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OT Theology #22 Eschatology [message #12539 is a reply to message #6441 ] Fri, 24 August 2018 10:48 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Introduction

This refers to both national and individual resurrection. The critics play it down believing eternal life to be living on through your descendants.

There supposed to be two different types of eschatology.
1. revealed eschatology 2. apocalyptic eschatology

1/ Revealed eschatology This is the type of end-time prophecy which occurred primarily during the pre-exilic period before foreign domination. The prophet spoke clearly without reference to symbols.
Eg. Amos 1-2 9/11-15, Is.1 clear understanding

2. Apocalyptic This is a revelation of end-time events in cryptic language.
There is much symbolism hidden meanings, double meanings, visions etc. eg. Danial, Ezekiel

The problem with that is one cannot make any clear distinctions between the two types. eg Joel 2-3,Is.24-26 Both are pre-exilic yet apocalyptic. These two types are not mutually exclusive.



Re: OT Theology #22 Eschatology [message #12540 is a reply to message #12539 ] Fri, 24 August 2018 11:06 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Day of the Lord As Judgement upon Israel

A) There are two key time concepts in the OT

1. Looking back to the exodus as time of deliverance when Israels election was revealed Ezek. 20/6
2. The eschatological concept. Looking forward to the end times. Because of her sin and disobedience there would be a day of judgement upon Israel. The gentiles also and the salvation of a remnant.

B/ The teaching of the prophets

Obadiah 8456 BC. This was the first prophet to write about it. One has to keep in mind there are two time concepts in the prophets. The future judgement upon Israel and the heathen nations and end-time judgements on Israel and the nations.

Joel 2-3 are apocalyptic based upon a national calamity in chap 1. All the prophets use the expression "day of the Lord" or "that day"

Amos 760 BC Amos 5/18-20
Isaiah 739 BC Is. 7/17-23
Jeremiah 627 BC Jer.30/7,25/33, 46/10
Zephaniah 640 BC His whole message is the day of the Lord

[Updated on: Sun, 26 August 2018 12:47]

Re: OT Theology #22 Eschatology [message #12541 is a reply to message #12539 ] Fri, 24 August 2018 11:16 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The day of the Lord As Universal Judgement

Amos 1/3,6,9,11,13,2/1,2/4 The point here is not just judgement but universal judgement.
Isaiah 14,17,20 Ezek.30/3f
Ezek. 25-32 covers just about every nation of his day
Zephaniah - judgement upon the whole world
The point here is its not just judgement on Israel but upon all the nations and the whole world.

The Day of the Lord As Deliverance

The prophets said over and over again that it was a day of evil and destruction. But they also said it was for purging out a remnant.
Jesus also said it over and over. Narrow & few . . .

[Updated on: Sun, 26 August 2018 13:02]

Re: OT Theology #22 Eschatology [message #12542 is a reply to message #12539 ] Sun, 26 August 2018 14:43 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The OT doctrine of the Remnant

1. The Origin Lev.26/38-45
Deut. 4/24-31 30/1-10
The point is that God says at the beginning of Israel that they would sin and he would cast them away but he would preserve a remnant.

2. Pre-exilic period
It goes back to the time of Elijah.
1 Kings 19/10,18
God preserved 7000 Out of the whole nation only 7000 left.

3. Pre-exilic periods.
Hosea speaks of the national resurrection of Israel. Which will come out of the remnant which is left.
Ezekiel 37 vision of the dry bones.

4. The remnant and the doctrine of election
Rom. 9/26-29, 11/1-5 11/25-26 The nation saved is the remnant
A remnant has been preserved through history including some who were not elect to preserve Israels nationality.

