Deeper Life Women
Home » Theological Doctrine » OT Theology » OT Theology #21 Doctrine of the Messiah
OT Theology #21 Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12525] Fri, 17 August 2018 10:46 Go to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 607
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
The Meaning and Nature of Messianic Prophecy

1/ The Meaning

That prophecy that predicts the fulfillment of redemption. The establishment of the Kingdom of God on the earth through the messiah. It is not limited to the prophets. It is also found in the Pentateuch, Psalms and historical books as well.

2/ The Nature

Messianic prophecy in the OT proceeded along two lines based on the covenant God gave Abraham. Gen. 12/2-3

. . . A great nation. This was pointing to Israel and the later kingdom of God
. . . All will be blessed. Points to salvation

Here is where messianic prophecy begins to take shape into two streams.
A. a glorious kingdom ruled over by a Davidic monarch
B. the messiah who is shown to be a suffering servant who dies for his people

A. The promise made to Abraham created the expectation in Israel for a kingdom and as the kingdom of God. This was heightened when Saul actually became king. The national conception of Israel as the kingdom of God. Then with David becoming king as a type of the messiah an even greater expectation came.

11 Sam.7 - God gave to David that his future son would be the messiah and establish an eternal kingdom.

With the ensuing disappointments of the kings after David ending in the destruction of Jerusalem and the exile the hope of a messianic king in their thinking and theology became the hope of a messianic deliverer.

You see in the NT in John 6 the expectation of a messiah who would come and rule over them and deliver them from their enemies. The point here is that deliverer was never in the original prophecy. When they came back after 70 yrs exile they discovered Zerrubabaal was not the messiah. He was only a man and their hope of deliverance wasn't being realized.

Joel 2,3 Amos 9/11-15, Haggai 2/3, Ezek.3/11-13, Neh.9/32 These all show a hope of deliverance. Neh.9/32-37 His prayer shows his (their) facing up to reality that the promises were yet to be fulfilled.

So their expectation was yet to a future kingdom. The prophecies over the centuries showed a king would come like David but greater and establish a kingdom like David but greater.

B. The other stream of prophecy shows a suffering servant who would come and die. Is. 53, Ps.22, Zech. 13/7

According to David Baron in his book on Zechariah the Jews couldn't reconcile these two streams of prophecy so they formulated the doctrine of two messiahs. Messiah ben Joseph who would suffer and die. Messiah ben David who would rule and reign. We know now that it is two advents referred to. Luke 24 fulfills the first advent and Matt. 24 fulfills the second.

On pages 136-145 of the deeper life book here is a discussion of Messianic prophecies and the messianic kingdom prophecies.

[Updated on: Sat, 18 August 2018 00:20]

Re: OT Theology #21 Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12526 is a reply to message #12525 ] Fri, 17 August 2018 11:08 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 607
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
The Meaning and Usage of the Term "Messiah"

Heb. Mashiach
Gr. Christos

It comes from the Heb. verb Mashach - to smear or anoint.

a. to smear. to smear (paint) a house Jer. 22/14
Isaiah 21/5 to rub (smear) a shield with oil to protect it. (from rust)
Ex. 29 2 to smear unleavened cakes with oil.

b. to anoint. It came to mean Jesus name.
There is a close connection in the OT between anointing and consecration.

To anoint is used in two ways in the OT.
1. the literal sense where men were actually anointed with oil signifying their consecration to some office.
2. the metaphysical sense used of those who have been called and set apart by God but not actually anointed

Aaron was literally anointed
Num.7/1 the tabernacle
Ex. 39/26
1Sam. 9,10,`16 Kings were anointed
1 Kings 19/16 Elisha prophets and kings anointed

Oil symbolized consecration and setting apart to God.
Jewish patriarchs Ps. 105/15 they are called anointed but it wasn't literal.
Habakuk 3/13 Iswrael
Is. 45/1 Cyrus is called Gods anointed
The Davidic king or messiah is called anointed Ps. 2/2, 18/50,
89/38,51 132/10,17 1 Sam. 2/10,35, Dan. 9 25-26

[Updated on: Sat, 18 August 2018 21:19]

Re: OT Theology #21 Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12527 is a reply to message #12525 ] Sat, 18 August 2018 20:47 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 607
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
The concept of the concept of a "Davidic" Messiah.

