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Old Testament Theology [message #6441] Fri, 11 December 2009 16:06 Go to next message
GWB  is currently offline GWB
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Its mark here.
I've been studying through my OT theology notes and putting them on my computer so I thought I would post them here as well. Using of course the excellent outline that Gillian has provided. My headings are slightly different then the ones she used.

It will take me a while to get them all up. Months at least.

*Old Testament Theology Outline provided and written by Dr. Freeman at FA as a supplemental guide for the Old Testament Theology series.*

I was moving stuff around and accidentally lost all the formatting. Sorry Gillian. All your hard work went for nothing.
Old Testament Theology [message #12282 is a reply to message #6441 ] Sun, 05 November 2017 13:09 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Reasons for the Study of Old Testament Theology

1/ Because of the vital distinction between Old Testament Theology and Christian Theology.

a) OT theology limits itself exclusively to the books of the OT
b) The interpretation and understanding of OT religious and theological concepts will be always from the point of view of the Hebrew mind in the OT dispensation. -you have to consciously avoid reading back into the OT your understanding of the NT revelations
c) OT theology is by its very nature incomplete as its full meaning is revealed in Christ.
d) The difference between OT & NT is not that the same truths aren't found in both but in the OT they are in a less degree of development. - the OT is as good an authority for a truth or teaching or doctrine as the NT if we don't go beyond that dispensations revelation.
11 Tim 3/16-17

2/ Because of the importance of Old Testament Theology.

a) The OT was the bible of the early church
b) The OT was the only religious document in the world that taught an exclusive monotheism. Duet 6/4
c) The ethical teachings of the prophets are still the inspiration and moral life of the church.
d) The OT was constantly used by Jesus and the disciples. Matt 4- he rebuked the devil with it. - he used the OT to announce himself being messiah- to authenticate his teaching
e) The OT saints including Jesus and the apostles never looked at the OT as a shape of things to come- it was adequate for the dispensation it served in.
f) The disciples constantly refer to the OT
- selecting a successor to Judas (Acts 1)
- explaining Pentecost (Acts 2)
- showing the sufferings death and resurrection of Messiah (Acts 3/18)
- extending the gospel to the gentiles (Acts 15/14-17)
g) The entire OT is a foundation to the NT
h) Jesus sacrifice is meaningless without the OT
i) The book of Hebrews can't be interpreted without the OT revelation of priesthood,sacrifice,covenant law,atonement
j) Much of the symbolism in the book of Revelation is built on Danial/Zechariah etc.
k) Other than the doctrine of the church all NT doctrines are found in the OT
l) The NT is the fulfillment of the OT
m) The OT lays the foundation for the incarnation and the cross
n) The knowledge of the OT enables the christian to reach the ideal laid down by Jesus in the Matt 13/51-52
o) Most the destructive criticism by the Liberals is against the OT. Undermining confidence in the OT weakens the foundation of the NT. It calls into question the validity of the new

Definition of Old Testament Theology

OT theology is the systematic study of the revelation of God through the religion life and history of Israel aw it is contained within the books of the OT

It is the Biblical Theology of the OT systematically presented.

Sources of Old Testament Theology

a) The canonical books of the OT
b) The Apocrypha
c) The rabbinic literature of post exilic Israel

Some of the theology of the NT was developed in the intertestement period. eg. Paradise – its not explained in OT or NT – the doctrine was developed during this period.

[Updated on: Fri, 10 November 2017 22:55]

Old Testament Theology [message #12283 is a reply to message #12282 ] Sun, 05 November 2017 13:35 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Purpose of Old Testament Revelation (Or Gods purpose in revealing himself to Israel)

1/Exodus 19/1-6

a) so they would be Gods own possession
b) a Kingdom of Priests
c) a holy nation

Exodus 19/7- rest of the book

Following a 3 day fast the rest of the revelation was given. It started with the 10 commandments ans went into the whole system of Law/priesthood/temple/sacrifice/substitutionary atonement.

2/ the means whereby a sinful and unholy nation or people can be cleansed and a fit habitation for God to dwell among them.

The Media of Revelation in the Old Testament

1/ Revelation in nature.

Many heathen nations worshiped the sun stars etc. its called nature worship.
The OT revelation was that the God of Israel stands behind creation as its author& sustainer & controller. He uses nature to reveal something of himself. His nature and his glory.
Duet. 17/3-5 11 Kings 17/16 Jeremiah 8/2 Ezek. 8/16

Deut.4/15-19 Nature worship is forbidden.

In the OT nature is designed as an arena for the revelation of Gods existence & glory. Ps. 8 Ps. 19/1

Job 38. Gods power is revealed in nature Ps. 138 Ps 104
Rom. 1 speaks of this revelation being perverted by man.

Natural or General Revelation
Psalm 19/1-2 This is a supernatural revelation of God to humanity. It speaks to every group language nation and person.
God has revealed something of himself through nature to man. It is quite limited as it cannot lead a sinner to repentance. that takes special revelation.
A person can look at nature and see there is a creator. They can see something of his nature ie. his goodness (he provided sun and rain) and his wisdom in putting it together.

God has revealed himself to man.

a) through nature Ps. 19
b) through providence Ps. 104 & Acts 14/ 13-17
c) through conscience
man perverts everything God gives him. Jer. 10 Jer.2/26-28 Isaiah 40/18-20

What is the value of Natural Revelation

a) a revelation of Gods existence
Isaiah 40/26,28
b) a revelation of Gods glory
Ps. 19/1, Ps. 8
c) a revelation of his power & omnipotence.
Job 38, Ps. 104
d) it leaves the sinner without excuse.
Ps. 19/1

2/ Revelation through Theophanies.

The word theophany comes from two words that mean manifestations of God.

a) nature theophanies. in nature form
ie: the burning bush. Ex. 6
piller of fire and cloud Ex.13/21-22

b) subjective theophanies
-auditory theophanies. Ex 19/1-3
-dreams and visions Gen 20/3 Dan 7/1 Isaiah 6

c) objective theophanies
An actual appearance of the Lord/Angel of the Lord Gen.16/7
The OT context where the Angel of the Lord appears always shows it to be a temporary descent to earth by the Lord himself for a special purpose.

d) The sacred lot - Urim and Thummim.
The Hebrew words mean lights & completeness. Some believe they were two square stones. They were worn in a pouch under the breastplate over the heart of the High Priest.
They were used as a supernatural means of determining Gods will on important occasions. God would answer the high priest with these. The words signify a full complete revelation.

We can't be 100% sure but it seems from the passages that Urim meant No & Thummin meant yes.
Ex.28/29-30, Num.27/18-21, 1Sam.28/6
They are not mentioned in scripture after David and were probably lost in the exile. Ezra and Nehemiah disn't have them. Neh.7/64-65

e) The sacred writings. Gods written word was a revelation

f) Prophetic revelation. God would speak through the prophets

Inspiration of the Old Testament

The New Testament claims that the Old Testament is inspired.
11 Tim 3/16, 11 Peter 1/19-21

Jesus came to fulfill OT scripture
Matt.1/22-23 Matt 8/16-17 Matt12/17

The OT itself indicates it was inspired.
Zech. 7/12, Neh. 9/30

In the historical books the technical phrase used to indicate inspiration was "The Lord spake saying"
In the prophets it was " the word of the Lord came to me saying"

Extra-Canonical writings indicate inspiration of scripture
The approcypha calls the OT the "Holy Book"
Josephus called the OT "the sacred Scriptures"

The divine / Human relationship in Inspiration is seen from several passages.
Heb. 1/1-2, 11 Peter 1/21, Zech.7/12, Neh.9/30

[Updated on: Fri, 10 November 2017 22:54]

Old Testament Theology [message #12285 is a reply to message #12283 ] Tue, 07 November 2017 19:00 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Concepts of God

The concept that there is no such thing as inanimate objects. everything in nature is alive. term comes from the word animate.