Ezek. 20/ 33-38 The rebels will be purged out and the balance is the remnant. National Israel will be saved.
Is.6/9-13
Isaiah named one of his sons "the remnant shall return"
Isaiah 1.25-28 A remnant will be preserved out of the judgement

5. Isaiah places the time of the remnant to be delivered in the millennium. Is.11/1-16
Jer.23/3-6 The delivered remnant is in the time of messiahs remnant in the millennium.
Micah 2/12-13 4/1-7, 5/7-9
Ezek. 12/14-16,14/20-22, His day
Ezek. 20/30-38 the end-time remnant
Dan. 7/21-22,27
Zephaniah 2/9, 3/12-13
Joel 3/28,3/22 The context is the day of the Lord
amos 9/8
Malachi 4/1-2

The NT is Matt 7 - few and narrow

The Purpose in the Deliverance of the Remnant

The purpose of pouring out judgement and purging a remnant is so God will have a people to serve him when he establishes his kingdom. Without preserving a remnant there would be no more left

Re: OT Theology #22 Eschatology [message #12543 is a reply to message #12539 ] Tue, 18 September 2018 18:14 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The OT doctrine of the Future life

Introduction

The OT saints didn't have full light but had enough to have hope for a future life. In the OT death had profound spiritual implications. Death is abnormal and unnatural.It comes because of sin.
God is in control of death. It doesn't just happen. The sovereign God of the OT shows he has the power of life and death. Death in ending the physical doesn't end existence. The OT shows the nephesh (person) goes to Sheol. In Israel only the Sadducees denied this.
Re: OT Theology #22 Eschatology [message #12544 is a reply to message #12539 ] Tue, 18 September 2018 18:49 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The OT Doctrine of the Future life

The Doctrine of Sheol

Sheol - the place of the dead
Qeber -the grave
Bar -the pit

These words are often confused in the english translations but never in the Heb. Isaiah 38/18 is a poetic use of all three Heb. words.
Isaiah 14/15 Ezek 31/14-18,32/1-32 Bar designates the lower parts of Sheol (the pit)

Sheol - meaning - the place of departed spirits.
Is. 14/15 shows a distinction between Sheol and the pit which is in Sheol. The wicked are cast into the pit. some are cast into the deeper regions of the pit. The OT shows some nations were cast into the deeper regions of the pit depending on whether oppressed Israel or not.
Ezek. 32/1823,24 distinctions are made in the pit
One of the judgements on Egypt was it would lie with the uncircumcised. Egypt practiced circumcision as did Edom.

There are various segregations in the pit.
Ps. 88/16 the lowest pit
Deut 32/332 the lowest Sheol
Prov. 7/27 the chambers of death in Sheol
Is. 14/15 ,Ezek.32/23 The outermost parts of the pit.

Tophet - means a fireplace. From a root word which means to burn.
In the OT and NT Tophet was in the valley of Hinnom outside Jerusalem where Molech worship was conducted.
Child sacrifice was practiced here
11 Kings 23, Jer. 7/31-33, Jer. 19/4-13, Jer. 23/35
The Heb. word for valley was "Gai" The valley of Hinnom. Belonging to Hinnom was written Gehinnom
Jesus used the word Gehenna (same word)
Some apostate Israelite's worshiped Molech here After the exile
it became an accursed place and eventually became the garbage dump. Jesus pointed to that in the NT and along with Jer. 7/31-33
it became a symbol of the future destruction of the wicked
Tophet is a synonym of what we think of as a place of destruction or hell in the NT

[Updated on: Tue, 18 September 2018 18:49]

Re: OT Theology #22 Eschatology [message #12545 is a reply to message #12539 ] Sun, 23 September 2018 19:57 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The OT Doctrine of the Future life

The Doctrine of Sheol

Beliefs regarding the Dead

1. Burial It was indispensable to the Heb. because . . .
- of the fact that man is created in the image of God
- out or respect for the dead
- the Heb. unlike the Greek didn't divide man up. The body was not something to cast away or burn. Even the body of a criminal was to be treated properly. Deut. 21/21-23

To a Heb. lack of burial was a calamity. 11 Kings 9/10
Lack of burial awaited Gods enemies Isaiah 66/24, Jer. 25/33
1 Sam. 31/8-10 This was considered an outrage

