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OT Theology-Complete Outline [message #6441] Fri, 11 December 2009 16:06 Go to next message
GWB  is currently offline GWB
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My notes here from Dr. Freemans OT theology course.

A lot of the info here is covered in more detail under Biblical Theology ie: inspiration/revelation/historical theories/ views of the atonement etc. The notes here only cover the info from an ancient Hebrew perspective.
Old Testament Theology [message #12282 is a reply to message #6441 ] Sun, 05 November 2017 13:09 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Reasons for the Study of Old Testament Theology

1/ Because of the vital distinction between Old Testament Theology and Christian Theology.

a) OT theology limits itself exclusively to the books of the OT
b) The interpretation and understanding of OT religious and theological concepts will be always from the point of view of the Hebrew mind in the OT dispensation. -you have to consciously avoid reading back into the OT your understanding of the NT revelations
c) OT theology is by its very nature incomplete as its full meaning is revealed in Christ.
d) The difference between OT & NT is not that the same truths aren't found in both but in the OT they are in a less degree of development. - the OT is as good an authority for a truth or teaching or doctrine as the NT if we don't go beyond that dispensations revelation.
11 Tim 3/16-17

2/ Because of the importance of Old Testament Theology.

a) The OT was the bible of the early church
b) The OT was the only religious document in the world that taught an exclusive monotheism. Duet 6/4
c) The ethical teachings of the prophets are still the inspiration and moral life of the church.
d) The OT was constantly used by Jesus and the disciples. Matt 4- he rebuked the devil with it. - he used the OT to announce himself being messiah- to authenticate his teaching
e) The OT saints including Jesus and the apostles never looked at the OT as a shape of things to come- it was adequate for the dispensation it served in.
f) The disciples constantly refer to the OT
- selecting a successor to Judas (Acts 1)
- explaining Pentecost (Acts 2)
- showing the sufferings death and resurrection of Messiah (Acts 3/18)
- extending the gospel to the gentiles (Acts 15/14-17)
g) The entire OT is a foundation to the NT
h) Jesus sacrifice is meaningless without the OT
i) The book of Hebrews can't be interpreted without the OT revelation of priesthood,sacrifice,covenant law,atonement
j) Much of the symbolism in the book of Revelation is built on Danial/Zechariah etc.
k) Other than the doctrine of the church all NT doctrines are found in the OT
l) The NT is the fulfillment of the OT
m) The OT lays the foundation for the incarnation and the cross
n) The knowledge of the OT enables the christian to reach the ideal laid down by Jesus in the Matt 13/51-52
o) Most the destructive criticism by the Liberals is against the OT. Undermining confidence in the OT weakens the foundation of the NT. It calls into question the validity of the new

Definition of Old Testament Theology

OT theology is the systematic study of the revelation of God through the religion life and history of Israel aw it is contained within the books of the OT

It is the Biblical Theology of the OT systematically presented.

Sources of Old Testament Theology

a) The canonical books of the OT
b) The Apocrypha
c) The rabbinic literature of post exilic Israel

Some of the theology of the NT was developed in the intertestement period. eg. Paradise – its not explained in OT or NT – the doctrine was developed during this period.

[Updated on: Fri, 10 November 2017 22:55]

Old Testament Theology [message #12283 is a reply to message #12282 ] Sun, 05 November 2017 13:35 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Purpose of Old Testament Revelation (Or Gods purpose in revealing himself to Israel)

1/Exodus 19/1-6

a) so they would be Gods own possession
b) a Kingdom of Priests
c) a holy nation

Exodus 19/7- rest of the book

Following a 3 day fast the rest of the revelation was given. It started with the 10 commandments ans went into the whole system of Law/priesthood/temple/sacrifice/substitutionary atonement.

2/ the means whereby a sinful and unholy nation or people can be cleansed and a fit habitation for God to dwell among them.

The Media of Revelation in the Old Testament

1/ Revelation in nature.

Many heathen nations worshiped the sun stars etc. its called nature worship.
The OT revelation was that the God of Israel stands behind creation as its author& sustainer & controller. He uses nature to reveal something of himself. His nature and his glory.
Duet. 17/3-5 11 Kings 17/16 Jeremiah 8/2 Ezek. 8/16

Deut.4/15-19 Nature worship is forbidden.

In the OT nature is designed as an arena for the revelation of Gods existence & glory. Ps. 8 Ps. 19/1

Job 38. Gods power is revealed in nature Ps. 138 Ps 104
Rom. 1 speaks of this revelation being perverted by man.

Natural or General Revelation
Psalm 19/1-2 This is a supernatural revelation of God to humanity. It speaks to every group language nation and person.
God has revealed something of himself through nature to man. It is quite limited as it cannot lead a sinner to repentance. that takes special revelation.
A person can look at nature and see there is a creator. They can see something of his nature ie. his goodness (he provided sun and rain) and his wisdom in putting it together.

God has revealed himself to man.

a) through nature Ps. 19
b) through providence Ps. 104 & Acts 14/ 13-17
c) through conscience
man perverts everything God gives him. Jer. 10 Jer.2/26-28 Isaiah 40/18-20

What is the value of Natural Revelation

a) a revelation of Gods existence
Isaiah 40/26,28
b) a revelation of Gods glory
Ps. 19/1, Ps. 8
c) a revelation of his power & omnipotence.
Job 38, Ps. 104
d) it leaves the sinner without excuse.
Ps. 19/1

2/ Revelation through Theophanies.

The word theophany comes from two words that mean manifestations of God.

a) nature theophanies. in nature form
ie: the burning bush. Ex. 6
piller of fire and cloud Ex.13/21-22

b) subjective theophanies
-auditory theophanies. Ex 19/1-3
-dreams and visions Gen 20/3 Dan 7/1 Isaiah 6

c) objective theophanies
An actual appearance of the Lord/Angel of the Lord Gen.16/7
The OT context where the Angel of the Lord appears always shows it to be a temporary descent to earth by the Lord himself for a special purpose.

d) The sacred lot - Urim and Thummim.
The Hebrew words mean lights & completeness. Some believe they were two square stones. They were worn in a pouch under the breastplate over the heart of the High Priest.
They were used as a supernatural means of determining Gods will on important occasions. God would answer the high priest with these. The words signify a full complete revelation.

We can't be 100% sure but it seems from the passages that Urim meant No & Thummin meant yes.
Ex.28/29-30, Num.27/18-21, 1Sam.28/6
They are not mentioned in scripture after David and were probably lost in the exile. Ezra and Nehemiah disn't have them. Neh.7/64-65

e) The sacred writings. Gods written word was a revelation

f) Prophetic revelation. God would speak through the prophets

Inspiration of the Old Testament

The New Testament claims that the Old Testament is inspired.
11 Tim 3/16, 11 Peter 1/19-21

Jesus came to fulfill OT scripture
Matt.1/22-23 Matt 8/16-17 Matt12/17

The OT itself indicates it was inspired.
Zech. 7/12, Neh. 9/30

In the historical books the technical phrase used to indicate inspiration was "The Lord spake saying"
In the prophets it was " the word of the Lord came to me saying"

Extra-Canonical writings indicate inspiration of scripture
The approcypha calls the OT the "Holy Book"
Josephus called the OT "the sacred Scriptures"

The divine / Human relationship in Inspiration is seen from several passages.
Heb. 1/1-2, 11 Peter 1/21, Zech.7/12, Neh.9/30

[Updated on: Fri, 10 November 2017 22:54]

Old Testament Theology [message #12285 is a reply to message #12283 ] Tue, 07 November 2017 19:00 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Concepts of God

The concept that there is no such thing as inanimate objects. everything in nature is alive. term comes from the word animate.

The belief in and worship of many Gods. Often the personification of nature.

The belief in one supreme God among many Gods. One supreme God for each nation.

The worship of one god among many

a) Idolatry - The personification of God in a man made object and the worship of it as sacred
b) Fetishism - any object regarded as sacred

The belief in and worship of the one and only God who as creator and sustainer of all things and revealed himself as Yahveh to Israel.

[Updated on: Sat, 11 November 2017 20:24]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12286 is a reply to message #12285 ] Thu, 09 November 2017 17:38 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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The Divine Nature

1.God's Existence

a) Assumed by the Old Testament.
Gen.1/1, Ps.14/1

The question of gods existence is not even raised in the OT. Prior to Moses leaving Egypt both Israel & Egypt believed in many Gods.
The question was . . . was there only one true God? That revelation came to them in Duet 6/4

-denies Atheism as it assumes the existence of god
-denies polytheism
-denies dualism (matter & spirit are both eternal)
-denies pantheism (everything is god & god is everything)- Gen.1/1 asserts that God is before all things and apart from all things.

b)Gods existence is revealed by him in Nature
Ps.14/1, Ps.8, Ps.104, Ps.135, Ps.33, Ps. 136, Ps. 96, Isaiah 40/21-22, Rom 1/18-23

c) Gods existence is revealed in the OT by his mighty acts
-judgements ie. the flood. everyone laughed until it began to rain.
-Salvation or deliverance -plaques of Egypt/Exodus from Egypt/parting of the Red Sea

Psalm 14/1 God doesn't deal with them at all. Just calls them fools.

2. The Unicity of God (or unity)

The Oneness of God was the fundamental distinguishing mark of Israels religion which set it apart from all the other religions of the world.
Deut.6/4, Is 43/10, Is. 45/5, Ex.20/2-3, Ex.22/20

a) The origin of Israel's monotheism

The Critical View . . .

Israels religion came out of polytheism. It evolved from polytheism to monotheism.

Reply . . .
As in the NT true religion comes as revelation. They didn't reason up to god.

b) The use of the plural Elohim in the early narratives.

The critical view . . .

The use of this term is evidence of their polytheistic background.

Reply . . .

1) the plural Elohim was employed by Israel not only of their one god but also of the individual deity of other nations.
- Moabite god Chemosh Judges 11/24
- Philistine god Dagon 1Sam.5/7
- Ashtoreth 1 Kings 11/5
- the golden calf Ex.32
- Moses is referred to this way in Ex.4/16 & Samuel in 1Sam.28/13

They used the plural constantly in a singular sense. Which they didn't have to do as there were plenty of other words to choose from.

2) It is unlikely that the writers of the OT who continually insist on one God would select a noun which carries with it polytheistic ideas.