The belief in and worship of many Gods. Often the personification of nature.

The belief in one supreme God among many Gods. One supreme God for each nation.

The worship of one god among many

a) Idolatry - The personification of God in a man made object and the worship of it as sacred
b) Fetishism - any object regarded as sacred

The belief in and worship of the one and only God who as creator and sustainer of all things and revealed himself as Yahveh to Israel.

[Updated on: Sat, 11 November 2017 20:24]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12286 is a reply to message #12285 ] Thu, 09 November 2017 17:38 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Divine Nature

1.God's Existence

a) Assumed by the Old Testament.
Gen.1/1, Ps.14/1

The question of gods existence is not even raised in the OT. Prior to Moses leaving Egypt both Israel & Egypt believed in many Gods.
The question was . . . was there only one true God? That revelation came to them in Duet 6/4

-denies Atheism as it assumes the existence of god
-denies polytheism
-denies dualism (matter & spirit are both eternal)
-denies pantheism (everything is god & god is everything)- Gen.1/1 asserts that God is before all things and apart from all things.

b)Gods existence is revealed by him in Nature
Ps.14/1, Ps.8, Ps.104, Ps.135, Ps.33, Ps. 136, Ps. 96, Isaiah 40/21-22, Rom 1/18-23

c) Gods existence is revealed in the OT by his mighty acts
-judgements ie. the flood. everyone laughed until it began to rain.
-Salvation or deliverance -plaques of Egypt/Exodus from Egypt/parting of the Red Sea

Psalm 14/1 God doesn't deal with them at all. Just calls them fools.

2. The Unicity of God (or unity)

The Oneness of God was the fundamental distinguishing mark of Israels religion which set it apart from all the other religions of the world.
Deut.6/4, Is 43/10, Is. 45/5, Ex.20/2-3, Ex.22/20

a) The origin of Israel's monotheism

The Critical View . . .

Israels religion came out of polytheism. It evolved from polytheism to monotheism.

Reply . . .
As in the NT true religion comes as revelation. They didn't reason up to god.

b) The use of the plural Elohim in the early narratives.

The critical view . . .

The use of this term is evidence of their polytheistic background.

Reply . . .

1) the plural Elohim was employed by Israel not only of their one god but also of the individual deity of other nations.
- Moabite god Chemosh Judges 11/24
- Philistine god Dagon 1Sam.5/7
- Ashtoreth 1 Kings 11/5
- the golden calf Ex.32
- Moses is referred to this way in Ex.4/16 & Samuel in 1Sam.28/13

They used the plural constantly in a singular sense. Which they didn't have to do as there were plenty of other words to choose from.

2) It is unlikely that the writers of the OT who continually insist on one God would select a noun which carries with it polytheistic ideas.

3) The explanation has to do with the peculiarities of the Hebrew language. There exists in Hebrew certain nouns which always or only occur in the plural. Gen 1 heavens & waters. The words for old age and youth are both plural.
Why would they do this? Why do we do this? eg deer, sheep

The point here is you don't prove anything by pointing out that it occurs in the plural because a lot of others do as well. These are called "nouns of indefinite extension"or "intensive plurals"

"Elohim" A common name for god in the OT is a plural of majesty or excellence. It describes God as a being who is infinitely greater in every respect than man. It is describing his infiniteness.

"Adonai" another plural noun meaning Lord used of god and man but pronounced differently with each. It refers to a plural of majesty. Without exception where the plural noun "Elohim" is used of God the verbs and modifiers with it are singular.

c) The critics maintain Israels national religion in its early stages was monolatry.

The critical view . . .

The worship of one god over the land among many gods. A chief God over every nation. From this it evolved to a monotheistic religion.
Duet. 10/17, Ex.15/11, Ex.12/12, Ps. 95/3

Reply . . .

God is referring here to what the nations around Israel believe. They believe in other Gods so he is saying he is against them.

We have to make a distinction here between what the idolatrous Israelites believe and what prophets & pious Israelites believed. Not all Israel was saved. From the time of the Exodus to the time of the Babylonian captivity idolatry was a constant struggle for pious Israelites.

Israels idolatry & polytheism when it was found in Israel was inexcuseable for from the beginning of her establishment as a nation God said he was one. From the beginning of the nation the religion could not have evolved because it condemned polytheism from the beginning.
Duet.6/4, 4/35, 4/39, 32/39 Lev.19/4,

d) The Problem of 1 Sam. 26/18-19

The critical View . . .
"go serve other Gods"
Obviously David himself believed Yahveh was the national God of Palestine and in leaving there he was leaving the presence of God and maybe even salvation if he couldn't get back to into Palestine.

Reply . . .
David was only saying what his enemies said not what he believed.
You have to understand OT religion. It all centered around the temple or tabernacle in Jerusalem.
To be driven out of Palestine was in a real sense a limitation on his worship as he couldn't sacrifice etc.
Ps. 34. David was still praying and god was still answering him.

To say that God is one in the OT is not a mathematical oneness but a oneness of spirit- a qualitative oneness-one divine essence-a oneness of spirit-a oneness of nature or being. One divine Spirit eternally manifested as Father Son & Holy Spirit.

[Updated on: Sun, 12 November 2017 16:09]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12287 is a reply to message #12286 ] Fri, 10 November 2017 22:45 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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3. The Living God

a) Biblical usage of the phrase.

- A God who acts Joshua 3/10
- A God who speaks Duet.5/28
- A god who delivers 1Sam. 17/26,36-37
- A God who has existence Jer.10/10, Dan.6/26-27

The concept of the Living God" was so important that the Jew offered his oath by the life of Yahveh.
Judges 8/19,Ruth 3/13, 1 Sam.19/6,
The technical phrase was " As the Lord liveth"
The true destiny of the Jews was to be the "Sons of the Living God" Hosea 1/10

b) The false gods.
In contrast to the Living god the false Gods are shown to be utterly impotent & unable to help their worshipers. Therefore they don't live.

c) Meaning of the phrase.
The phrase Living god means the other Gods have no life or they have no real existence. It also means he is able to hear and answer his peoples prayers. Also that god is personal not just an idea or concept

4. The Spirit of God

Question . . .
What is the Spirit of God conceived to be in the OT in view of the fact that the OT continually stresses that God is one.

Would he be conceived as personal merely power that comes on man or wisdom that comes from God or is it merely the life principle bestowed on living things?

Answer is at the end of the Spirit of God section.

The Hebrew term - "ruach".
We are not looking at how it is used of God but only its useage in the bible.

a) Its literal useage - spirit wind or breath
- spirit Isaiah 42/5
- wind Ex. 10/13, Gen. 8/1
- breath Job 15/30,Lam.4/20
(the NT Gr. word (pneuma)means exactly t6he same thing. wind or spirit)

b) Metaphoric useage- A metaphor is a figure of speech to show a resemblance
- fortress Ps.91/2
- anger of fury poured out 11Sam. 22/16
- signifying the presence of God Gen.3/8

c)Its useage as a synonym. - one term used for another

Gen.2/7 breath here is a synonym for Gods Spirit. Breath of the mouth stands for the Spirit of God. All through the creation account God speaks as in a divine fiat & calls into existence.
The wind or breath as words of his mouth are synonymous with gods Spirit.

d) Spirit means "life principle"
The life principle in man & animals
Zech.12/1, Eccl.12/7

e) the term Ruach has reference to God himself.