a. 11Sam.7 - speaks of a son of David to sit upon his throne but the language goes much deeper especially in vs 13,16

b. Ps. 2
vs. 2- his anointed
vs. 7- my Son
vs. 11- the Lord
vs. 12- the Son

c. Danial 9/25-26 "prince" establishes the fact that it is the davidic messiah

d. NT Confirmation
Matt.2/4, Matt. 16/16 Matt11/2, John 1/41, Acts 19/4


Re: OT Theology #21 Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12528 is a reply to message #12525 ] Sat, 18 August 2018 20:59 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 607
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
Messianic Names and Titles in the OT

Gen.16/7 The Angel of the Lord
Ex.23/20-21 The Angel
Is.63/9 Angel of his Presence
Mal.3/1 Angel of the Covenant
Ps.2/2 The Anointed One
Zech.3/8 The Branch
Josh.5/14 The Captain of the Host of the Lord
Is. 9/6 The Child
Is.43/15 The Creator (John 1, Col 1)
Zech. 10/4 The Cornerstone
Jer. 30/9 David
Haggai 2/7 Desire of All Nations
Is/9/6 Father of Eternity
Zech.13/1 The Fountain
Is. 41/14 The Holy One of Israel
Is.54/5 The Husband
Ex. 3 I AM
Is.7/14 Emmanuel
Zech. 14/9 King
Is.9/6 Mighty God
Is.59/20 Redeemer
Jer. 23/6 The Lord our Righteousness
Deut.32/15 The Rock
Micah 5/2 The Ruler
Is.42/1 The Servant
Gen.49/10 Shiloh
Dan.7/13 Son of Man
Is/9/6 Wonderful

[Updated on: Sat, 18 August 2018 21:17]

Re: OT Theology #21 Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12529 is a reply to message #12525 ] Sat, 18 August 2018 21:16 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 607
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
Messianic Prophecies

1/ The Protoevangelism Gen.3/15
This is the first prophesy. Women don't have seed so it must be an unusual event. Bruising the head is a reference to the cross and resurrection.

Gen.4/1 Heb. - I have gotten a man: Yahweh
It is a very popular view that Eve was expecting that their first child born was to be the deliverer that God would send.
Enoch only 7 from Adam was prophesying of Gods return. So there is no reason not to believe this what Eve meant. That this son was the messiah to come.

2/ The Blessing of Shem Gen.9/25-27
3/ The Blessing of Abraham Gen. 12/1-3
4/ The Blessing of Judah Gen. 49/8-12
5/ The Blessing of Israel Num. 2417-19
6/ A prophet like Moses Deut.18/16-19
7/ 1Sam.2/27-36 The Faithful Priesthood and Yahweh's anointed
8/ 11Sam.7/11-16 The Eternal Kingdom of the Davidic King
9/ Messianic Psalms Psalm 2 (22, 110)

Re: OT Theology #21 Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12530 is a reply to message #12525 ] Sun, 19 August 2018 20:09 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 607
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
Messianic concepts

A. The Immanuel prophecy Is. 7/14

The Background: Israel (Ephraim) and Syria want Ahaz (Judah) to join their rebellion against Assyria.

Various Interpretations

1/ the virgin was Ahaz wife. The son was Hezekiah. 11Kings 18/2 Ahaz wife name was Abi and the son was Hezekiah. They say Hezekiah fulfilled this prophecy because he delivered Israel from Assyria
11Kings 16/2, 18/2 When Isaiah gave this prophecy Hezekiah was 9 yrs old so not much of a prophecy to prophesy he had a son 9 yrs ago.

2/ The virgin is Isaiah's wife and the son Maher-shalal-hash-baz. They insist this fits the context of Is. 8. The reasoning is because "conceive" is a participle which has no tense it should read "the Almah is pregnant and have a son". It is present tense so it is Isaiahs wife.
- They say vs 16 shows the sign will be fulfilled in Isaiahs time and not the birth of Christ later.
- There is a definite article in front of Almah so it must mean someone they knew.
- The term Almah doesn't mean virgin but "a girl of marriageable age" There is a Heb word for virgin "Betulah"

The miracle then in this view is that Isaiah predicted a boy and not a girl.

3/ The virgin is a personification of the house of David. The answer to that is there is not a shred of evidence to support it.

4/ The double fulfillment view. This is held by some conservatives.