3) The explanation has to do with the peculiarities of the Hebrew language. There exists in Hebrew certain nouns which always or only occur in the plural. Gen 1 heavens & waters. The words for old age and youth are both plural.
Why would they do this? Why do we do this? eg deer, sheep

The point here is you don't prove anything by pointing out that it occurs in the plural because a lot of others do as well. These are called "nouns of indefinite extension"or "intensive plurals"

"Elohim" A common name for god in the OT is a plural of majesty or excellence. It describes God as a being who is infinitely greater in every respect than man. It is describing his infiniteness.

"Adonai" another plural noun meaning Lord used of god and man but pronounced differently with each. It refers to a plural of majesty. Without exception where the plural noun "Elohim" is used of God the verbs and modifiers with it are singular.

c) The critics maintain Israels national religion in its early stages was monolatry.

The critical view . . .

The worship of one god over the land among many gods. A chief God over every nation. From this it evolved to a monotheistic religion.
Duet. 10/17, Ex.15/11, Ex.12/12, Ps. 95/3

Reply . . .

God is referring here to what the nations around Israel believe. They believe in other Gods so he is saying he is against them.

We have to make a distinction here between what the idolatrous Israelites believe and what prophets & pious Israelites believed. Not all Israel was saved. From the time of the Exodus to the time of the Babylonian captivity idolatry was a constant struggle for pious Israelites.

Israels idolatry & polytheism when it was found in Israel was inexcuseable for from the beginning of her establishment as a nation God said he was one. From the beginning of the nation the religion could not have evolved because it condemned polytheism from the beginning.
Duet.6/4, 4/35, 4/39, 32/39 Lev.19/4,

d) The Problem of 1 Sam. 26/18-19

The critical View . . .
"go serve other Gods"
Obviously David himself believed Yahveh was the national God of Palestine and in leaving there he was leaving the presence of God and maybe even salvation if he couldn't get back to into Palestine.

Reply . . .
David was only saying what his enemies said not what he believed.
You have to understand OT religion. It all centered around the temple or tabernacle in Jerusalem.
To be driven out of Palestine was in a real sense a limitation on his worship as he couldn't sacrifice etc.
Ps. 34. David was still praying and god was still answering him.

To say that God is one in the OT is not a mathematical oneness but a oneness of spirit- a qualitative oneness-one divine essence-a oneness of spirit-a oneness of nature or being. One divine Spirit eternally manifested as Father Son & Holy Spirit.

[Updated on: Sun, 12 November 2017 16:09]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12287 is a reply to message #12286 ] Fri, 10 November 2017 22:45 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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3. The Living God

a) Biblical usage of the phrase.

- A God who acts Joshua 3/10
- A God who speaks Duet.5/28
- A god who delivers 1Sam. 17/26,36-37
- A God who has existence Jer.10/10, Dan.6/26-27

The concept of the Living God" was so important that the Jew offered his oath by the life of Yahveh.
Judges 8/19,Ruth 3/13, 1 Sam.19/6,
The technical phrase was " As the Lord liveth"
The true destiny of the Jews was to be the "Sons of the Living God" Hosea 1/10

b) The false gods.
In contrast to the Living god the false Gods are shown to be utterly impotent & unable to help their worshipers. Therefore they don't live.

c) Meaning of the phrase.
The phrase Living god means the other Gods have no life or they have no real existence. It also means he is able to hear and answer his peoples prayers. Also that god is personal not just an idea or concept

4. The Spirit of God

Question . . .
What is the Spirit of God conceived to be in the OT in view of the fact that the OT continually stresses that God is one.

Would he be conceived as personal merely power that comes on man or wisdom that comes from God or is it merely the life principle bestowed on living things?

Answer is at the end of the Spirit of God section.

The Hebrew term - "ruach".
We are not looking at how it is used of God but only its useage in the bible.

a) Its literal useage - spirit wind or breath
- spirit Isaiah 42/5
- wind Ex. 10/13, Gen. 8/1
- breath Job 15/30,Lam.4/20
(the NT Gr. word (pneuma)means exactly t6he same thing. wind or spirit)

b) Metaphoric useage- A metaphor is a figure of speech to show a resemblance
- fortress Ps.91/2
- anger of fury poured out 11Sam. 22/16
- signifying the presence of God Gen.3/8

c)Its useage as a synonym. - one term used for another

Gen.2/7 breath here is a synonym for Gods Spirit. Breath of the mouth stands for the Spirit of God. All through the creation account God speaks as in a divine fiat & calls into existence.
The wind or breath as words of his mouth are synonymous with gods Spirit.

d) Spirit means "life principle"
The life principle in man & animals
Zech.12/1, Eccl.12/7

e) the term Ruach has reference to God himself.

Gen. 1/2 Ruach of God Isaiah 61/1
Isaiah 11/2 Ruach of Yahveh
Ps.51/11 the Holy Spirit
Is.63/10-11 his Holy Spirit
Gen 6/3 my spirit
Ezek. 26/37 my spirit

[Updated on: Mon, 13 November 2017 22:45]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12288 is a reply to message #12287 ] Sat, 11 November 2017 21:04 Go to previous messageGo to next message
Mark L  is currently offline Mark L
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Activities of the Holy Spirit in the OT

1/ The Cosmic sphere or sphere of creation

a) Gods creative power was expressed through his spirit by bringing order out of chaos Gen.1/1-2
b) All that lives in the has its life by the spirit because god God sends forth life by the Spirit Ps.104/30
- When he takes away his spirit they die. Ps. 104/29
- In creation & providence the Spirit of god is seen to be creator & sustainer

2/ In the Sphere of Life.- Biological & Spiritual life

Gen 2/7 The breath of life has a twofold meaning

a) the life principle breathed into man - the vitality or spirit of life. eg. life of the physical body
b) The image of God - that which makes man spiritual rational accountable moral
Gen 2/7 - it is not said of the animals Is. 57/16

3/ In the sphere of Human Experience or History in the OT

a) On individuals
In order to effect deliverance the Spirit of God was sometimes placed on individuals. Gen. 41/38-39
Num.11/16-17 Moses and the 70 elders
Duet 34/9 Joshua
Judges 3/10 6/34, 11/29, 14/6, 15/14
Judges 14 Samson

b) On Kings
1Sam.10/6, 11/6, 16/13-14 11Sam.23/2

c) On artisans
The artisans who built the temple and its furnishings
Ex. 31, 35/31

d) Intellectual understandin
Job 32/8 The anointing of gods spirit for wisdom and understanding

e) Prophecy

The agent of Gods word who reveals his will. The true prophets were conscious of being filled with the Spirit of god Micah 3/8, Zech. 7/12, Neh. 9/30
Ezek. 13/3 The false prophets were those who followed their own spirit. Num.24/1-2, 1 Sam.19/18-24

f) The Spirit of God could pick up a prophet in spirit and transport them 1 Kings 18/12,11Kings 2/16

g) Religion Moral & Spiritual life.

Religious emotions and moral influence were the result of the work of the spirit in the hearts of the Israelites. Influencing them toward good and moral behavior.
Ps.51/11, Ps 143/10,m Neh. 9/20,30

What is the "Spirit of God" conceived to be in the Old Testament?

a) 1 Kings 22/16-23- this early in the OT they were already seeing that a spirit was personal. the spirit of God was perceived to be personal as well.

b) The Spirit of God was not conceived to be a mere power or influence Zech.4/6

c) He is seen to be in the OT as God himself. The Spirit of God in OT thought is not an influence or power exerted by God from a point at which he himself is absent. But god is always present as the Spirit of God.
Is. 31/3, Ps. 139/7

Conclusion . . .

To answer the question originally posed the OT concept of the Spirit of God was that it was God himself who as spirit was present when the Spirit of God was spoken of in relation to the world.

[Updated on: Mon, 13 November 2017 22:47]

RE: Old Testament Theology [message #12290 is a reply to message #12288 ] Sun, 12 November 2017 19:07 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Divine Attributes

1. The Holiness of God

a) The Terms.

"Qadesh" Hebrew- to be set apart , dedicated, consecrated
The English word is holy. The derived meanings are holiness & sacredness. The word in the root meaning is sanctified or apartness.
The term for holy is used in a moral & non-moral sense in the OT. The term occurs in heathen literature as well.

b) The Non-moral usage in the Heathen cultures.

The term has a magical useage and designated certain places persons & objects as taboo. They were set apart from secular useage. In its heathen useage it referred to to things that belonged to the gods or kings that no one else could touch. They were separate or set apart.

In the bible the word Kadesh was a sodomite & a Kadesha was a prostitute. They were anything but holy but the word means "set apart" It is the same word as holy but it was translated according to its context.
1 Kings 1/24, 15/12 22/25, Deut 23/17

c) Ceremonial use of the term.

This is to be distinguished from the moral use of the term. Objects and persons are holy because of their association with the holy God. Because God was holy everything seen in relation to him was holy. Objects in the temple were holy because of their relationship to God. The Nazarite (Num.6/8) was holy because of he was separated & consecrated to God. His inward moral holiness was a completely separate issue.

d) The moral usage of Holy.

We want to to look at how it is used in scripture in relation to God so we can determine its derived meaning.

With reference to God it means " his otherness, his separateness,his divine transcendence"
1 Sam.2/2, Job25/4-6, Hosea 11/9

The term "Holy" so exclusively belongs to God it becomes a synonym for his name.
Isaiah 6, 40/25

The basic meaning is sanctify or set apart. In relation to God it must mean more than that as it is used of a God who is righteous & holy. Therefore the word does speak of his inner character. Lev. 19/1
So in reference to God it does have a derived meaning. Lev. 19/1
It says god is holy or set apart & then the whole chap. tells Israel how to be that way. Unlike all other heathen cultures the word in reference to god has a derived meaning in a moral sense.

Moral holiness in man is a prerequisite for fellowship with a holy God.Ex.19/5-6, Lev.19/1
This requirement enables us to understand the ritual & ceremony in the OT. Since divine holiness means separation from everything sinful (which includes creation as we know it) then that means God cannot have communion with man.

This illustrates the need for education in ceremonial holiness and moral purity. The OT ritual was not just something God gave as a substitute until something better came (grace) but the ritual itself taught holiness.

All the ritual ie: priesthood,sacrifice,separation was written to educate the people in the need for moral holiness.