Gen. 1/2 Ruach of God Isaiah 61/1
Isaiah 11/2 Ruach of Yahveh
Ps.51/11 the Holy Spirit
Is.63/10-11 his Holy Spirit
Gen 6/3 my spirit
Ezek. 26/37 my spirit

[Updated on: Mon, 13 November 2017 22:45]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12288 is a reply to message #12287 ] Sat, 11 November 2017 21:04 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Activities of the Holy Spirit in the OT

1/ The Cosmic sphere or sphere of creation

a) Gods creative power was expressed through his spirit by bringing order out of chaos Gen.1/1-2
b) All that lives in the has its life by the spirit because god God sends forth life by the Spirit Ps.104/30
- When he takes away his spirit they die. Ps. 104/29
- In creation & providence the Spirit of god is seen to be creator & sustainer

2/ In the Sphere of Life.- Biological & Spiritual life

Gen 2/7 The breath of life has a twofold meaning

a) the life principle breathed into man - the vitality or spirit of life. eg. life of the physical body
b) The image of God - that which makes man spiritual rational accountable moral
Gen 2/7 - it is not said of the animals Is. 57/16

3/ In the sphere of Human Experience or History in the OT

a) On individuals
In order to effect deliverance the Spirit of God was sometimes placed on individuals. Gen. 41/38-39
Num.11/16-17 Moses and the 70 elders
Duet 34/9 Joshua
Judges 3/10 6/34, 11/29, 14/6, 15/14
Judges 14 Samson

b) On Kings
1Sam.10/6, 11/6, 16/13-14 11Sam.23/2

c) On artisans
The artisans who built the temple and its furnishings
Ex. 31, 35/31

d) Intellectual understandin
Job 32/8 The anointing of gods spirit for wisdom and understanding

e) Prophecy

The agent of Gods word who reveals his will. The true prophets were conscious of being filled with the Spirit of god Micah 3/8, Zech. 7/12, Neh. 9/30
Ezek. 13/3 The false prophets were those who followed their own spirit. Num.24/1-2, 1 Sam.19/18-24

f) The Spirit of God could pick up a prophet in spirit and transport them 1 Kings 18/12,11Kings 2/16

g) Religion Moral & Spiritual life.

Religious emotions and moral influence were the result of the work of the spirit in the hearts of the Israelites. Influencing them toward good and moral behavior.
Ps.51/11, Ps 143/10,m Neh. 9/20,30

What is the "Spirit of God" conceived to be in the Old Testament?

a) 1 Kings 22/16-23- this early in the OT they were already seeing that a spirit was personal. the spirit of God was perceived to be personal as well.

b) The Spirit of God was not conceived to be a mere power or influence Zech.4/6

c) He is seen to be in the OT as God himself. The Spirit of God in OT thought is not an influence or power exerted by God from a point at which he himself is absent. But god is always present as the Spirit of God.
Is. 31/3, Ps. 139/7

Conclusion . . .

To answer the question originally posed the OT concept of the Spirit of God was that it was God himself who as spirit was present when the Spirit of God was spoken of in relation to the world.

[Updated on: Mon, 13 November 2017 22:47]

OT Theology [message #12290 is a reply to message #12288 ] Sun, 12 November 2017 19:07 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Divine Attributes

1. The Holiness of God

a) The Terms.

"Qadesh" Hebrew- to be set apart , dedicated, consecrated
The English word is holy. The derived meanings are holiness & sacredness. The word in the root meaning is sanctified or apartness.
The term for holy is used in a moral & non-moral sense in the OT. The term occurs in heathen literature as well.

b) The Non-moral usage in the Heathen cultures.

The term has a magical useage and designated certain places persons & objects as taboo. They were set apart from secular useage. In its heathen useage it referred to to things that belonged to the gods or kings that no one else could touch. They were separate or set apart.

In the bible the word Kadesh was a sodomite & a Kadesha was a prostitute. They were anything but holy but the word means "set apart" It is the same word as holy but it was translated according to its context.
1 Kings 1/24, 15/12 22/25, Deut 23/17

c) Ceremonial use of the term.

This is to be distinguished from the moral use of the term. Objects and persons are holy because of their association with the holy God. Because God was holy everything seen in relation to him was holy. Objects in the temple were holy because of their relationship to God. The Nazarite (Num.6/8) was holy because of he was separated & consecrated to God. His inward moral holiness was a completely separate issue.

d) The moral usage of Holy.

We want to to look at how it is used in scripture in relation to God so we can determine its derived meaning.

With reference to God it means " his otherness, his separateness,his divine transcendence"
1 Sam.2/2, Job25/4-6, Hosea 11/9

The term "Holy" so exclusively belongs to God it becomes a synonym for his name.
Isaiah 6, 40/25

The basic meaning is sanctify or set apart. In relation to God it must mean more than that as it is used of a God who is righteous & holy. Therefore the word does speak of his inner character. Lev. 19/1
So in reference to God it does have a derived meaning. Lev. 19/1
It says god is holy or set apart & then the whole chap. tells Israel how to be that way. Unlike all other heathen cultures the word in reference to god has a derived meaning in a moral sense.

Moral holiness in man is a prerequisite for fellowship with a holy God.Ex.19/5-6, Lev.19/1
This requirement enables us to understand the ritual & ceremony in the OT. Since divine holiness means separation from everything sinful (which includes creation as we know it) then that means God cannot have communion with man.

This illustrates the need for education in ceremonial holiness and moral purity. The OT ritual was not just something God gave as a substitute until something better came (grace) but the ritual itself taught holiness.

All the ritual ie: priesthood,sacrifice,separation was written to educate the people in the need for moral holiness.

Divine holiness requires God to separate himself from everything impure & unholy. this means god can't fellowship with man so he instituted the ritual so they could. To the pious Israelite it was educating him in the need for holiness.

ie: The ark was a sacred object. It was just a piece of wook covered with gold. but because of its association with God it became holy.
- the ark when in Philistine hands brought them much trouble.1Sam.4,5
- Uzzah touched it and he died. 11 Sam.6
- Some men looked into it and they died 1Sam.6/19-21

"Holy" places are those places where God has revealed himself or appeared
- Jerusalem Ex.3/5, 48/2
- Palestine Zech.2/12
- The Tabernacle Ex.28/43
- Temple 1 Kings 6/16
- Alter Ex.29/27
- The Furnishings Num.4/15
- Sacrifices Lev.2/3, 6/25
- Priests Ex.29/1, Lev.21/6
- priest clothing Ex.29/29
- first born Israelites Ex.13/2

Everything is Israel because of their association with a morally pure & righteous God was to be morally pure. Ceremonial holiness became a type of spiritual holiness.

The OT wasn't revealed as a substitute until something better could be devised ie: the NT. The OT has its place in the economy of redemption. the church needs to know these were types and lessons of spiritual truth. Isaiah 4/3

Holiness is to be the goal of Gods people. Isaiah 6/12-13 A remnant will escape the day of judgement.

Ceremonial holiness as well as spiritual or moral holiness will one day be restored in the millennium. It will be restored in its meaning as memorials. Zech.14/20-21

Does the term holy have the same meaning in reference to pagan gods as it does in Israel? Dan.4/8-9,18 5/11
In Egypt there was a god called kadesh. study mythology & you will see the pagan gods have reference to the term holy only in their root meaning of separateness. The pagan gods are guilty of all the sins men are.

e) Conclusion.