There is a virgin in Ahaz day who although married is yet a virgin (unconsummated) and will conceive a bare a son. but this is not a virgin birth. This would bring fulfillment as far as Ahaz day in concerned but the immediate fulfillment does not exhaust the prophecy. Its ultimate fulfillment is with the virgin Mary and Jesus. Some prophecy is like that. eg. Hosea 11/1, Matt 2, 11Sam. 7

This view says that not every detail has to fulfill both ends of the prophecy.

5/ The absolute Messianic view or Exclusive messianic view.

This is Freemans view and conservatives have always believed this.
It is entirely possible that Isaiah saw this as future together with some immediate circumstances in King Ahaz.

The prophecy cannot refer to a mere human child as his name (Immanuel) means "God with us" His name shows deity. Isaiah 8/8 Immanuel is God.
Is.9/6-7, 11/1-5 Some professor somewhere would have to teach you that these passages aren't referring to the same person because they are.

It is incorrect to say participles can't be translated into future time. There is not time in a participle but time is determined by the context in which it is used.

Is. 7/14 "shall conceive" and Gen. 17/19 "shall bare" The same Heb word is used.

If Isaiah was referring to his wife he would have used the common term for wife "Ishah" His use of the term Almah must have some significance. The use of the definite article with Almah points to it being significant. Both Ahaz and Isaiah had children at the time of the prophecy.

Is. 8,9 and Micah. No father is mentioned and that is very unusual in Heb. because lineage is always traced through the father. No father is ever mentioned in all the prophecies.

What significance could this sign have for Ahaz as it is several centuries in the future?

The answer is not any! Many signs had no immediate significance. eg Jonah. The offer for a sign was a valid one but Ahaz refused it and God used it for his own ends.

The meaning of the term "Almah"

Is the term "virgin" the correct term? The RSV and the liberals say this Heb term never means virgin and can designate a married women. They also say if Isaiah wanted to use virgin there is a Heb. word available - Betulah

Answer.
Every place Almah occurs the meaning of virgin can fit the context and it cannot be denied in any of the passages it is used.
Gen. 24/43, Ex.2/8, Ps.68/25, Son of S. 1/3, 6/8, Prov. 30/19
Gen 24/16 is Betulah Gen. 24/43 is Almah.
So Almah can mean Betulah. An Almah can be applied to one who is properly designated as a virgin.

If Isaiah wanted to convey the idea of virgin birth then why didn't he use the the term Betulah?

a. Betulah often needs some qualifying phrase to show virgin is meant. Gen. 24/16 Almah is never used that way.
Judges 21/12 Betulah
Betulah doesn't automatically mean virgin.

b. Betulah can also mean a married women.
Deut.22/24, Joel 1/8
It is not true that Almah can designate a married women. Betulah can but Almah not. There is not one instance in the OT or extra biblical literature where Almah is used to designate a married women
Where Almah is used it means a virgin or a young unmarried women.
The prophet used Almah because Betulah would have required some qualification.
Almah can mean a young women but it is always a virgin. Almah should b e translated unmarried damsel or virgin and virgin is implied in Heb. by saying unmarried.
The LXX translated it Parthenos which can only mean virgin. The HS in translating Is.8/14 in Matt. 1/23 used the Greek word Parthenos.

[Updated on: Tue, 21 August 2018 11:34]

Re: OT Theology #21 Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12535 is a reply to message #12525 ] Tue, 21 August 2018 12:25 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 607
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
Messianic concepts

B. The Branch Prophecies

Zech. 3/8, 6/9-13

Term: Branch. - Heb. Tsemach
Is.4/2, 11/1, 53/2 some of the terms are a little different but the same idea.
Is.5/1-2f, 6/11-13 these speak of a parable of Israel as a vineyard and only a remnant or root will be left.
Is. 11/1 speaks of a branch growing out of that root.
Is.53/2 now we understand why a root is coming out of dry ground.
Jer.23/5-6, 33/15-16


Denial of the Messianic reference in Is. 4
They say it is just vegetation he is speaking of

Reply:
all the references use the same Heb. term for branch and to mean Messiah. It is unlikely Isaiah would use it differently.
Jer.23 - the branch is called the king
Zech. 3/8 God calls him my servant
Is.4/2 the branch of the Lord
Is.11/2 the Spirit of the Lord will rest upon him. Its not a twig

Another view is the branch is the nation of Israel
Reply: it says the branch is for Israel

The Branch in Zech.3 & 6

The critical view is that the branch refers to either Joshua or Zerubbaal.
(Zerubbaal was the governor and Joshua was the high priest in Israel after the exile)

Reply:
- 6/12-13 "Behold the man" that eliminates Zerubbaal.
- priests cannot be kings and vs/vs
- both chap go together - in chap 3 they are being prepared for chap 6 - 3/8to Joshua and his fellow priests. They didn't have to understand what the sign was. The point is Joshua is being told he is a sign. He knew he wasn't the branch.