Divine holiness requires God to separate himself from everything impure & unholy. this means god can't fellowship with man so he instituted the ritual so they could. To the pious Israelite it was educating him in the need for holiness.

ie: The ark was a sacred object. It was just a piece of wook covered with gold. but because of its association with God it became holy.
- the ark when in Philistine hands brought them much trouble.1Sam.4,5
- Uzzah touched it and he died. 11 Sam.6
- Some men looked into it and they died 1Sam.6/19-21

"Holy" places are those places where God has revealed himself or appeared
- The burning bush Ex.3/5, 48/2
- Palestine Zech.2/12
- The Tabernacle Ex.28/43
- Temple 1 Kings 6/16
- Alter Ex.29/27
- The Furnishings Num.4/15
- Sacrifices Lev.2/3, 6/25
- Priests Ex.29/1, Lev.21/6
- priest clothing Ex.29/29
- first born Israelites Ex.13/2

Everything is Israel because of their association with a morally pure & righteous God was to be morally pure. Ceremonial holiness became a type of spiritual holiness.

The OT wasn't revealed as a substitute until something better could be devised ie: the NT. The OT has its place in the economy of redemption. the church needs to know these were types and lessons of spiritual truth. Isaiah 4/3

Holiness is to be the goal of Gods people. Isaiah 6/12-13 A remnant will escape the day of judgement.

Ceremonial holiness as well as spiritual or moral holiness will one day be restored in the millennium. It will be restored in its meaning as memorials. Zech.14/20-21

Does the term holy have the same meaning in reference to pagan gods as it does in Israel? Dan.4/8-9,18 5/11
In Egypt there was a god called kadesh. study mythology & you will see the pagan gods have reference to the term holy only in their root meaning of separateness. The pagan gods are guilty of all the sins men are.

e) Conclusion.

With respect to Yahveh the god of Israel holiness has reference to his moral purity, his inner character, his otherness which separates him from all other men & all other gods.
His uniqueness, his otherness, his moral & spiritual transcendence.

With respect to man it implies:
a)a separation from sin Isaiah 6/1-8
b) a consecration to the Lord Jer. 1/4-5

[Updated on: Mon, 08 October 2018 20:27]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12291 is a reply to message #12290 ] Mon, 13 November 2017 19:27 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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2. The Righteousness of God

a) The root meaning of righteousness.

The original root meaning in the bible is to be straight. In a moral sense it means uprightness. A state of being right.

b) Righteousness as conformity to a proper standard or norm is the basic Old Testament meaning.

It is the standard by which we are measured. Gods righteousness is his own moral holiness and perfection which is the standard for all men.
Deut. 32/4, Ps.11/7, Amos 5/24
The non-moral useage indicates it is conformity to an acceptable standard ie: righteous weights and measures
Ezek.46/10-12, Dan.25/15
Sacrifices of righteousness conformed to a revealed acceptable standard. Ps.51/19, Ps.4/5
Righteous conduct is conduct according to Gods revealed standards.

c) Righteousness is not simply an abstract moral principle.

To the Hebrew righteousness was a righteous act or event. Not something in the abstract. A righteous man performed righteous acts and lived righteously.
Ps.106/3, Isaiah 58/2, Ezek. 18/21-22, Gen 18/19, 1 Sam.12/7-8, Isaiah 1/27, Isaiah 47/12-13

d) Righteousness is also expressed in judgment.

In this sense it is expressed as justice. Gen.18/25 God is called the supreme judge. Righteousness is the standard by which he governs the world. It is also the standard by which he requires us to live. It will be the standard by which he judges the world. Ps.9/7-8

e) Righteousness and justice are two sides of God's holiness.

Justice carries with it the idea of absolute fairness based on a standard of righteousness. Righteousness demands absolute conformity to gods standard and justice visits all non-conformity with punishment.

The terms carry with them a sense of absolute fairness and in that sense it is his justice.

3. The Love of God

a) The terms.
Ahabah -love
Hessed- mercy or loving kindness

b) The distinction between the terms.
Hessed is always conditioned upon there being a covenant. Ahabah is unconditional love in the OT.

c) Old Testament usage of the terms.

Ahabah has only to do with the will of the one who loves. Either he wants to love or he doesn't. Thus it comes to be the term for election love in the OT. Its synonymous with grace.

Hessed is used to denote the attitude of loyalty, faithfulness & moral obligation which both sides of a covenant observe to one another. Hessed was the binding relationship in a covenant. It meant not merely love but steadfast faithfulness.
1 Sam.20/13-16
Hosea is called the prophet of Hessed in the OT. Hosea 6/4,6 2/18-19

[Updated on: Tue, 14 November 2017 19:26]

Re: Old Testament Theology [message #12292 is a reply to message #12291 ] Mon, 13 November 2017 22:50 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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4. The Names of God

a) Significance of Names in Hebrew.

Among the Hebrews a name was never merely a tittle but often descriptive.

1. Descriptive of the nature character, appearance, or function of a person place or thing.
- Esau- means hairy
- the dead sea was called the salt sea.-
- Eve was named after her function. mother of all living.
- Obed means servant

2. Names represent some relationship
- Simon Barjona- the son of Jona
- a spiritual relationship- Jedidiah (Solomon) means beloved of the Lord.
- geographical relationship.- Zerrubabal born in Babel(Babylon)
- pious parents would compound the name with gods.
Jo-el, Yahveh is my God
Dan-ial God is my judge
Eli-jah my God is Yahveh

3. Names may express piety, sorrow, grief,joy or hope.
Phinehas named her son Ichabod- inglorious
Rachel named her son benomi. son of my sorrow (Benjamin)
Isaiah -Salvation is of Yah or the Lord.

4. Names were sometimes give to express thanks, gratitude, or praise
Ishmael - God hears

5. Sometimes they were peronomastic. eg. a play on words.
Naomi- pleasant She changed her own name to Marah- bitter
Nabel- word means fool
Jacob- means supplanter

6. Sometimes names are prophetic.

Isaiah's children- Shearjashub- a remnant shall return
Maher shahal Hash baz - the spoil speeds and the prey hastens (quick to the plunder and swift to the spoil)- means their enemies would quickly spoil them.
One name reflected hope & the other judgement prophetically.

Hosea's children
Jezreel - God sows - means judgement
Lo Ammi- not my people
Lo Ruhamah- not pitied

In The NT the word Christ is the Hebrew Messiah- means anointed one.

b) The Divine Names and their meaning

1) El.
Translated God. A common name used throughout the middle east by Semitic peoples. Being a common name it is used of false gods as well. Ps.81/9, Duet 32/12
The word means "the strong one". It occurs about 300 times in the OT.
It is often combined with other words to make names.
ie: Isra el, Dani el, Jo el
When the term is used of God it has a definite article with it or an adjective to show it is God. That is not done with the false gods.

(2) Elohim.
Translated God and occurs over 250 times in the OT. It is the plural of El. The word means "the mighty one". It is aalso used of the false gods.
When used of God it has the definite article. Verbs and modifiers with it are always in the singular when the word is used to refer to God.

El & Elohim are used to refer to beings other than God. They refer to false Gods idols angels and men.
angels (heb. is sons of God) Bene Elohim Job 38/7
men (sometimes) because the divinely appointed anointing or position of authority Ex. 4/16, 7/1

3) Eloah
The word means power or might. It is found almost exclusively in the poetic literature. it is also used occasionally of the false gods.

4) El-Elyon.
The most high God or highest God. Its used by Melchizedek in Gen.14/8. The word "Elyon is an adjective which means highest or most high. Num.24/16, Duet. 32/8

(5) El-Shaddai
It means God almighty. It is derived from a verb that means to deal mightily. It is the name God used of himself with Abraham. Gen.17/1
This is the most frequently used name in the patriarchal period. Exodus 6/3 God told Moses that before he had only revealed himself to the patriarchs as the most high God or God almighty.

(6) Adhon
The word means Lord. You can drop the "h" because the "d" is soft. It is also the common word used of man in the OT. The word sometimes means master husband sir
-master - Ex.21/5
-husband - Gen.18/12
-prince - Gen. 42/10
-king - 1 Sam.22/13
-father - Gen.31/25
-priest - 1Sam.1/15
-Moses - Ex.32/22

Gods personal name was Yahveh. The Jews out of respect used the name Adhon. Where it is used of god it is always pronounced Adoni or Adonay

(7) Yahweh.
The modern Heb. word is Yahveh. This is Gods OT personal name revealed to Moses Ex.6/2.

Actual word is YHWH. Heb. as has no vowels. The vowels are added to make sense of the name. The dead sea scrolls for eg were written completely in consonants. Vowels were invented & added in the 6 th century AD by a group known as the Masoretes. Hebrew ceased to be a spoken language after the Romans conquered the world. Only scholars spoke it.

Out of respect the Jews didn't (don't) pronounce YHWH. They pronounced the vowels of Adonay instead. The question is though why would God reveal his name to anyone and not want them to say it. Thats false piety.
3000 yrs after God revealed his personal name to Moses a Catholic priest (about 1500 A.D.)put Adonay & YHWH together to from a name Jehovah. In Hef's opinion that is nonsense.

(8)The compound names of God

- Yahveh Elohim - I am the mighty One. Gen 2/4
- Yahveh Jireh - The Lord will Provide. Gen. 22/14
- Yahveh Shalom - The Lord is our Peace. Judges 6- Yahveh Nissi - The Lord is my Banner. Ex.17/15
- Yahveh Tsidkenu - The Lord is our Righteousness Jer. 23/6
- Yahveh Tsebaoth - The Lord of Hosts Joshua 5/14
- Yahveh Shammah - The Lord is There. Ezek. 48/35
- Yahveh Rophaka or Rapha - The Lord who Heals

(9) Other Names

- The Holy One Of Israel
- The King
- The God of the Heavens
- The mighty One of Jacob
- The Mighty One of Israel
- The rock of Israel
- The Living One
- The Great One
- The Glorious One
- The Eternal One.

(10) Usage of the term ba'al.
The word is sometimes used of God.It was mainly used to designate the Idol that corrupted the Israelites. It means Owner Master Possessor Lord

[Updated on: Fri, 17 November 2017 18:26]

OT Theology # 5- The Tabernacle [message #12347 is a reply to message #6441 ] Mon, 01 January 2018 10:36 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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Worship- Mosaism

The place of the scriptures in Public worship
The place of worship
The tabernacle
Its arrangement
Its furnishings
The meaning and symbolism of the tabernacle
The sacred furnishings

[Updated on: Wed, 03 January 2018 14:48]

OT Theology # 3 The Doctrine of Sin. [message #12351 is a reply to message #6441 ] Mon, 01 January 2018 12:05 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Doctrine of Sin
The Hebrew concept of Guilt
The Old Testament Concept of Salvation
The Wrath of God
The Doctrine of Propitiation

The Doctrine of Atonement in the Old Testament

The concept of Imputation
The Necessity for the Blood Atonement

[Updated on: Wed, 03 January 2018 14:58]

OT Theology # 3 The Doctrine of Sin. [message #12352 is a reply to message #12351 ] Mon, 01 January 2018 12:05 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Doctrine of Sin

Why study it.

a) It is in the OT that sin is introduced to the human race
b) The consequences of sin are shown here
c) The remedy for it is shown here. Typified in the OT sacrifices.