With respect to Yahveh the god of Israel holiness has reference to his moral purity, his inner character, his otherness which separates him from all other men & all other gods.
His uniqueness, his otherness, his moral & spiritual transcendence.

With respect to man it implies:
a)a separation from sin Isaiah 6/1-8
b) a consecration to the Lord Jer. 1/4-5

[Updated on: Sun, 19 November 2017 11:24]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12291 is a reply to message #12290 ] Mon, 13 November 2017 19:27 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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2. The Righteousness of God

a) The root meaning of righteousness.

The original root meaning in the bible is to be straight. In a moral sense it means uprightness. A state of being right.

b) Righteousness as conformity to a proper standard or norm is the basic Old Testament meaning.

It is the standard by which we are measured. Gods righteousness is his own moral holiness and perfection which is the standard for all men.
Deut. 32/4, Ps.11/7, Amos 5/24
The non-moral useage indicates it is conformity to an acceptable standard ie: righteous weights and measures
Ezek.46/10-12, Dan.25/15
Sacrifices of righteousness conformed to a revealed acceptable standard. Ps.51/19, Ps.4/5
Righteous conduct is conduct according to Gods revealed standards.

c) Righteousness is not simply an abstract moral principle.

To the Hebrew righteousness was a righteous act or event. Not something in the abstract. A righteous man performed righteous acts and lived righteously.
Ps.106/3, Isaiah 58/2, Ezek. 18/21-22, Gen 18/19, 1 Sam.12/7-8, Isaiah 1/27, Isaiah 47/12-13

d) Righteousness is also expressed in judgment.

In this sense it is expressed as justice. Gen.18/25 God is called the supreme judge. Righteousness is the standard by which he governs the world. It is also the standard by which he requires us to live. It will be the standard by which he judges the world. Ps.9/7-8

e) Righteousness and justice are two sides of God's holiness.

Justice carries with it the idea of absolute fairness based on a standard of righteousness. Righteousness demands absolute conformity to gods standard and justice visits all non-conformity with punishment.

The terms carry with them a sense of absolute fairness and in that sense it is his justice.

3. The Love of God

a) The terms.
Ahabah -love
Hessed- mercy or loving kindness

b) The distinction between the terms.
Hessed is always conditioned upon there being a covenant. Ahabah is unconditional love in the OT.

c) Old Testament usage of the terms.

Ahabah has only to do with the will of the one who loves. Either he wants to love or he doesn't. Thus it comes to be the term for election love in the OT. Its synonymous with grace.

Hessed is used to denote the attitude of loyalty, faithfulness & moral obligation which both sides of a covenant observe to one another. Hessed was the binding relationship in a covenant. It meant not merely love but steadfast faithfulness.
1 Sam.20/13-16
Hosea is called the prophet of Hessed in the OT. Hosea 6/4,6 2/18-19

[Updated on: Tue, 14 November 2017 19:26]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12292 is a reply to message #12291 ] Mon, 13 November 2017 22:50 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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4. The Names of God

a) Significance of Names in Hebrew.

Among the Hebrews a name was never merely a tittle but often descriptive.

1. Descriptive of the nature character, appearance, or function of a person place or thing.
- Esau- means hairy
- the dead sea was called the salt sea.-
- Eve was named after her function. mother of all living.
- Obed means servant

2. Names represent some relationship
- Simon Barjona- the son of Jona
- a spiritual relationship- Jedidiah (Solomon) means beloved of the Lord.
- geographical relationship.- Zerrubabal born in Babel(Babylon)
- pious parents would compound the name with gods.
Jo-el, Yahveh is my God
Dan-ial God is my judge
Eli-jah my God is Yahveh

3. Names may express piety, sorrow, grief,joy or hope.
Phinehas named her son Ichabod- inglorious
Rachel named her son benomi. son of my sorrow (Benjamin)
Isaiah -Salvation is of Yah or the Lord.

4. Names were sometimes give to express thanks, gratitude, or praise
Ishmael - God hears

5. Sometimes they were peronomastic. eg. a play on words.
Naomi- pleasant She changed her own name to Marah- bitter
Nabel- word means fool
Jacob- means supplanter

6. Sometimes names are prophetic.

Isaiah's children- Shearjashub- a remnant shall return
Maher shahal Hash baz - the spoil speeds and the prey hastens (quick to the plunder and swift to the spoil)- means their enemies would quickly spoil them.
One name reflected hope & the other judgement prophetically.

Hosea's children
Jezreel - God sows - means judgement
Lo Ammi- not my people
Lo Ruhamah- not pitied

In The NT the word Christ is the Hebrew Messiah- means anointed one.

b) The Divine Names and their meaning

1) El.
Translated God. A common name used throughout the middle east by Semitic peoples. Being a common name it is used of false gods as well. Ps.81/9, Duet 32/12
The word means "the strong one". It occurs about 300 times in the OT.
It is often combined with other words to make names.
ie: Isra el, Dani el, Jo el
When the term is used of God it has a definite article with it or an adjective to show it is God. That is not done with the false gods.

(2) Elohim.
Translated God and occurs over 250 times in the OT. It is the plural of El. The word means "the mighty one". It is aalso used of the false gods.
When used of God it has the definite article. Verbs and modifiers with it are always in the singular when the word is used to refer to God.

El & Elohim are used to refer to beings other than God. They refer to false Gods idols angels and men.
angels (heb. is sons of God) Bene Elohim Job 38/7
men (sometimes) because the divinely appointed anointing or position of authority Ex. 4/16, 7/1

3) Eloah
The word means power or might. It is found almost exclusively in the poetic literature. it is also used occasionally of the false gods.

4) El-Elyon.
The most high God or highest God. Its used by Melchizedek in Gen.14/8. The word "Elyon is an adjective which means highest or most high. Num.24/16, Duet. 32/8

(5) El-Shaddai
It means God almighty. It is derived from a verb that means to deal mightily. It is the name God used of himself with Abraham. Gen.17/1
This is the most frequently used name in the patriarchal period. Exodus 6/3 God told Moses that before he had only revealed himself to the patriarchs as the most high God or God almighty.

(6) Adhon
The word means Lord. You can drop the "h" because the "d" is soft. It is also the common word used of man in the OT. The word sometimes means master husband sir
-master - Ex.21/5
-husband - Gen.18/12
-prince - Gen. 42/10
-king - 1 Sam.22/13
-father - Gen.31/25
-priest - 1Sam.1/15
-Moses - Ex.32/22

Gods personal name was Yahveh. The Jews out of respect used the name Adhon. Where it is used of god it is always pronounced Adoni or Adonay

(7) Yahweh.
The modern Heb. word is Yahveh. This is Gods OT personal name revealed to Moses Ex.6/2.

Actual word is YHWH. Heb. as has no vowels. The vowels are added to make sense of the name. The dead sea scrolls for eg were written completely in consonants. Vowels were invented & added in the 6 th century AD by a group known as the Masoretes. Hebrew ceased to be a spoken language after the Romans conquered the world. Only scholars spoke it.

Out of respect the Jews didn't (don't) pronounce YHWH. They pronounced the vowels of Adonay instead. The question is though why would God reveal his name to anyone and not want them to say it. Thats false piety.
3000 yrs after God revealed his personal name to Moses a Catholic priest (about 1500 A.D.)put Adonay & YHWH together to from a name Jehovah. In Hef's opinion that is nonsense.

