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OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12454] Sat, 14 April 2018 20:32 Go to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
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The Origin and Meaning of the Term "Judaism

The reason why we study this is because one can't understand much in the NT without understanding between the testaments. There is much in the NT that just appears without explanation. eg: synagogue, pharisees, Sanhedrin

The term "Judaism" occurs in 11 Maccabees 2/21,14/38. During this period (between the testaments) Judaism refers to the religion of the Jews as contrasted to Greek Hellenism.

The term in the NT is used to contrast non-christian Jewish religion with Christianity. Gal.1/13 Jews religion. The greek word is Judaism. Titus 1/14 Jewish fables. Gal 2/14 jewish customs

There is no word in the OT that can be translated "Jew" There is a word that is a persons name. "Yehudi" it means jewish or jew. A noun or adjective.
11 Kings 16/6, Ester 5/13, Neh. 1/2
The term comes from the kingdom of Judah. Jew or Judaism. Jew was originally a Judite from the kingdom of Judah. After the exile the name Yehudi began to applied to anyone who was a jew anywhere.

There is a difference between legalistic Judaism and classical Judaism. The point being that there is nothing wrong with Ezra and Nehemiah calling the people back to mosaic worship. This legalistic Judaism arose between the testaments after prophecy had ceased and there was no king and Israel was ruled mostly by priestly families.

Re: OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12456 is a reply to message #12454 ] Sat, 14 April 2018 20:56 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 560
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
The Background to Post-Exilic Judaism

The Political Background

1. The biblical period - under Ezra and Nehemiah

a) The Babylonian period 586-536 BC
b) The Persian period. 536-400 BC

536 BC the Persians allow the Jews to return to Israel
Ezra 3/1-7 Burnt offering is restored
535 BC the foundation of the temple is laid. Ezra 3/8-13
Ezra 4 for 15 yrs no more work is done
520 BC the work resumes under Haggai and Zechariah
515 BC the temple is finished
478 BC Esther becomes queen
458 BC Ezra comes as a teacher/priest Ezra 7-10
445 BC Nehemiah comes a governor and begins to rebuild the city
Neh. 1-7
433 BC Nehemiah goes back to Babylon Neh. 13/6
432 BC Malachi preaches
425 BC Nehemiah returns and initiates reforms

It is during this period the Jews have returned rebuilt their temple and resumed their sacrifices.

[Updated on: Sat, 14 April 2018 20:57]

Re: OT Theology # 13 Judaism [message #12457 is a reply to message #12454 ] Sat, 14 April 2018 21:10 Go to previous message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 560
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
The Political Background

2. The Inter biblical Period

a) The Persian Period 400-333 BC
b) The Greek Period 333-167 BC
- Macedonian Supremacy (Alexander the Great)333-320 BC
- The Ptolemaic Supremacy (Egypt) 320-198 BC
- The Seleucid Supremacy (Syria) 198-167 BC This was Anticanis 4th. He was the worst oppressor of the Jews until Hitler arose. He ruled over Egypt Syria Palestine after Alexanders Kingdom broke up. He tried to Hellenize the Jews.
c) The Maccabean Period 167-37 BC

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