The Biblical view of Man

a) Man has great dignity conferred on him by being created in the image of God
b) Man is also portrayed as a sinner.

The Liberal view of Man

a) He is not morally depraved but merely misguided. He needs education to straighten him out. Sin is merely a stumble in his upward evolution.
b)Since finite man cannot sin infinitely then infinite hell & punishment in an eternal hell is impossible.
c) Man is inherently good.

The conclusion

In both OT & NT the relationship between God & man because of sin is absolute alienation. Gen 3 God cursed man.
Ps. 58/3, Ps. 14/1-3, Ex.23/7, Ex. 34/7 Jer. 17/9

The Nature of Sin & Guilt in the OT
It falls into 5 classes depending on the term used.

a) Chata- to miss the mark or goal. This is the common word for sin in the OT. It includes sin against sin against God or man. This term signifies the objective act of sin ie. ones conduct, disobeying God.
Gen. 40/1, 42/1

b) Rasha- to be wicked. It expresses the inner character of the sinner. Also indicates an unregenerate man. a saint in the OT can sin but he is never called Rasha. The term usually denotes one who is guilty of a crime or who is disobedient & deserves punishment with the cause of it in himself. ie: he is wicked

c) Avah- To bend or twist- to pervert. This term speaks of the perverted inner character of the the wicked. Prov. 12/8, Jer. 23/31

d) Asham- denotes the state of the sinner before the law. He trespasses or is guilty. The term signifies liability & guilt to punishment through transgression of the law. The term is legal in character

e) pasha - The wilful rejection of Gods will and the refusal to obey him. The Jew viewed the whole OT as the law and viewed sin as not merely an error in judgement or merely missing the mark. But this term describes sin as an act of defiance against God.
Ezek.2/1-3, 7-8
Personal self-willed conscious defiance of the will of God.
Isaiah 43/27, 1/2, Jer.2/29

This is the basic term used in the OT to describe the deep nature of sin & rebellion against God.

[Updated on: Wed, 03 January 2018 14:58]

OT Theology # 2 Man [message #12374 is a reply to message #6441 ] Mon, 01 January 2018 13:14 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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[Updated on: Thu, 04 January 2018 19:42]

Re: OT Theology # 2 Man [message #12375 is a reply to message #12374 ] Mon, 01 January 2018 13:15 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Origin and Nature of Man in the Old Testament

The OT gives man a special place of value and dignity. Because in the beginning God created us in the image and likeness of God. In the OT man is portrayed with a vivid realism.
- in his 1st test he fails
- Cain kills Abel
- The flood because of evil
- Destroyed in Moses desert
- over & over sold into slavery in the promised land

The OT shows that man is not only what God made him but what he made himself : a sinner!

Terms for man

a) Adam the word means Adams name. It also has a generic use which means man or mankind. The word comes from a Heb. root that means red "Adom"
- Adomah- Heb. is land ground soil earth
- Edom red, soil earth. The area in the middle east known as Edom is all red sandstone

God made man out of the red soil hence the name Adam was given to "man" and when applied to 'that man" it meant his name.

b) Esh man masc. ;Eshah feminine. Gen.2/23

c) Esh- man sometimes used of God
man of war. esh of war.

d) Enosh ( also the name of Seth's son Gen. 4/26)
man or mankind in his mortality. -frail weak mortal subject to death. Job 25/6
Why call him Enosh? He is expressing that man is mortal.

This term Enosh is never used of the messiah in the OT. Dan.7/13 being the supposed exception. It simply means "like" the son of man. Identifying with us.

e) Giver. the opposite of Enosh. A strong & heroic man. ie; David Mainly used poetically.


This next section on evolution in the notes provided here I do not have in my notes. It was not in the original tape series. If anyone has notes on it please put them in. Or send them to me and I will put them in. PM me or email me.

b) The facts of science and the theory of evolution.

c) The three views of the origin of man.

d) The origin of the modern evolutionary theory and the weaknesses of Darwinism.

e) The refutation of organic evolution in the fields of Biology, Embryology, Paleontology, and Human Antiquity.

f) The refutation of theistic evolution.

[Updated on: Sun, 20 May 2018 19:11]

OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12389 is a reply to message #6441 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:09 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Spirit World in OT Thought


The Terms

There are 3 terms used a) is used of angels/ God & men
a) Malak angel or messenger
b) Bene Elohim sons of God Job1/6
c) mighty of mighty ones

The Origin of angels

a) the critical view
This is very involved but basically Israels religion came out of paganism & angels were really pagan gods.

b) The biblcal view

Yahweh has a royal court & its members are made up of angels cherubim, seraphim, living creatures, other creations. They are created spiritual beings that minister before him. 1 Kings 22/19, Ps.148/1-5

The OT Idea of Angels
a) Mediators Zech. 1/9, Dan. 9/21-2
-The explained the meaning of dreams and visions
- They protected and delivered. Heb.1/9 Dan.6/22
- They minister healing
-Dan.12/1 in the last days angels will minister deliverance to Israel.

b) They are personalities
Named as Gabrial & Michael

Angels and their Orders

a) Gabriel had a ministry of special revelation of God to man
He gave Revelation to Danial Dan.8/16,9/21
Zacharias & Mary. Luke 1/5,19,26

b) Michael. The head of the armies of Heaven.
Dan.10/13,21 one of the chief princes
Dan.12/1 the great prince
Rev.12/7 Michael is stronger than the devil- but Jude 9 he respected the devils authority.

c) Ezek 9/2-5 6 angels - one seems to be in charge

d) Zech. 2/1-3 The angel is always seen to be a servant of the Angel of the Lord

e) concerning rank and authority man is lower than the angels

Characteristics of Angels

a) supernatural wisdom 11 Sam.14/17,20

b) They have supernatural powers.
- Gen 18 angels but they eat
- Judges angels but didn't eat
- Gen 19/12-13 power over the forces of nature
- Gen 19 11power over man
Ps.104/4 They are spiritual beings

c) as to their features

- Gen.18/2 They often appear in visible form as men
- Gen sometimes appear as flame of fire
- They are invisible to ordinary sight but Prophets and donkeys can see them. Num. 2, 11 Kings 6

d) They are supernatural in their strength
Ps.103/20 They excel in strength

The origin of Angels

Ps. 104 God created them
Job 38/4-7 sons of god - Bene Elohim They were there in the beginning of our world.

Re: OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12390 is a reply to message #12389 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:12 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Cherubim

Meaning of the Word

a) A transposition. This is found in many commentaries. Change the letters a little and it becomes Chariot. Cherubim & chariot are very similar Heb. words. In the OT they are the chariots of the Lord so they say it is just a transposition.
Ps.104/3, Ps. 18/11, 1 Chron. 28/18

b) A compound word made up of 2 words. One is the preposition "like" and the other word "many or multitude" so the word would mean "like a multitude" or "great ones"
This is Bro. Freemans opinion

Usage of the Term

Gen. 3/24 the first mention
Ex.25/18 They were there on the ark.
1 Sam. 4/4 The ark was literally his throne
1 Kings 6/23 Solomon made carvings of them
1 Kings 7/29 they appear on the laver of water
Ps.18/10 They were his chariot
Ezek 1&10 designated as living creatures.
Ezek. 41/8-20 They appear as part of the decoration in the millennial temple.
Ezek. 28/14 Satan is called the anointed cherub

Mark here. I don't know why so many people call Satan an angel. He was one of the cherubim and apparently one with higher authority as it says he was the "anointed" cherub. Something else quite interesting here is that he was called the anointed cherub "that covereth" 1 Chron. 28/18 the cherubim "covered" the ark with their wings. So apparently not all the cherubim do the covering.

Description of the Cherubim

The OT suggests they are human in form with wings. Ezek 1/6
Ezek. 1/5 called living creatures & in 10/15 they are called cherubim
1/8 they have hands
When God chooses to localize himself he has a human form. We are created in that form.
Ex.25/20 They have faces which suggests they are human in form with wings. They can be diversified in form however God wanted to create them.
Ezek.1/6, 41/18. some have 2 faces and some have 4 faces.
Ezek 1 They have eyes all over.
Rev. 4/7 The 4 faces are seen on 4 different creatures.

Mark here again. It looks to me as angels and other spiritual creatures there are various orders of the Cherubim. Differing in ability function intelligence and to some degree form.

The meaning and function of the cherubim

They always appear in the closest relationship to God. They covered the ark. They are bearers of the manifestation of God when he appears in his glory. Ezek.1,10, 1 Chron. 18/11
They are seen as guardians making inaccessible anything unholy in the presence of God.

Ex.25 They overshadow the ark and cover it with their wings.
Cherubim are seen to have the highest exalted positions of privilege and fellowship. He chose to create them to guard his holiness. God has made them so powerful that they symbolize guarding his throne. God doesn't really need anyone to do that.

The 4 faces seem to suggest
1/ man - wisdom or omniscience
2/ the ox - power strength omnipotence
3/ the eagle - soaring omnipresence
4/ the lion - sovereignty

They do symbolize something but we don't know exactly what. Some suggest they symbolize the whole created order eg man beast domesticated animal & birds.
Ezek 41 2 faces man & lion. This could symbolize a man and the lion of Judah. Why 4 faces? They don't have to turn around.

Re: OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12391 is a reply to message #12389 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:14 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Seraphim

The word means "to burn".
The term is used in Num. 21 of the fiery serpents.

Seraph fiery serpent. From the verb seraph - to burn
Isaiah 6. The only place we see them in the bible.
vs 7 The Seraph as a divinely appointed instrument for the purification of the prophets sin appears with heavenly fire and cleanses the his unholiness. God didn't do it personally. He sent a being to do it. Their appearance seems divinely intended to symbolize certain spiritual truth.

They have 6 wings.
- 2 wings covered their faces. This indicates no created being however exalted can bear to look on the full divine glory of God
-2 wings covered their feet. symbolic of reverence and submission.
- with 2 wings their flew. Indicating swiftness in obeying the divine commands.

In function they have the office and privilege of continually praising god and declaring his absolute holiness. He is not vain and cannot know pride. He is absolutely perfect.
They are his ministers to perform his will however we don't know what that will is.