(8)The compound names of God

- Yahveh Elohim - I am the mighty One. Gen 2/4
- Yahveh Jireh - The Lord will Provide. Gen. 22/14
- Yahveh Shalom - The Lord is our Peace. Judges 6- Yahveh Nissi - The Lord is my Banner. Ex.17/15
- Yahveh Tsidkenu - The Lord is our Righteousness Jer. 23/6
- Yahveh Tsebaoth - The Lord of Hosts Joshua 5/14
- Yahveh Shammah - The Lord is There. Ezek. 48/35
- Yahveh Rophaka or Rapha - The Lord who Heals

(9) Other Names

- The Holy One Of Israel
- The King
- The God of the Heavens
- The mighty One of Jacob
- The Mighty One of Israel
- The rock of Israel
- The Living One
- The Great One
- The Glorious One
- The Eternal One.

(10) Usage of the term ba'al.
The word is sometimes used of God.It was mainly used to designate the Idol that corrupted the Israelites. It means Owner Master Possessor Lord

[Updated on: Fri, 17 November 2017 18:26]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12293 is a reply to message #12292 ] Tue, 14 November 2017 19:31 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Origin and Nature of Man in the Old Testament

The OT gives man a special place of value and dignity. Because in the beginning God created us in the image and likeness of God. In the OT man is portrayed with a vivid realism.
- in his 1st test he fails
- Cain kills Abel
- The flood because of evil
- Destroyed in Moses desert
- over & over sold into slavery in the promised land

The OT shows that man is not only what God made him but what he made himself : a sinner!

Terms for man

a) Adam the word means Adams name. It also has a generic use which means man or mankind. The word comes from a Heb. root that means red "Adom"
- Adomah- Heb. is land ground soil earth
- Edom red, soil earth. The area in the middle east known as Edom is all red sandstone

God made man out of the red soil hence the name Adam was given to "man" and when applied to 'that man" it meant his name.

b) Esh man masc. ;Eshah feminine. Gen.2/23

c) Esh- man sometimes used of God
man of war. esh of war.

d) Enosh ( also the name of Seth's son Gen. 4/26)
man or mankind in his mortality. -frail weak mortal subject to death. Job 25/6
Why call him Enosh? He is expressing that man is mortal.

This term Enosh is never used of the messiah in the OT. Dan.7/13 being the supposed exception. It simply means "like" the son of man. Identifying with us.

e) Giver. the opposite of Enosh. A strong & heroic man. ie; David Mainly used poetically.


This next section on evolution in the notes provided here I do not have in my notes. It was not in the original tape series. If anyone has notes on it please put them in. Or send them to me and I will put them in. PM me or email me.

b) The facts of science and the theory of evolution.

c) The three views of the origin of man.

d) The origin of the modern evolutionary theory and the weaknesses of Darwinism.

e) The refutation of organic evolution in the fields of Biology, Embryology, Paleontology, and Human Antiquity.

f) The refutation of theistic evolution.

[Updated on: Fri, 17 November 2017 19:31]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12294 is a reply to message #12293 ] Fri, 17 November 2017 19:26 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Psychology of the Hebrews

The OT is filled with references to the body and parts of it that have spiritual and moral significance.

The body The nephesh. The spirit. The heart. The inward parts.

The body.

Heb. geviggah
- Gen.47/18 used of a living human body
- 1 Sa. 31/10 used of a dead body

Heb. Basar. flesh. A more common term. This word lends itself to a more comprehensive use.
- Lev.14/9 it is equates with the body
- Is. 58/7 it can refer to blood relations
- Num.16/22 It is used of all mankind
- Gen.7 it is used of the animals

It also has a ethical and moral usage in the OT. This is where Paul got his idea of flesh vs spirit. The moral useage of the term Basar is seen in ceremonial defilement.

Ceremonial defilement resulted from
- various diseases
- touching a dead body
- women in childbirth
- etc

For any of these things a sin offering had to be offered. In Gods sight it was a defilement of the spirit & hence the sin offering.
This is the basis of Pauls teaching in the NT on flesh vs spirit. External purification was symbolic of internal cleansing. The moral defilement of the body was seen in the fact that a sin offering was required to be offered.
Lev. 12, Lev 14 Num.6


Why did a sin offering have to be offered for ceremonial defilement?

a) All disobedience even disobedience to levitical law was sin. It wasn't ceremonial uncleanness. It was disobedience to God's revealed will.

b) Man as flesh is mortal creaturely & impure. All manner of disease, sexual emission, touching the dead etc. tended to emphasize man's mortality and impurity in his basic form. To the Hebrews these things along with ceremonial defilement eventually brought a natural relationship between them and mans natural corruption.

c) Man is flesh in contrast to a holy righteous God was sinful and impure and could not come into the presence of God. The blood of the sacrifice provided a covering for the person who had sinned (ceremonially or otherwise)so they could come back into fellowship with God.

Jer.17/5 11 Chron. 32/8 Is. 31/3
flesh is used all through the bible as more than a word meaning the body. Gen.6/3,12-13 Job 10/4 Ps.78/39

Moral & ethical uses of the word flesh. There is often a relationship beteen sickness and sin
- Ps.103/3- a direct relationship between sickness & forgiveness.
- Deut.28 sickness in the body is a direct result of sin.
- Jesus said to the man at the pool of Siloam- go and sin no more
- James 5- confess your sins and be healed
= 1 Cor.11 communion
- Ps.78/38-39
- Job 4/17-19 mans moral impurity & the flesh are equated

Sin is not in the flesh but in the heart. Flesh becomes a figure for the carnal man, the worldly man, unregenerate man or the normal appetites when allowed to run wild.

The Hebrew did not divide the body up as body soul & spirit like the Greeks. A man "is" body soul & spirit but he doesn't "have" a body a soul a spirit. The Hebrews saw man as a unit Ge. 2/7. A living being came alive when God breathed in the spirit and he became a living soul.

To the Hebrew he could understand why Adams body had to die when he sinned. When you divide body & spirit something unnatural occurs ie: death. This is why the NT calls the gospel the resurrection of the body. The Hebrew concept of the unity of man emphasizes the truth that there is an inseparable relationship between the body and spirit.
Rom. 5/12,Rom.7/18

It is significant that in the OT sickness is viewed as defilement and a sin offering had to be offered for certain diseases. touching a dead body, leprosy, childbirth, etc. signified that man was a sinner.

[Updated on: Sun, 19 November 2017 13:24]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12295 is a reply to message #12294 ] Fri, 17 November 2017 19:46 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Nephesh or Soul

The word is translated as soul, life, self, person, emotion, or appetite

The Greek word is Psuche (used in the Septuagint) The Hebrew writing this NT Greek saw this word the same as the to word Nephesh.There is a difference between NT Greek and Greek philosophical thought.

OT uses of the word.

The Life the self the person and as consequence of that means the seat of the emotions appetites & desires. The soul is never to be thought of as an entity apart from the person himself. In the OT at death it is the person or personality that survives as the nephesh.

1/ the life or self or person

a) it is used of the inner being of man or the immortal part of man as distinguished from his flesh. It is not something just stuck inside.
Is.10/18, Deut.12/23, Job 14/22

Ps. 16/10 Its often said in the OT that the soul is delivered from death. Acts 2- Jesus. The body was in the grave and the desire was to have the soul delivered from death.

b) The nephesh is the life of the person.
Ex. 21/23, 11Sam.23/17
Jonah 1/14 Heb. word here is nephesh but it properly translated life.
Lev.17/11 the life process.

c) It is a synonym for the person
- Gen.49/6 me
- Ps.25/13 he
- Ps.124/7 we
- all have a pronoun attached to word nephesh.
- Job 9/21 myself
- Duet.4/9 thyself
Gen. 2/7 We were created out of dust with spirit breathed into us and the result was a living soul.