2. The Family Grave
It was important to the Heb. It may not be important to me where I am buried but the Heb. wanted to be buried with his family.
1 Kings 13/22
Both Jacob and Joseph were to be taken out of Egypt and buried in Canaan. Gen. 47/30 50/25 Ex. 13/19

Re: OT Theology #22 Eschatology [message #12546 is a reply to message #12539 ] Sun, 23 September 2018 20:42 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The OT Doctrine of the Future life

The Doctrine of Sheol

The Relation Between Sheol and Hades

Sheol- OT term
Hades - NT term
In the NT they translate Sheol to mean Hades.
Ps. 16/10 Acts 2/27
The LLX always translates Sheol with Hades.

There are two interpretations of the relationship between Sheol and Hades

1. The Fundamentalist interpretation from the Schofield bible.
Prior to Jesus accession the dead abode in the pit or paradise (Abrahams bosom) And they were captive there. after Jesus ascension the unrighteous dead still go the pit but the saved go to where paradise is now in the immediate presence of Christ.
Eph. 4/8-10

2. Freemans View
Jesus reveals in Luke 16 that the righteous had always gone to paradise and were in the presence of the Lord. Nothing has changed in Sheol. Christ is just revealing the full meaning of paradise. The wicked go to torment in Hades andthe righteous to paradise in the presence of the Lord.
Sheol is translated Hades. Paradise never is.

Scholfield - Prior to Jesus ascension the righteous were in sheol At Jesus ascension they rose with him.

Freeman - paradise was always with the Lord even if it was called paradise.

In the NT the term Hades is synonymous with death and is usually used negatively. Bro. Freemans view is that no change took place in Eph. 4 as the righteous were already with the Lord.

Sheol Hades and Gehenna

The Ot and NT never confuse them.
Jer. 7/31-32 son of hinnom Heb is Gehenna

Babylonian Sheol- according to critical scholarship both Babylonian and Heb Sheol came from the same source. Babylonian Sheol is called ARALU. Its description is quite mythological.

Heb. Sheol
The inhabitants - both righteous and wicked - but separated

1. The wicked Ps. 49/14They are cast there as a means of punishment Ps. 9/17 Is. 14/15
They are punished with fire in the lowest part of the pit.
Their state is eternal with no hope of redemption.
Is.34/8-10, 66/24

The state of the righteous in Sheol
It is a place of rest and comfort 1Sam. 28/15
Dan. 12/13 rest and a future hope
Ps. 139/7-10 God was with him even in Sheol
Ps. 16/10 Prov.15/24 Is. 66/1-2 The righteous will not always be there

Re: OT Theology #22 Eschatology [message #12549 is a reply to message #12539 ] Mon, 24 September 2018 21:57 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The OT Doctrine of the Future life

The doctrine of the Future Life

1. The critical view
The critics teach that the Heb. did not believe in cessation of life at death but it could hardly be called life. All joy is gone, communion with God is ended, and all men good and evil must spend eternity in a dark and gloomy Sheol.
They quote vs like Ps 6/5 for eg. Yet all this vs is saying is that you can't serve God in the grave.
The liberals base this view on the corporate personality theory. That the Heb. idea of the future life was for him to live through his descendants because of his strong sense of family and nation.

2. Evidence of Israels belief in a future life

Our study of Israels belief in a future life will be shown by the concepts used below. The second line of evidence will be the OT texts themselves as covered under the doctrine of the resurrection.
The critics say that Israel had no hope of future life and where these concepts are used it is quite late in Israels history. The truth as evidenced below is that they did have a future hope and it is evident quite early.

a. The phrase "gathered to ones fathers"
This is not merely a reference to the burying of one in a sepulchre.
God promised Abraham he would be gathered to his fathers yet his fathers were in Mesopotamia. Jacob was gathered to his people yet he was in Egypt and they were in Palestine. Gen. 49/33 He was also buried 70 days later.
Num. 20/24 Aaron - his fathers were in Egypt so it can't mean just the land or a graveyard. It sometimes refers to this but it means he was gathered to where his fathers "are" ie: the spiritual dimension. So this very phrase implies belief in a future life.