[Updated on: Mon, 08 October 2018 21:00]

Re: OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12392 is a reply to message #12389 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:16 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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Demonology in the OT

1/ Israel was knowledgeable on the subject.The apostate Israelites in Egypt and in the desert worshiped demons & knew it.
Deut. 3/16-17, with 1 Cor 10/20

2/ Evil spirits and their activities are mentioned in many places in the OT. The OT is filled with teaching on the subject & the NT just assumes you know and understand it.

a) lying spurts 1 Kings 22/20-23
Job 1-2 God is in sovereign control of the kingdom of darkness
b) oppressing spirits 1 Sam.16/14-16,23, 19/9
c) occult spirits Deut 18/9-12
d) sacrifice & worship of demons Deut 32/16-17 Lev.17/7 Ps. 106 36-38

3/ Habitations of demons
Is. 34/14, 13/19-21

4/ Using a medium to consult the dead
1 Sam. 28, Lev. 20/6

5/occultism is severely punished in the OT
Ex.22/18, Lev. 19/26,31 1 Chron. 10/13-14

6/ In a real sense the OT dispensation continues to the cross. The Jews in the NT prior to the cross were familiar with deliverance and the need of it.
Matt. 12/24-27 exorcism was a common practice in Israel. No explanation was given on either side of the cross.
Acts 19/3 Jews had a deliverance ministry. There is nothing to suggest they weren't effective
Matt.10 The commission to cast out demons. No explanation is given or why they were present in people.

7/ Many of the commands in the mosaic law have reference to the former occult practices of the Israelites.

8/ The prohibitions against certain funeral practices. eg cutting yourself cutting hair. Lev.19/27-28

9/ A prohibition against bestiality. (cohabitation with animals)
This is not uncommon in occultism and witchcraft.
Lev. 19/27-28

10/ A prohibition against eating certain foods because of their close connection with the occult. snakes, swine, stork, frogs, some birds which dwell in ruins (which are the habitations of demons) crows
You have to get the whole teaching on clean and unclean foods. Nothing is unclean in itself These are religious considerations.

Origins of Demons

If God had wanted us to know where demons came from he would have told us. The bible just assumes their existence. All these theories are wrong.


a) Demons are fallen angels. This comes out of the book of Enoch in the apocrypha. The problem is in the bible there are demons and fallen angels. Jesus never cast out fallen angels.
b) They are a fallen pre-adamic race of men.
c) Josephus said demons are the spirits of the wicked dead
d) Jewish tradition has it that demons are the offspring of Adam and Lilith( a female demon)
e) another one is the giants (nephilim) of Gen 6 died in the flood and became demons

Sphere of Existence

1/ In the heavenly regions. Eph.6 spirits of wickedness in heavenly places. Satan is the prince of the power of the air.

2/ They are the powers behind the secular govt.
Luke 4/5-8 Dan.10/2-14 All good interpreters & the Jews agree the prince of Persia is the satanic prince
Eph.6 The rulers of the darkness of this world.
They are in control of Govt, occult powers, education systems,banking systems, medical systems

3/ Desolate ruins in the desert. Jesus called them dry places
Is. 13/19-21, 34/14, Matt. 12/43
These creatures are the names of demons

4/ In people or in close connection with people to bind oppress influence and control. Mark 1/23, Luke 4/38-39

5/ In the Pit. Rev.9/1-11 Luke 8/30-31. Jesus evidently had authority to cast them there. They didn't want to go there so there must be some there already.

6/ In the Future?
In the millennium they will be bound in the pit with Satan. Is.14/12-15 Rev.20/1-3. If the devil is there then his hosts are there with him. In the eternal state they will be in the lake of fire. rev. 20/10

Re: OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12393 is a reply to message #12389 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:18 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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Exorcism in the OT

1/ It was practised in Israel. Matt.12, Acts 19. It is implied by the NT references before the corss.

2/Josephus - He mentions Solomon practised exorcism so it must have been Jewish tradition. He said he was the wisest man & he knew how to cast out demons.

3/ Jewish rabbinical literature deals with exorcism

Protection against the Devil & Evil Spirits in the OT.

It is implied by the use of the blood.
Ex.12 They put it on the doorposts

Ps.78 48-51 evil angels brought the plagues
The pious Israelite would see a connection between the blood over the house and protection. The blood of the sacrifices was constantly before him. they would draw the connection.

Those involved in the occult know the power of these demons & invoke incantations and sacrifices to protect themselves. The OT had laws against any incantation or magic rites or appeal to any demon or god for protection. The Israelite would then call on the Lord for protection. In the NT Jesus said use my name. Mark 16/17

Classes of Demons

1/ Se'irim singular Si'ir
Translated demon, satyr, He Goat
Lev.17/7, Deut. 32/16-17
This class of demons were spoken of & worshipped & propitiated in the pre-moasic period. They are spoken of as goats. Satan himself often appears as a he-goat. He often appears with 3 horns instead of two. He goats are often trained to have sex with witches. It is in their history and it happens today. The prohibitions in Lev are because of this. It did and does happen. In astrology the 10th sign of the occult was the goat. It was considered by the ancients as the strongest & most important because it represented the devil.

2/ The Shedim.

It comes from a root that means mighty one "or" it comes from a root that means destruction
Deut. 32/17, Ps. 106/37 Israelite's sacrificed to this class of demon. In occultism this demon always appears with claws like a rooster. In animal form but with rooster claws.

3/ Lilith from the Babylonian Lilitu

The KJV translates this the "screech owl" There is no basis for translating it this way. This is the female night demon. Same in Babylon. In Jewish folklore this was Adams first wife before Eve. In Jewish thought as well as occult thought she is the female demon that seduces men at night. This is not far fetched except they aren't really male or female. Incubus & succubus spirits fall in here. Demons can manifest them self as either male or female but Lilith is always female & is common today in the occult. This demon is so prominent in occultism and found so far back that it is included in the scriptures.

Re: OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12394 is a reply to message #12389 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:20 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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Spiritism (Spiritualism) in the OT

Deut. 18/9-12 Spiritism is the name for all these things. Some occult functions overlap.

1/ Witchcraft or Sorcery

The Heb. word is sorcery. KJV is witchcraft. (an English term)
Keshph - sorcery
The Syriac and Arabic form means to cut & pray. To cu refers to cutting your body in religious ceremonies. to pray refers to communication with their heathen gods. A witch can be male or female but it has now come to mean a warlock fora male. A witch is usually a female as mostly women practise it. The Heb. terms of r sorceress or sorcerer are definitely male or female. A witches coven is headed by a high priestess sometimes a high priest too but the powerful one is the women. The emphasis on the sorceress or female is the concept of fertility in the female. The concept of the mother goddess is prevalent in all sorcery & witchcraft even today. It is mostly women involved in this. Most fortunetelling is by women. Most water divining is by men. Astrologers have been men throughout history but today it about evenly divided.

Nature and Characteristics of Sorcery in the OT

a) 1 Sam.28 They consult the dead
b) Ex.7/11 They practise magic
c) Dan. /2 They interpret dreams
d) Jer. 27/9-10 They practise divination
e) They use drugs. Throughout history there is the implied use of drugs. It always had a prominent place in occultism but especially in sorcery. There is no verse that says this but it is there indirectly. The Septuagint translates the word for sorcery as pharmacy. Pharmakia. Gal. 5/20 uses this Gr. word. It is translated into English as witchcraft. The point is they use this Gr. word pharmakia and translate it back to the Heb. meaning of sorcery.

Drugs are used in magical rituals as well as for heightened sexual awareness etc. Medical science has its origins in witchcraft & witch doctors. It comes directly out of witchcraft. The use of drugs and hypnosis to heal both physical & mental problems comes directly out of witchcraft. This is why you never find drugs or physicians or remedies in Israel.

Divination in the OT

The Heb. term is Qesem. - divination. The original meaning is to divide.
The connection comes from an astrologer dividing up the heavens and then discerning the futre by looking at it. Divination a more comprehensive tern than astrologer. Anything that predicts or discerns the future falls under this heading. Foretelling
In the OT a diviner was a soothsayer, false prophet, fortune teller who predicted the future. The diviner looked for signs of future events in many ways
- entrails of sacrificed animal
- flight of birds
- reading tea leaves or coffee grounds. break an egg in the water etc.
- arrows falling to the ground
- consulting the terraphin
- inspection of animal livers
Ezek.21/21 1 Sam. 6/2 1 Sam. 28, the witch of Endor divined
It was common among the Canaanites and condemned by god Deut. 18/14-18

Gen. 44/ Joseph's divining cup?
Every ruler had a divining cup. His point was obviously to confuse them and bring them back. The rulers divining cup was his most important possession. A divining cup was a very valuable possession & easy to carry away. He was either doing it to confuse them or when he became second ruler along with a golden throne he would get all the trappings of royalty. That would include a divining cup.
Joseph himself said over and over he got his revelations direct from the Lord. He got his predictions & interpretation of dreams etc. He always got his revelation from the word.
a) It is totally out of line with OT teaching that Joseph was involved in this.
b) Deut. 18 clearly condemns it even if someone wants to interpret this some other way

Re: OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12395 is a reply to message #12389 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:22 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Necromancer sometimes translated Familiar Spirit.

The Hebrew Term.

The English term comes from two Gr. terms meaning "dead" & "divination". The Heb. term is "Ov"


It means a bottle. An empty bottle. This could refer to the empty haunting sound a wind makes in an empty bottle. Or the hollow haunting sound of a spirit speaking through a trumpet at a seance or when they speak out of a mans mouth at a seance. Demons have to have a set of vocal chords to speak through. Thats why he has to have the medium go into a trance and then uses him. The more powerful ones create their own vocal chords but still need a trumpet to magnify their voice. Sometimes the demons don't show so many mediums are good ventriloquists.


The Sept. translates the Heb. "Ov" as ventriloquist. It was the Heb. scholars who translated it that way.
Is. 8/19 speaks of "Ov's" as those who peep and mutter.
Is. 29/4 suggests the low muttering voice of the medium
/31, 20/6,27, Deut.18/11, 1 Kings 21/6, 23/24, 1 Chron. 10/13, 11 Chron.33/6, Is.19/3
1 Sam. 28 This account give a complete picture of what an Ov does. She is called in Heb. the mistress of the bottle or possessor of the bottle.

Familiar spirit

It is called in the KJV a familiar spirit because even today a medium is possessed with a spirit of divination and it is the same spirit every time. So called familiar

What actually happens in a seance?