2/ Nephesh stands for the source of the emotions appetites & desires.
- Ps.107/9 hunger
- Deut. 12/20 desire
- Lev.26/11 loathing or abhorring
- Jer. 13/17
- Gen.42/21 anguish
- Ps. 35/9 joy
- Son of Sol. 1/7 love
-b Ps 11/5 hate

The soul is sometimes said to be one of the functions of rational personality ie: capable of mental acts. almost a synonym for the mind.
- Ester 4/13 soul meaning mind
- Ps. 19/2 Knowledge- mind

That the nephesh signifies the life or the person is seen in the OT concept of the state of the nephesh after death. It is the nephesh that leaves the body at death but it is the life of the person thats leaving. The Heb went onto say that the nephesh survived and would one day be restored to normal personality with a body.
Gen.35/18 at death the nephesh left the body. 1King 17/22

The OT concept that the nephesh departs at death (that is the person) is found in the Heb. belief of the life of the person continuing in the after life.
1Sam.28, Ps.16/10,Ps. 49/15, Job 19/25-27

The nephesh departs at death. The person departs at death. The soul is not some abstract thing that floats away at death. It is the person. The source of sin or righteousness in the nephesh not the body. The Bosar(flesh) is merely the instrument through which the appetites & desires can be expressed.

The eyes can express the hate love compassion etc of the person but can only express what is inside. The tongue will lie idle until the nephesh puts it in operation. Strong emotions like joy grief anxiety can be felt in the stomach region.

It is the basar that requires nourishment but it is the nephesh that desires it. Without the nephesh the basar would have no consciousness of these things. That it is the nephesh and not the basar that desires these things is shown in that the body loses all interest in them when the nephesh leaves the body.
Ps.51/6-10, Prov.20/9, Matt 5/27-28

[Updated on: Sun, 19 November 2017 15:53]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12296 is a reply to message #12295 ] Sun, 19 November 2017 13:25 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The spirit.

Gen. 2/7 The body plus the spirit makes a living nephesh.

a) Lev.17/14 The blood is the nephesh of the basar. The blood is the life of the body. Not the life of the person. Without blood your body would die.

b) The life of the person is not in the nephesh.The soul of the person results from the impartation of life to the body. Once it comes into existence it is immortal. After Adam it happens at conception. In the NT the soul always meant the life of the person or the person himself.

Spirit Heb. Ruach- spirit breath wind
In the OT the context determined which word is used.

a) It stands for the life principle. The animation in man and animals

b) It stands for disposition, temperament, attitudes
- Prov. 16/18 a haughty spirit
- Prov.29/23 a humble spirit
- Prov.14/29 a patient spirit
- Ps. 51/17 a contrite spirit
- Gen.45/17 a synonym for animation
- 11Kings 10/5
- Joshua 5/1 2/11 courage
- Judges 15/19 strength
- Isaiah 11/2 sometimes used for mental endowment
- Ex.28/3 a spirit of wisdom
- Prov.17/27 a prudent spirit
- Job 20/3 an understanding spirit

You have to make a distinction between soul and spirit but occasionally the spirit express emotions (anger,hate). The spirit is not the seat of the emotions and speaking of the spirit in relation to the emotions is to speak of ones temperament or disposition

When the spirit is used to express emotions it is used to express the attitude of the nephesh. It is the person who is angry but it can be expressed as a spirit of anger.

The spirit also stands for the life principle.

The spirit comes from God. He is the source Zech.12/1 Eccl.12/7 It is sustained by God. Job 10/12

It can be designated the spirit of life and thus it is the life principle.It can be expressed just as easily spirit of life as breath of life. Gen.6/17, Gen.7/15. It is translated breath but the word used is spirit.

Ezek.37/5 breath is spirit. Breath is just air and should be translated spirit. We're saying it is spirit not breath because at death the spirit leaves not breath.
Eccl.12/7, Ps. 146/4

The spirit is the life or animating principle. When it departs death occurs. The spirit and soul are to be distinguished because there are separate terms for them in OT & NT.

The uniqueness of man does not lie in the fact he has a nephesh. Both man and beast have a soul. Gen.2/17,19.
There is a 3/fold distinction.

a) Animals and creatures came into existence at Gods command. Gen. 1/20-25. Man was the workmanship of Gods own hands. He is unique

b) Man received a personal divine inbreathing.

c)Man is created in the image & likeness of God
Gen.1/26-27 2/18-20

There is a similarity and a distinction between the spirit that man & beast receive.

a) the similarity is both man & beast have the spirit from God ie: the life principle. Eccl.3/21, Ps. 104/21-30

b) The difference is the spirit imparted to man as a consequence of the divine inbreathing is not only the animating life but the divine image.
It is also the spirit of man is the seat of mental endowment and temperament. The spirit of man like God is morally oriented
Ps.51/10, Num.14/24, Ezek. 11/19,36/26
An animal has the life of God but in man it is the divine image.

[Updated on: Fri, 24 November 2017 09:23]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12297 is a reply to message #12296 ] Mon, 20 November 2017 10:35 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The relationship between body Soul & Spirit

The spirit comes from God so that makes it Gods. The soul comes from man so that makes it mans. The soul is the man himself, his personality, his individuality. The soul is him but the spirit is Gods. Eccl. 12/7

Man in not spirit but he is soul. As long as the spirit is united with the body the "you" is there. God is spirit man is flesh.

Gen.2/7 man is formed out of the earth. God breathed in his spirit and the result was a living person. A soul. Over and over in the bible the word translated soul should be translated person.
Ps. 23/3 Soul is me.

Man is not spirit. Luke 24/36-39. This was following the resurrection. In eternity Jesus was eternal spirit but following the incarnation he became and remains God and man forever. Is Jesus a spirit? No he has taken on flesh and bones even after the resurrection.

The life of the body is the blood. After the resurrection it is a spiritual body. It no longer requires blood. But it is a body. The resurrection body he had then is what he has now. The bodies of the saints who have died & crumbled to dust. somewhere a speck of that dust remains & God will use it to make a new resurrection body out of.

1 Cor. 15/42-47 a natural body vs a spiritual body.
Matt. 27/51-53, Heb. 1/7, Heb. 2/7, John 4/24

Man is not spirit he is soul. The soul came into existence by virtue of the union between the spirit of God and our flesh. When that happens an immortal being comes into existence which had no prior existence until the spirit met flesh. Adam was only clay until the spirit was breathed into him.

Once that immortal soul is created by the union of Gods spirit & flesh that immortal soul is no longer dependent on the flesh for existence. it will continue to exist but in an incomplete state.
Dan.12/2, Is. 26/19, Ps. 49/15

The spirit or animating life within man is Gods but once it is imparted to man the bible speaks of it as being mans spirit.
Ps.104/29, Job. 32/8,18 - for both man & animal.
Job 10/12, Eccl.3/21

The nephesh indicates that man is a conscious creature with personal life or personality, appetites, drives & emotions. The ruach indicates he is a moral spiritual rational & immortal being in the image of God
Animals have irrational souls but we have rational. They have spirits but it is just the animating principle or life force. In us it is the image of God. This is why men prior to salvation are like beasts. At salvation we desire the things of God.
A bull can gore you a lion can eat someone but they have no moral awareness of the act as they have irrational souls.