b. Necromancy (the seance)
This was forbidden in Israel but some did it anyway. (King Saul) It indicated a belief that there were people out there somewhere or they wouldn't be trying to contact them. Samuel said to Saul he would be with him tomorrow yet Saul and his sons were buried much later. 1 Sam.28

c. Creation in the image and likeness of God.
Only man was created this way and this was for fellowship with him. If it was only for 70 yrs and then descend into Hades with no hope of that fellowship continuing would seem to contradict the reason for creating him.

d. The tree of life in the garden of Eden. If Israel came into the knowledge of a future life in the inter testament period then why have a tree of immorality right at the beginning.

e. The sacredness of human life
Great stress is placed on the value of a human life in the OT. They are careful not to take it lightly. Even an animal. They were not to drink the blood because it was the life of the animal.
The prohibition against murder and other laws shows the value of human life.

f. The doctrine of Sacrifice
A life is substituted for a life. Sin separated from God so why substitute an animal if it was only for a few yrs in this life. Why bother with all the rigorous system of sacrifice. The point here is one had to be restored to fellowship before death so it wouldn't be eternal.

g. The eschatology of Israel
This showed Israel believed in a future life. The kingdom of God to be established on the earth. The day of the Lord where the wicked and the righteous were to be rewarded.

h. The question of the teaching of the retribution and rewards in the OT.
This shows Israels belief that in a future time this would happen.
Is14/16 The king of Babylon. The other kings there mock him as he goes lower than they
Ps.49/15 The righteous will go the Lord
Dan. 12/2 A resurrection of the wicked to shame and the righteous to glory.
Ps. 9/17 a place of punishment

The translation of Enoch and Elijah shows belief in a future life.
The book of life

Re: OT Theology #22 Eschatology [message #12551 is a reply to message #12539 ] Wed, 26 September 2018 11:27 Go to previous message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 610
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Location: Canada
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The OT doctrine of the resurrection

Terms
There is no Heb. noun and 2 Heb. verbs
Is. 26/19 to arise - Heb. Qum
Dan. 12/2 Heb. Qits - to awake

The concept that God controlled life as well as death occurs all through the OT. God can deliver someone from Sheol and bring someone to life.
Gen. 2/17 God gave life but also gave the tree of knowledge which brings death. God gives both life and death.
Deut. 32/39, 11Kings 5/7 These show the common belief in Isarael that God can kill and make alive
Ps.18/5-6, 30/3, 71/20, 86/13, Jonah 2/1,6, 1Sam.2/6, 11Sam. 12/22-23

All these show the Heb. belief that
God can put in Sheol and deliver out of it. Raise the dead - resurrection.
There are specific instances in the OT where God resurrected people
Elijah and the widows son 1Kings 17/17-24
Elisha and the boy 11Kings 4/31-37
Elisha's great anointing 11Kings 13/20-21

The Heb. idea of National resurrection

Hosea 6/2, 13/14
Ezek. 37- vision of the valley of dry bones
Is. 26/19-21

Individual Resurrection
Ps. 49/15
Hosea 13/14 with 1Cor.15/53-55 Hosea teaches national resurrection but the deeper meaning is applied to the individual by Paul.
Is. 26/19-21 actually states bodily resurrection. Nations are made up of people
Ps. 16/10, 17/15, Dan. 12/2,13

The inspired NT writers show the OT saints believed in resurrection

Heb. 11/17-19 Abraham hope and faith was that God would raise up Issac from the dead. Abraham believed in bodily resurrection
Acts 2/27-31
Matt.22/23-32 Jesus refuted the Sadducee and showed bodily resurrection from the OT

Job 19/25-27 Job certainly believed in bodily resurrection

1Cor. 15/4 he died was buried and rose "according to the scriptures" What scriptures? Gen. 22, Ex.3/6, Ps. 16/10, Is. 53/10, Is. 26/19, Dan.12/2,13, Luke 24/25-27

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