The demon (familiar spirit) takes total possession. The medium knows nothing. They are in a total trance and unaware of anything going on. Many times a substance called ectoplasm (the life processes of the body) comes out of the body orifices. Oral sexual etc.
The medium always has a spirit guide who will manifest through him always impersonating some important person. eg Napoleon, an Indian chief, Cleopatra. etc. They will act as a medium between this world & the next.
When someone goes to a medium to seek a deceased loved one the spirit guide impersonating a spirit from the other side goes and gets him/her and they then impersonate that perLev.19son to talk to the inquirer.

In other words a deceiving spirit comes through the medium and impersonates the dead loved one. Speaking with the loved ones voice.

Re: OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12396 is a reply to message #12389 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:25 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Wizard

The Hebrew Term.

It comes from an old English word meaning wise one.
The Heb. term is Yiddoni- to know


The meaning is someone who is wise in the ways of the spirit world. Always in the OT they are mentioned with necromancers so the two must overlap.
Is. 8/19 Lev.19/31. Their knowledge is not from God and it will defile those who use it.


The Hebrew Term.
Heb. Chartim
The Heb term doesn't mean magician but engraver or scribe. Magician is used in a derived sense. An engraver is copying or carving. He is skilled in the use of his hands. The derived meaning is a magician is skillful in use of his hands. ie: sleigh of hand

Usage of the Term

Ex 7, Dan 1&2, Is. 47/12-15
Did the magicians of Egypt really practice magic or did they just use sleigh of hand. We have to distinguish today's sleigh of hand magicians who are entertainers with the OT. In OT times they practiced magic worked charms & cast spells. Ex. 7 says they did what Moses did. Pharaoh woudn't have been impressed if it had only been sleigh of hand.

11Thess. 2/9 The antichrists lying wonders. It doesn't mean they aren't real. Rev. 13/1-15
The attitude of the bible is always hostile.
Acts 8 Simon the magician was in the bondage of iniquity.
Acts 13/6-12 He was an instrument of the devil.
Deut. 18, 2 Kings 21/6 Manasseh sins
Acts 19/18-19 shows a true conversion


The Hebrew Term
Heb. Anan It comes from a noun which is the Heb word for cloud. The derived meaning is from looking up at the heavens where the clouds are.

It was probably used to divine by the clouds ie: cloud gazer
Eventually the connections between the words were lost and just the word was left.


Heb. is Nachash. The word means to murmur hiss or divine. The same term is used for snake. There is an obvious conclusion here by the Heb. A snake hypnotizes his prey with his eyes


Heb. Chever. The word means spell or charm and is quite similar to enchanter. Bro. Freeman believes the difference is the enchanter casts spells on people but the charmer was hypnotist who worked through the eye gate to reach the mind & spirit.

Re: OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12397 is a reply to message #12389 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:28 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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His Existence and Personality

His existence is confirmed because he is mentioned in 6 different books in the OT.
Gen.,Job, Isaiah, Ezek., Zech., 1 Chron.
Every writer in the NT mentions him. He is a person. A personality. Personal pronouns are used of him. He has the marks of personality.
- rational speech Job 1,2 Zech.3, Gen 3
- He has a will and purpose to perform Is 14/12-14

His nature

- he is a created being Ezek. 28/15
- He is a cherub Ezek. 28/14
- He is of a higher order than the angels Jude 8-9

His Career

Before his fall he was found on the holy mountain of God Ezek.28
At present he is in the heavenly regions He has access to Gods throne when God permits it. Job1/7, Zech 3/1
In the millennium he will be bound in the abyss. Rev. 20
In eternity he will be cast into the Lake of fire.

His present sphere of activity

a) He exercises general control over the entire world. 1John 5/19 to cause as much ruin as possible.
b) He exercises political control John 12/31,Luke 4
c) he has ecclesiastical control over all forms of apostate religion. all cults and non christian religion. He even has some influence over some christian churches. 11 Cor. 4/4, 11/13-15
d) He has spiritual control over the whole world not the church but the world. Matt 13/38 John 8/44

Just a note here. Satan is the little "g" god of this world. He is the one who rules it. Luke 4/5-6 "for that is delivered unto me" He exercises bureaucratic control over all the world. He is responsible under God for all the orderly running of the world. That the wind moves the tides roll people eat the seasons come on time political systems rise and fall as they should. Think of the myriad control our gov'ts exercise over us. That we have police and army roads are built and repaired Water to drink. Our various gov'ts see to itthat our countries run properly. He does exactly the same for the whole world. He is responsible to God for seeing that the earth runs the way it should. In Job 1 we see him coming to God to give a report on how things are in his dominions. This happens in every country and company in the world. Ministers secretaries and managers coming to their boss to give a report on their department. This is a very big subject and obviously one can't cover all all the angles.

The Terms

Satan. The word means adversary. The term is also used of men and even God.
11Kngs 5/4,1 Sam.29/4, 11Sam.19/22, Ps. 38/20
Num.22/22 God was an adversary to him. As theology and history developed we begin to see him recognized as a personality. In Zech.3/1 we have the words Satan and resist. They are both the same word. In the Heb. one is capitalized and one isn't.

The Serpent

The question is . . . is Satan a serpent? In both Gen. and Rev. he appears as a serpent. In the occult there are strong references to satan as a serpent. He is often seen in vision as a serpent. Ezek. 28 shows he is a Cherub not a literal serpent
Why is shown as a serpent then? Because it describes his deceiving deceptive and poisoness nature. To speak with Eve he had to have a mouth to speak through. Being immaterial he had to possess the serpent. It is a as common for demons to possess animals as people.

So why the snake?

a) it was more rational and intelligent than any other creature
b) it could talk and communicate
c) it wasn't in the form then that it is now. It probably had legs and maybe wings. There is no way to tell what it looked like before the fall.
d) The curse was also put onto the snake. It allowed itself to be used. Obviously there was moral culpability or God god would never have judged it.
11cor. 11/3, Rev. 12/9 all the devil
It appears the serpent was more beautiful and intelligent than any other creature under man & could talk as well. In the Apocrypha (Wisdom 2/24) the Jews had already come to same conclusion as Paul in 11Cor. 11/3
In Rom. 16/20 Paul connects Satan with Gen.3/15

Re: OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12398 is a reply to message #12389 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:38 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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Evil Spirits

Everything in the OT was under the sovereignty of God
- Judges 9/23 an evil spirit
- 1 Sam.16/14-16 - a troubling spirit
- 1 Kings 22/22 - a lying spirit

The OT shows the total sovereignty of God in dealing with evil spirits. In the NT we realize the same truth but also that they are under the control and authority of Satan


It is supposed to mean "The Lord of the Flies" 11 Kings 1/2
Ekron was a philistine city that made images of their diseases. 1 Sam. 5/6 Archeologists in excavating the city have found golden flies.
In the NT he is called Beelzebub.
- Matt.12/26 Jesus identifies him with Satans kingdom
- Mark 3/22 He is called the prince of demons so must be the devil
So according to this the philistines were worshiping the devil directly. 1 Cor. 10/20 The Jews believed that the gentiles sacrificed to demons.
So in 11 Kings 1/2 By bypassing Yahveh the God of the Jews to go to the god of philistines that god must be very important. They knew him to be Satan the chief god of heaven. It was the King of Israel that did this not just some Joe. It shows the Jews considered him to be very important. The point here is this is why the NT Jews had picked up his name and applied it to the devil.
This is one of those bits of theology that was developed between the testaments. Because Jesus never did any teaching or explaining about Beelzebub. Many things like this were developed during this period. Bro Freeman believes God directed their thinking & theology to reach some of these conclusions.

The King of Babylon and The King of Tyre

Isaiah 14 and Ezek 28. Conservatives have always believed that these two passages have figurative reference to the Satan.

Isaiah 14 Three main views.

a) It refers to the King of Babylon alone
b) It refers to Satan alone
c) It refers to both Anti-Christ and Satan and not the King of Babylon alone

Why is # 3 the correct view

To properly determine for yourself much study in Isaiah Ezek. Zech. Danial Matt. Rev. is needed which is not the scope of this study.

a) The passage is prophetic. It starts with reference with the future day of Israels rest and triumph over her enemies. Future tenses are employed in the passage. eg vs. 3

b) The passage is addressed to the future king of Babylon. The bible clearly teaches a Babylon yet to come (Rev. 17-18) whose ruler is Anti-Christ Rev. 13-17. When Anti-Christ comes he will be supported by Satan.

c) In vs 12-14 the language moves beyond Anti-Christ to Satan himself. Then in vs 15 it returns back to the king of Babylon.

d)There are several passages where He is addressed through others that he influences or possesses.
Gen. 3 God addressed Satan through the serpent
Matt. 16/22-23 Jesus addressed the devil through Peter
John 13/27 Jesus addresses Satan through Judas

The point here is the language of Isaiah 14 cannot be limited to a mere king of Babylon and God is addressing Satan through the king or anti-Christ.

Ezek. 28

VS. 2 - This is exactly what Anti-Christ says in 11Thess. 2/3-4. The language of Ezek 28 goes far beyond what a mere man would be.
properly determine for yourself much study in Isaiah, Ezek., Zech., Danial, Matt.,

There is a solid discussion on this in the OT prophets book pages 304-408

Re: OT Theology # 4 - The Spirit World [message #12399 is a reply to message #12389 ] Thu, 04 January 2018 19:40 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Angel of the Lord

The Heb. term here is Mallack Yahveh. Zech. 1/8-12 This term occurs in many passages in the OT. The question is though to whom does it refer? The context show it is not an angel but deity and the per-incarnate Christ.

For those who don't know. In the KJV and probably the other versions as well when the word "LORD or GOD" appears with all letters capitalized it is Gods personal name of "Yahveh" being used

- Hagar - Gen 16/9-13 vs 13 she called the Angel who spoke to her Yahveh.
- Gen.18/-3 vs 1 - Yahweh, vs 3 Adonai -deity
- Gen. 19/11-12,18 The angel of the Lord calls himself God
- Gen 3/11-13 The angel of the Lord is the God of Bethel
- Ex. 3/2-4 the burning bush

they are commanded to obey him
he has the power to forgive or not forgive. Mark 2 Jesus
- Ex. 13/19, 14/21 The angel in the pillar of fire was called God. It was his presence
- Joshua 5/13-14 He wouldn't worship an angel. The ground was holy indicating the presence of deity.

The early church believed the angel of the Lord was God as well. clement of Rome wrote of Moses and Joshua seeing God when he appeared as an angel in the biblical passages.