This is why the bible always speaks of the salvation of the soul in both OT & NT. Heb. 12/23, 1 Cor 5. speaking of the immortal part of man a synonym for the soul.

[Updated on: Sat, 25 November 2017 19:22]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12298 is a reply to message #12297 ] Fri, 24 November 2017 09:21 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Heart

It is the central physical organ of the body and as such its the focus of the life of the body. This is why it is referred to so much. It came to be used as a figure of all spiritual functions.

a) A synonym for the nephesh. Ps.51/1, Neh.9/8, Ps. 101/4, Jer. 32/39-40, Ezek.11/19

b) A judicial blinding as judgement on the wicked eg. Pharaoh. a hardening of the heart. Ex. 4/21, Joshua 11/18-20

c) It stands for the feelings and emotions. Duet.6/5, Lev. 19/7, Is 30/29, Ps. 25/17, Deut 15/10, Duet 28/67

d) It also stands for the will which is a function of the nephesh. So the heart means the person. 1 Sam. 14/7, 1 Kings 8/18

e) It is a synonym for the mind. The mind is the rational consciousness of the nephesh. The Hebrew unlike the Greeks & westerners never depicted the source of intelligence as the brain or head.
1 Kings 10/2, Prov.3/3, Ex.31/6, Prov.23/7, Ps.73/7
There is no word for brain in OT Heb. In modern Heb there is one as one is needed.

The varied uses of heart as shown here give more understanding into the nature of & function of man as a nephesh.

Deut 6/5 with Luke 10/27 Heart is a figure of the center of the person (emotions & desires) Soul is the whole person. Strength is all your vitality & power. Mind is all your rational processes. He is using a variety of expressions to show you must love God with all your being.

The inward parts

KJV - the bowels. eg liver intestines etc.
It became a synonym in the OT for the seat of the emotions (OT & NT) & a synonym for the nephesh

Its not just an arbitrary term because we actually experience our feelings and emotions in that area of the body.

solar plexus - Lords anointing and occult seems to originate here.
Jer.31/20 a figure for compassion
Is. 16/10-11
Jer. 4/19 distress
Son of Solomon 5/4 Lit. the inward parts - an expression of love.
Phil.2/1 KJV. bowels & mercies- Gr. inward parts

Belly - Job 20/20 - the seat of the emotions
Job 20/15 - a synonym for greed
Prov.18/8 - a synonym for the nephesh

Liver- As the heaviest organ of the body it was regarded as the seat of the heavy emotions. It signified that part of the person that became weighted down with heavy grief emotion and anger. The Heb. word for liver is the same as the adjective for heavy.Lam. 2/11 - a figure for sorrow
Ezek. 1/21

The neck is used as a figure to signify obstinance & stubbornness. An unyielding heart. A characteristic of the human race. Acts 7 - Stephen Prov. 29/1, 11 Kings 17/14, Neh.9/16-17,29

The significance of the bibles use of the physical organs & the flesh to convey moral spiritual & ethical truths is because man is body soul & spirit in an inseparable bond.

Note from Mark

This is not in my notes here from HEF. Just my opinion. I have long believed our bodies are a unified whole. Freeman points out that we body soul and spirit are in an inseparable bond. I believe the body is as well.

I think removing a part of the body or hindering its effective operation by surgery has an impact on us physically and spiritually. In other words removing an organ because of sickness or pain only creates a problem somewhere in the rest of your life. Gall bladder, hysterectomy, appendix, vasectomy etc. Our bodies are a unified whole. A vasectomy for eg means you lose part of your manhood. Even if you don't notice it. You can't remove a part of your body and not have it have an effect on the rest of your life. It will show up somewhere.

Also I'm not trying to condemn those who needed help and didn't have the faith or whatever and just went and got help. If I didn't have the faith that is what I would do. We need to understand though that there are consequences. ie a disruption in the natural life God gave us. If you're in the situation of having had surgery look to the Lord for restoration and for healing.

[Updated on: Sun, 26 November 2017 21:20]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12299 is a reply to message #12298 ] Sun, 26 November 2017 11:02 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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Man in the Image of God

a) The purpose.

This term is ascribed to no other creature but man. Man was given this nature because it was called for by the divine purpose for him. Since the central purpose of God in making man in his image was fellowship with God then he had to bear some resemblance to his maker

b) Meaning.

The image of God is a synonym for the unique inner nature of man. It means he is personal moral ethical & rational. This is not said of the animals and can't be. The image of God does not mean he is like God but that he is in Gods likeness & his likeness is personal moral ethical and rational. The bible shows man is flesh and God is spirit. Man is not spirit but he is spiritual in his inner nature. Zech. 12/1, Eccl.12/7 Prov. 20/27

The image of God denotes a sacredness of personality unlike animals. Ps 8

[Updated on: Fri, 01 December 2017 10:59]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12300 is a reply to message #12299 ] Sun, 26 November 2017 11:03 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Doctrine of Sin

Why study it.

a) It is in the OT that sin is introduced to the human race
b) The consequences of sin are shown here
c) The remedy for it is shown here. Typified in the OT sacrifices.

The Biblical view of Man

a) Man has great dignity conferred on him by being created in the image of God
b) Man is also portrayed as a sinner.

The Liberal view of Man

a) He is not morally depraved but merely misguided. He needs education to straighten him out. Sin is merely a stumble in his upward evolution.
b)Since finite man cannot sin infinitely then infinite hell & punishment in an eternal hell is impossible.
c) Man is inherently good.

The conclusion

In both OT & NT the relationship between God & man because of sin is absolute alienation. Gen 3 God cursed man.
Ps. 58/3, Ps. 14/1-3, Ex.23/7, Ex. 34/7 Jer. 17/9

The Nature of Sin & Guilt in the OT
It falls into 5 classes depending on the term used.

a) Chata- to miss the mark or goal. This is the common word for sin in the OT. It includes sin against sin against God or man. This term signifies the objective act of sin ie. ones conduct, disobeying God.
Gen. 40/1, 42/1

b) Rasha- to be wicked. It expresses the inner character of the sinner. Also indicates an unregenerate man. a saint in the OT can sin but he is never called Rasha. The term usually denotes one who is guilty of a crime or who is disobedient & deserves punishment with the cause of it in himself. ie: he is wicked

c) Avah- To bend or twist- to pervert. This term speaks of the perverted inner character of the the wicked. Prov. 12/8, Jer. 23/31

d) Asham- denotes the state of the sinner before the law. He trespasses or is guilty. The term signifies liability & guilt to punishment through transgression of the law. The term is legal in character

e) pasha - The wilful rejection of Gods will and the refusal to obey him. The Jew viewed the whole OT as the law and viewed sin as not merely an error in judgement or merely missing the mark. But this term describes sin as an act of defiance against God.
Ezek.2/1-3, 7-8
Personal self-willed conscious defiance of the will of God.
Isaiah 43/27, 1/2, Jer.2/29

This is the basic term used in the OT to describe the deep nature of sin & rebellion against God.

[Updated on: Sat, 02 December 2017 20:33]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12301 is a reply to message #12300 ] Sun, 26 November 2017 11:03 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Hebrew concept of Guilt

The Hebrew term.
The Hebrew hd only one word for guilt. asham The same word as sin.
The term stands for
- the sin (the act of sin)
- the guilt of sin (it made him guilty)
- the sacrifice for the sin
All the same word

The nature of guilt in the Old Testament.

There is an important distinction between the sin offering and the trespass offering.