Critical view: 6/11 - is that the branch refers to either Joshua or Zerubbaal. They say crowns refers to Joshua and Zerubbaal but Zerubbaals name was dropped from the text. They say 6/13 "between them both" this refers to both men and Zerubbaal was simply dropped from the text.

Reply: crowns can simply mean a two tiered crown or two different metals like silver and gold. Only one crown was made and it was set on the head of Joshua.
All mention of Zerubbaal was not included in the text so that such a misunderstanding wouldn't take place. So we would know who Joshua was supposed to symbolize.

It is utterly impossible for a priest to be king.
It is impossible for Zerubbaal to be king as no Jewish man was allowed to be king from Zedekiah until now.

6/14 says to put the crown in the temple for a memorial. It wasn't even supposed to be worn.

Re: OT Theology #21 Doctrine of the Messiah [message #12537 is a reply to message #12525 ] Tue, 21 August 2018 14:24 Go to previous message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 607
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
Messianic concepts

C. The Servant prophecy of Isaiah 53

The Nature of the Prophecy

It is a transitional prophecy between the OT sacrificial type and the NT lamb of God. It is significant because it is the basis for NT teaching on the atonement.
Ps.22 Zech 12/10 speak of his sufferings but Is 53 is the clear passage
The importance of Is 53 to NT doctrine is seen in Jesus appealing to it right after his resurrection. Luk 24/25-26, Acts 3/18,26 Acts 88/26-31

Within Isaiah there are 4 servant poems:

Isaiah 42/1-9
Isaiah 49/1-9
Isaiah 50/4-9
Isaiah 52/13-53/12
Between Isaiah 40 and 53 servant is referred to 20 times

There are two general classifications or interpretations.

1. The servant is Israel or a remnant of it.
2. It is an individual

1. The servant is Israel. Between chap 40 & 53 the term servant is applied to Israel on numerous occasions. Until Pentecost the Jews believed Isaiah 53 to be messianic. After Pentecost they applied it to Israel. In the 19th century the critics picked up the Jewish view.

Israel and the critics believe the servant is Israel because :
a. Is.40-53 calls Israel Gods servant
b. Is. 52/13 - 53/12 depicts the substitutionary sufferings of Israel in Babylon.
Why?
Is. 40/2 Israel suffered and was cleansed and now is Gods servant to the nations.
When the nations view Israels double sufferings in the exile it moves the nations to repentance.

The biblical view is that Israel was punished for her own sins. Jer. 25/1-10

Jer. 15/1, Ezek.14/14,20 Because of their evil God said he would not honor the prayers of men whose prayers for Israel he honored before. The picture here is anything but redemptive suffering. The OT substitute had to be holy.

The servant is a pious remnant. Some say the servant is a pious remnant within the nation of Israel.
eg. The prophetic body in Israel because they always have and always do suffer
Some say it is the priesthood as a body. some say it is a group of Isaiahs disciples.

2. The Servant is an individual
eg.
- Isaiah Acts 8/34
- Jeremiah as he got a lot of suffering
- One of the kings

The Servant as Messiah. this is the biblical view

a. because of the objective statements made by Isaiah (42/1) it is unlikely he would have said this about himself.
b. Is.52/13, 15,53/11 The references there are to the future. That would exclude figures from the past.
c. His sinless character and the implications of his resurrection in Is.53/10
d. The nature and magnitude of his work as described in 42/4,49/5,53/4-6,7-12 go infinitely beyond any human figure.
e. The HS himself applies IS 53 to Jesus in the NT Matt. 8/16-17, Acts 8/32-35

[Updated on: Sun, 26 August 2018 14:46]

Previous Topic:OT Theology # 20 Covenant
Next Topic:OT Theology #22 Eschatology
Goto Forum:
  


Current Time: Sun Sep 23 07:31:10 CDT 2018

Total time taken to generate the page: 0.00920 seconds
.:: Contact :: Home ::.

OvercomersOnline.com is Powered by: FUDforum 2.7.3.
Copyright ©2001-2004 FUD Forum Bulletin Board Software