- Judges 2/1 He appeared to Israel
- Judges 6/11 Gideon
- Judges - parents of Samson
- 1 Sam.24/16
- 1 Kings 19 Elijah's flight

Only this particular angel is called Malack Yahveh. God enthroned himself on the ark as his throne. Students of the bible have always concluded that the Malack Yahveh was God himself. A theophany. A temporary manifestation of the pre-incarnate Christ. In the NT after the incarnation the angels are never called Mallack Yahveh but just angels & when Jesus appears it is in his permanent glorified body.

OT Theology # 6 The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12402 is a reply to message #6441 ] Tue, 09 January 2018 19:32 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Origin of Sacrifices

Critical theories of their origin- Most think that Israel got their sacrifices is Egypt and added to it from the heathen in Canaan.

1. Gift theory ; Sacrifices were originally gifts given to their God to get some favor.

2. Magic theory: Through the offering of the blood of a substitute on an alter the disease or sin of the people would be magically transferred to the animal (JDS believe this although they use the term mystical)

3. The table bond theory: Sacrifices were meals which the man and his participated in eating and thus establishing a bond of fellowship. Their God didn't actually eat but the idea of communion was there. Some believe this was the original meaning.

4. Sacramental communion theory: A modification of the table bond theory. The sacrifice represented the God and when the worshiper ate it he incorporated into himself the life and power of his God. (this is the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation)

5. The Homage theory ; Sacrifice is rooted in the desire to pay homage to the deity.

6. The Religious Instinct theory: Man is by nature religious so he desired to give something of himself to his deity. Its an instinct.

7. The Canaanite view: Israel picked up the religious sacrifice from her Canaanite neighbors .

The Reply: Israelite Sacrifice was of Divine Origin

This is seen in the contrast between Israel and her neighbors. The purity of Israel versus cruelty and fertility rites etc.

Logical Considerations

How did Israels get so pure? Much heathen worship had fertility rites (Canaan) and human sacrifice. Israels was completely free of this.
Issac? This was a test of Abrahams loyalty
Jephthah? Judges 11. There is no evidence he actually sacrificed her and may have simply consecrated her to a life of perpetual virginity.
Duet.18/10 prohibited human sacrifice as an abomination to God.

Biblical Considerations

Sacrifice didn't originate in Canaan or Egypt but goes right back to the garden. Sacrifices were the only acceptable method of worship by the patriarchs from whom the nation descended. It goes right back to Abel and all of Genesis.
Gen.8/20-=22 Noah offers a burnt offering which appeased Gods wrath and caused him to enter into a covenant with mankind.
Job 1/4-5 - about 2000 BC. (in marks opinion . . . Job lived before the flood)
From the beginning righteous men have seen the need of blood sacrifices to appease Gods wrath against sin. Gen. 22/7 Issac expressed surprise that Abraham hadn't brought a sacrifice.
The book of Genesis know of no other sacrifice than a whole burnt offering. In the history of Abel, Noah, Abraham, Issac, Jacob, Job we have evidence of the rite of sacrifice. Long before Moses and Israel in Egypt. Where ever the patriarchs pitched their tents they built an alter.

Gen.31/54 There was one sacrifice other than a whole bunt offering.
Israel came into Egypt with a knowledge of sacrifice. In Leviticus there is a positive admonition against adopting any of the sacrifices of Canaan and Egypt. Prior to the flood there was no meat eaten. All the animals killed before the flood wern't for food it is therefore implied they were for sacrifice.

The conclusion was that sacrifice was the acceptable form of worship by the patriarchs long before Israel ever came on the scene. We see blood sacrifice from Gen. 4 on.

[Updated on: Tue, 09 January 2018 19:33]

Re: OT Theology # 6 The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12403 is a reply to message #12402 ] Tue, 09 January 2018 20:12 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The essential idea in sacrifice

Critical Views and incorrect ideas

1. A sacrificial meal: A communion of God and man. This doesn't explain the many types of sacrifice in Israel. It also doesn't explain why prior to Israel and Moses the only sacrifice was whole burnt offering with no meal or communion involved.

2. Self Surrender: You find this idea in burnt offering but it doesn't explain all the other sacrifices. It is also confusing the emotions of the giver with the purpose of the sacrifice. What is being surrendered is the victim.

3. Self Interest: By giving something to your God you get something in return. (seed faith) You don't serve God because it pays.

4. A Fine: like violating a traffic law

5. A Gift: This idea comes from Gen.4. Their offerings were gifts. This whole theory stands or falls or the use of the Heb. term here. The technical terms for sacrifices didn't come into use until Moses. The word in Genesis for gift is just a generic term. A general term.

Some think the reason Abels sacrifice was received and Cains wasn't was because of the value of the gift. Abels was much more valuable. Some think it was because (Heb.11/4) Abel offered his in faith. It says his faith caused him to make a certain action. The point though is the kind of sacrifice he offered by faith.

The question here is why was Abels sacrifice better than Cains. It says God testified of his gifts. His faith in action led him to offer a particular offering. If Cain didn't have any faith he wouldn't have offered anything. The point being he didn't obey God and offer a right sacrifice.
The problem wsn't with Cains sacrifice of grain because in Israel there was a most holy meal offering. The difference between them was Cains sacrifice was an inanimate object. Abels was life for a life. A blood sacrifice offered in faith in response to a previous revelation that must have come prior to Gen.4 God accepted Abels offering. Heb.11/4 Abels offering is called a sacrifice. A blood atonement.

The essential idea in Sacrifice: Vicarious atonement

The essential idea in Sacrifice is substitutionary blood offering made to God by his appointed ministers upon his alter with the object of covering sin and appeasing or propitiating the wrath of God. Thus restoring those upon whose behalf it is offered to fellowship and communion with God and expressing either penitence homage gratitude thanksgiving dedication consecration communion and entreaty for divine blessing.

[Updated on: Wed, 10 January 2018 09:48]

Re: OT Theology # 6 The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12404 is a reply to message #12402 ] Wed, 10 January 2018 10:40 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Definition of Sacrifice

Sacrifice is to be defined as:
A substitutionary blood offering made to God by his appointed ministers upon his alter with the object of covering sin and appeasing or propitiating the wrath of God. Thus restoring those upon whose behalf it is offered to fellowship and communion with God and expressing either penitence homage gratitude thanksgiving dedication consecration communion and entreaty for divine blessing.

Hebrew Sacrificial Terminology

1. The Generic Terms

a) Minchah: A gift or offering. Comes from a word that means to give or lend.
b) Zevach An OT term for sacrifice. Comes from a word which means to slaughter either for food or sacrifice.
c) Ishsheh: An offering made by fire. Comes from the word for fire.
d) Qorban: An offering or gift. Mark 7/11

2. The Specific Terms

a) 'olah: The whole burnt offering. It comes from a word that means to go up or ascend.
b) Zevach shelamim : The peace offering. Comes from a verb that means to be complete or whole. It means a complete or whole peace with God. Literally it is "The sacrifice of completeness"
c) Chattath: The sin offering. Comes from root word meaning to sin. (which means to Miss the mark)
d) 'asham: The guilt or trespass offering.
e) Minchah: The meal offering (grain). KJV is the meat offering.
f) Nesek: A drink offering. Comes from a word that means to pour out.
g) Shemen: The oil burned in the lamp (pure olive oil)
h) Libation of water: 1Sam.7/6, 11Sam.23/16 This must have been revealed to Samuel as it wasn't part of the of the levitical law. It was observed with the feast of tabernacles and poured out on the alter. The Jewish writers in interpreting this said they poured out their hearts like water before the Lord.

The prominent OT sacrificial term: Kipper

It means to cover over the sin.
Gen.6/14 pitch- kipper
Gen.32/20 appease(kipper)his eyes

Re: OT Theology # 6 The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12405 is a reply to message #12402 ] Wed, 10 January 2018 12:08 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The classification of Levitical sacrifices

The National Sacrifices

1. The Serial Offerings (a series)

a) Daily offerings: Morning and evening a burnt offering on behalf of the nation (Israel) It was a one year old lamb with meal and drink offerings. It is called continual because it is offered daily.

b) Weekly offerings: Morning and evening double the daily offering.

c) Monthly offering: Offered on the new moon sabbath.
- two bullocks a ram and seven lambs with meal and drink offerings
- the regular daily offerings
- a sin offering- a kid goat

2. The Festal (Festival) Offerings

The Passover Cycle of Feasts

a) The Lords Passover: Ex. 12 Celebrated on the 14th day of Nissan. Nissan is the 1st month of the religious year. There were two calendars in the OT; civil and religious.

b) The feast of unleavened bread: It started on the 15 Nissan and lasted 7 days. (Nissan is a month in the Jewish calendar)
It isn't the same as the Passover but connected to it. The 1st and 7th days were Sabbaths. The daily offerings were offered then two bullocks a ram and seven lambs with meal and drink offerings. In addition to that a kid (goat) was offered for a sin offering on each of the 7 days.

c) Pentecost: The 3thd feast in the Passover cycle.It occurred 50 days after the feat of Pentecost and it lasted one day. It is also called the feast of harvest, feast of first fruits or feast of weeks. In addition to the daily burnt offering were peace offerings and meal offerings.

The Cycle of the Seventh Month

a)The Feast of Rams Horns (Trumpets): Celebrated in the month Tisri. The civil new year. The fist day of Tisri was new years. It was also the new moon of the seventh month.Offerings ere the daily burn to offering a new moon offering plus a bullock a ram and 7 lambs.

b) The Day of Atonement: This was the 10 day of the 7th month. A day of fasting and repentance for Israel. The priest had to offer a sin offering for himself first. The sin offering was a bullock and a ram. For the people he offered two goats. This was very important and will be explained later.

c) The feast of Tabernacles (feast of booths): Most Jews today still celebrate it. The 15th day of the 7th month. It was also called the feast of ingathering. They build booths out of leaves and branches to commemorate their wilderness wanderings. It lasted an entire week. 70 bullocks were offered over the week in an ascending scale. This is the only feast mentioned in Zech. 14 as being in the millennium.

3. The Offerings for the Service of the Holy Place

a) Holy oil: pure olive oil was brought (offered) by the people to burn in the lampstand. Lev. 24/1-4
b) Incense for burning on the alter in the holy place
c) Offerings of the showbread

4. The Extraordinary Offerings

a) At the erection of the tabernacle and temple. This was not required by the law but the people desired to do it.
b) At the consecration of Aaron. This was required by law
c) The offerings of the mirrors by the Hebrew women to make a laver for the priests.
d) A sin offering was offered at Achans sin.
e) A sin offering was offered after the sin of Korah.

