written by Dr. Freeman at FA as a supplemental guide for the Old Testament Theology series.*

*These are not my personal notes. I am just transcribing them for this site. *

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