The sin offering (Heb. Chata) was to cover sins in general. The trespass offering had reference to certain concrete violations of the law. On the day of atonement the sin offering would cover everyone's sins for the year. Sin offerings were offered at a ll times & feasts& joyful occasions. It was a general sacrifice made to keep Gods people clean before him and in covenant standing.

The trespass offering was never offered for sin in general but for trespasses of the Levitical law or against your bro. Therefore quilt emphasize the condition of the individual or the nation before the law as a result of the violation of some specific commandment.

Contrary to the Liberal view which is that God is a loving father the solemn nature of guilt in Gods sight is seen by . . .

a) There is some guilt for which there is no sacrifice (or forgiveness.) The person had to die. ie: murder, wilful sin (Heb. sin with a high hand)
This doesn't mean the person can't be forgiven. eg. David's murder of Uriah. 2 Sam.12/9-13 It does mean there was no place in the law for forgiveness. (Mark)

b)That the OT shows that guilt is not only individual but collective as in family, nation etc. The prophets said over and over that the exile would punish the nation (including the innocent & children etc.). The sin of the parents was sometimes carried to the third & fourth generation. Num. 14/18, Jer. 9/1-2

The relationship between sin guilt and its punishment

These three things are always together in the Bible. Guilt is therelationship between sin and its punishment.There is no such thing in the bible as sin without punishment. God says he won't clear the guilty. The issue here is not redemption but the awful nature of sin & guilt.

This is why in Isaiah 53 it s says he was a guilt offering not a sin offering. The animal was not actually guilty but legally guilty. The animal paid the legal price for the guilt. ie:death
Isaiah 53 is the transitional place in the OT. It has all the sacrifices typified here & points forward to the atonement. Isaiah 53/10 Heb word is guilt offering not sin offering. Jesus paid the legal penalty for our guilt.

You can't make an innocent person guilty.
a) because Jesus was guiltless he could offer himself as a guilt offering
b) Jesus could bear the punishment.

It was always an animal for sacrifice that was which was spotless & pure and always guiltless itself.
Gen 6/7, Ex. 21/28 God says the animals had corrupted themselves as well. An animal had to die for its own guilt. It couldn't be used for an offering.
The sin offering was most holy. Lev.6
Jesus was called an"asham" not a "chata"

[Updated on: Sun, 03 December 2017 17:13]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12302 is a reply to message #12301 ] Sun, 26 November 2017 11:03 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 472
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
The Old Testament Concept of Salvation

The Hebrew Term for salvation- Yeshua ,Yeshuah

Salvation in the OT is viewed as two aspects:

a)General Usage.- temporal deliverance

deliverance from human enemies Num.10/9
The Gr. equivalent is "Sozo"
The OT implies because this term "salvation" is used in these contexts that temporal deliverance is meant as well.
fire flood pestilence poverty

b)Spiritual Usage.-

spiritual deliverance eg: life in the eternal state.Ps.79/9,Ps.59/-2, 49/6, Zech9/16

The Wrath of God

Apart from the wrath of God OT sacrifice has no purpose. Num.15/26 The atonement and the wrath of God are closely connected. All they had time for was to take fire off the alter.

a) The Liberal View

One of their major planks is to deny the wrath of God. They either deny his wrath or limit its meaning.

b) The Biblical View

The Hebrew terms.

"aph" wrath / anger
"qetsaph" wrath


The usage of wrath is in the OT shows it is a reality.
Num.16/46 The rebellion of Korah
Deut.9/18-22 against Israel
Ps.21/8-9 Hosea 5/10
The flood, Sodom & Gomorrah

The term or idea of God pouring out his wrath occurs over 580 times in the OT. If it stated once in the bible it is sufficient to compel our obedience

c) The nature of God's wrath

The effect of sin on God is to immediately arouse divine displeasure expressed as anger or wrath. The wrath of God is not an attribute like love or holiness but wrath is a disposition. It is an expression of his holy displeasure against sin & rebellion.
His wrath is transient meaning it can be removed if you meet the conditions. His wrath is as holy as his love. To understand his love you have to understand his holiness.
Therefore wherever holiness meets unholiness there is inevitable conflict and divine wrath is as natural a consequence of unholiness as love is to toward those who are holy.

[Updated on: Sun, 03 December 2017 18:22]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12303 is a reply to message #12302 ] Sun, 26 November 2017 11:03 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 472
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
The Doctrine of Propitiation


Propitiation: Understanding the meaning of propitiation (which is the appeasing of Gods wrath to sin) is absolutely essential to understanding the biblical meaning of atonement which brings salvation.

Having studied the biblical teaching concerning wrath we need to understand how to get or keep his wrath off us. We have to accept the fact that Gods wrath (mentioned 580 times in the OT) is real and directed against sin and sinners and propitiation is the means of appeasing that wrath. The death of an animal substitute signifies that something must be horribly wrong with man t require such a sacrifice.

The Linguistic (or language) Basis of Propitiation.

The effects of OT sacrifice including the death of Christ is 3/fold. It is designated in scripture as . . .
- a covering for sin
- which propitiates the wrath of God
- which results in a reconciliation between God and man

Greek and Hebrew terms.


Kippur (verb) to Cover
the derived meaning is to appease Gods wrath. The KJV translates it "atonement".

NT Greek & Septuagint

Hilaskomaia (verb) to appease or propitiate
Hilasmos (noun)- propitiation

Katallage =-reconciliation. Lit. to change
In classical Greek Katallage meant to change a persons enmity into friendship. Hillasmos in classical Greek meant to propitiate an offended deity by means of sacrifice.

In the Septuagint the Heb. scholars who knew both Heb & Gr. selected Hilasmos to translate Kippur.
The NASV correctly translates these terms
Heb.2/17,1 John 2/2, 4/10, Rom.3/25

Significance of the Hebrew term.

The significance of the term Kippur is that it is used by God to describe the effect of the sacrifice.
- with respect to sin it was a covering
- with respect to God it was a propitiation
- with respect to man it effected reconciliation

The significance of the term Propitiation is that on the day of Yom Kippur the blood of sacrifice was brought to the Holy of Holies & sprinkled on the "mercy seat"- Heb. "the covering"
It was the lid of the Ark of the Covenant. Inside the ark was the stone tablets with the 10 commandments, Aarons staff, the pot of manna.

The point is the law was inside (the ark)& it was broken and Gods wrath was upon them. The blood was sprinkled on the mercy seat. Heb. The Propitiatory or covering. The place where propitiation was obtained. The importance of this is shown by the OT calling this the house of the propitiatory
1 Chron. 28/11 Lit. the house of propitiatory.

Kippur: The basic meaning of cover express the effect of the sacrifices by covering the sin & propitiating Gods wrath against it.

Rom.5/11 This is the only place in the bible where the popular word atonement is used but it is the Gr. word Katallage meaning reconciliation. The word atonement is trying to express the reconciliation we obtain from God. Propitiation has reference to quieting Gods anger.

[Updated on: Tue, 12 December 2017 09:18]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12309 is a reply to message #12303 ] Tue, 12 December 2017 09:26 Go to previous message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
Messages: 472
Registered: October 2006
Location: Canada
Senior Member
The emendation of the term "propitiation" to "expiation" by the critical interpreters.

The Liberals (and the RSV) ignores the Septuagint, the classical meaning of the term and the Hebrew. They translate the term "propitiate" with another term "expiation" A term entirely different in meaning.

Propitiation means to appease Gods wrath by sacrifice
Expiation means to cleanse or remove defilement.
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