These were all offerings at special occasions

[Updated on: Wed, 10 January 2018 12:39]

Re: OT Theology # 6 The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12406 is a reply to message #12402 ] Wed, 10 January 2018 13:35 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Official Sacrifices

1. The Priestly Offerings Lev. 4/3

- the priest that sinned had to offer a special sacrifice.
- If he accidentally erred in his responsibilities he had to offer a offering. eg touching a dead body
- The day of atonement began (Lev.16) with priest offering an offering for himself.
- he had to offer offerings at the consecration of a priest into his service.

2. The Offerings for Rulers - Kings princes and civil rulers

Generally these were very elaborate. Lev. 4/22-26 Sin offerings were made for them. This happened at the dedication of the temple by Solomon. At the return of the ark by David

The Personal Sacrifices for the Individuals

1. Blood Sacrifices

- burnt offerings
- peace offerings
- sin offerings
- trespass offerings

2. Bloodless offerings

- vegetable offerings
- meal offerings

In each of the 5 offerings there was s sixfold ritual that had to take place or the offering would not be accepted.
- presentation of the substitute
- the laying on of hands on the head of the substitute by the offerer.
- the slaying of the animal
- the sprinkling of the blood on the alter for the covering
- the burning of the sacrifice on the great alter
- the sacrificial meal (in most sacrifices)

The Material of the Offerings.
Animal and Vegetable

1.Classification of Clean and Unclean Animals for Food

a) Large animals - clean animals chew the cud and divide the hoof
b) Water animals - clean ones had to have scales and fins
c) Birds - there was no classification as to physical characteristics. There 20 named in Lev. In Deut. there are 21. Unclean birds generally were birds of prey, waders, bats, and storks.
d) small creatures - only the grasshopper was clean.(locust) It was a special type locust they ate. Anything that crawled or creeped was unclean.
Generally birds and animals that ate living things were unclean

Why these distinctions in Foods?

Lev. 20/23-26 It was impressed on Israel on every sphere of life the fact that it was people separated form the world into God. This is the reason for distinctions about food.

Animals acceptable for sacrifice

Of the clean animals the distinction was domesticated. ie: cattle sheep goats doves and pigeons. No animal could be offered that was taken in hunting. No fish could be offered (Dagon- the philistine fish god. The animal had to be at least 8 days old or else they were unclean.

There are no more religious distinctions concerning foods in the NT.
Mark 7/14-23 Jesus cleansed meat by his teaching here.
Col. 2/14, 20-22

Vegetable or Bloodless sacrifices

a) grain roasted by fire (KJV calls it corn) grains of wheat
b) flour mixed with oil and frankincense.
c )unleavened bread or cakes

The Principle on which the Blood and Bloodless Offerings were fixed

1. It was chosen out of the ordinary food and nourishment of the people. Animals they had raised or food they had grown. They offered an offering for themselves out of these.
2. In doing so they sanctified their calling ie: farmers and shepherds not businessmen
3. It testified to Gods blessings on the labour of their hands.

In the study of book of Levitucus Lev. 17/11 is the key verse. The purpose of the book is Lev.19/2. To make holy. 1 Peter 1/16 quotes this. Out of all the books of the bible Lev. is the most inspired. It bears witness of its divine inspiration. We find God speaking directly. Sacrifice is the heart of the gospel so God himself speaks directly without intermediary so they get it right. All heathen cultures had sacrifice and if you mess up here there is no atonement.

The book of Lev. teaches us:

1. man is sinful
2. God is holy
3. man must have a means of approach to God if he is to have fellowship and communion

OT Theology #7 The Offerings (Specific Sacrifices) [message #12407 is a reply to message #6441 ] Thu, 11 January 2018 12:49 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Whole Burnt Offering

The Text
Lev.1/1-17, Lev.6/8-13 an offering of sweet savor

Heb. Term
Olah- from a verb which mans to go up or ascend

The Ritual

The sinner had to personally bring his substitute. He couldn't send a servant for eg.
The sinner bringing it had to have a purpose because the purpose determined the ritual and also how the sacrifice was divided.
The sinner had to bring it to the door of the tabernacle. (Duet.12, Lev.17) the reason being because Israel was prone to idolatry and they lived in a land filled with idolatry. It was also public repentance.

The Laying on of Hands

They confessed their sins over the innocent substitute. In scripture it was the communication of something spiritual or intangible signified by the outward visible act of laying on of hands. The power of God and other things is transmitted through the hands. It is more than just an outward symbol.The laying on of hands in Leviticus signified the transfer of the liability for punishment from the sinner to the substitute.
Lev. 1/4, 16/21

The liberals say this was just an act of designation. The problem with that is then why didn't they do it with the meal offering.

The Killing of the Victim

The sinner had to kill it and skin it. (the skin went to the priest) The sinner had to cut it up and wash it inside and out (wash out the dung for eg) The man himself had to kill the animal because God wanted to impress upon him that the penalty for sin was death. It was only with a dove for sacrifice that the priest would kill it.

The Sprinkling of the Blood
The priest would sprinkle the blood on the top (sometimes translated sides)of the alter.

The Burning of the Sacrifice
The whole animal was burned except the dung.

The Sacrificial Meal
This was absent from the whole burnt offering

The Meaning and Significance of the Whole Burnt Offering

1. The ascending of the sacrifice up to God signified consecration unto God. It taught the Israelite that complete consecration was essential to right worship and fellowship.

Mark here: In my opinion this isn't really clear in the notes. This is not a sin offering. This was an offering of consecration. The person offering it didn't see a lamb being offered. He saw the lamb as a substitute for his own life. Rom 12/1 is pointing directly at this sacrifice and the pious Israelite in offering it would have had Rom. 12/1 in mind.

2.It also spoke typically of Christ because . . .

a) It was a complete consecration Lev.1/9
b) It had to be a pure spotless clean offering.
Lev.1/3 with Lev.1/9
Heb.9/14 with 1Peter 1/19
c) because it was an offering of a sweet smelling savor.
Lev.1/9 with Eph.5/2
These offerings were telling God in a figurative sense they were for him. He didn't actually smell it. It was a sweet savor in the sense that they were offering themselves fully to God. It showed consecration.
d) It was a substitutionary blood sacrifice. Lev.1/3-4
Lev.1/3 KJV says of his own voluntary will. The Heb. says That he may be accepted of the Lord.

The Continual Burnt Offering
This was offered every morning and every evening. It symbolized that every day belonged to the lord and had to be atoned for.

[Updated on: Sat, 13 January 2018 20:13]

Re: OT Theology #7 The Offerings (Specific Sacrifices) [message #12408 is a reply to message #12407 ] Thu, 11 January 2018 13:33 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Meal Offering

Lev.2/1-3 6/14-23

The Hebrew Term

Minchah - It was the general term for sacrifice originally but eventually over time became a technical term for for the meal offering. The Minchah were some form of grain offering and always preceded by some form of blood offering.

The Ingredients - 3 types

a) Grain roasted by fire to which salt was added. Lev.2/13
b) Fine flour to which oil and frankincense is added
c) unleavened cakes or wafers

Ritual of the meal Offering

a) The person brought the meal offering and the priest took a little as a memorial and burned it to the Lord.
b) The priest took the balance home as his food.

The Daily Meal Offering

This was offered by the priests daily (not brought by a person). It was offered with the daily burnt offering. 1/2 in the morning and 1/2 in the evening.

There was a principle in the OT that he who offered the sacrifice couldn't eat of it. If the priest offered it for himself he couldn't eat of it.
Why? So there would not be any selfish motive in offering it

The Spiritual Significance of the Meal Offering

This offering symbolized the offering to God of the work of mans hands. As the burnt offering symbolized the consecration of your life to s o the meal offering symbolized the offering of your labor to God. The addition of Frankincense was an analogy with scripture in that he is mingling his prayers with his offering because frankincense is offered on the alter of incense. It taught the Israelite that complete consecration of life and labor was essential to right relationship with God.

Leaven and honey were prohibited because both are symbols of corruption and decay and both are subject to fermentation. Salt was required because it symbolized incorruption and preservation. It was the salt of the covenant because whenever a covenant was made between two parties they would always add salt to the sacrifice. eg Jacob & Laban
Lev.2/11-13 It speaks of an enduring covenant

This offering also spoke typically of Christ. John 6/51 he offered his life s bread on the alter. The o il and frankincense speak of enduring and perfection. No honey or leaven. Nothing that decays or is impure Eph.5/2.
Lev.2/3 The grin offering was most holy because it speaks of him who is most holy

[Updated on: Sat, 13 January 2018 20:35]

Re: Comments from the OT Theology Thread [message #12409 is a reply to message #6441 ] Sat, 13 January 2018 20:12 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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I put this addition on the whole burnt offering (#7) notes but in case someone didn't get the edit I'm adding it here.

Mark here: In my opinion this isn't really clear in the notes. This is not a sin offering. This was an offering of consecration. The person offering it didn't see a lamb being offered. He saw the lamb as a substitute for his own life. Rom 12/1 is pointing directly at this sacrifice and the pious Israelite in offering it would have had Rom. 12/1 in mind.
Re: OT Theology #7 The Offerings (Specific Sacrifices) [message #12410 is a reply to message #12407 ] Sat, 13 January 2018 21:21 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Peace Offering

Text Lev. 3/1-6

The Hebrew Term
Zervach Shalamin. It comes from a word that means entire or whole. It is called a shalom which means peace or peace with God. There was only one word for peace "Shalom". If you were talking about the sacrifice or peace offering you used the same word.

Kinds of Peace Offerings

1. The Thank Offering. This was sometimes called the praise offering. It was offered in thanksgiving for some benefit you received but that you didn't ask for. It wasn't an offering you had promised God.
2. The Vow Offering or The Vow. This was an offering you promised God if he answered some prayer for you.
3. The Free Will Offering. This was not for any benefit or because of a promise but just a free gift from the heart.

The ritual

It was the same as any other offering except that only the fat went on the alter to be burned. The priest and the person offering it would eat it. Lev. 7/29-34
The Wave Offering. The breast was waved toward the alter and then toward the priest. It was given to the priest for him to take home and eat.
The Heave Offering.The right shoulder was heaved up toward the Lord and then given to the priest to take home.
The balance would be eaten by the offerer in a communion meal with the Lord.

The peace offering was male or female cattle sheep or goats. In the whole burnt offering if you were poor you could offer pigeons or turtle doves but not in the peace offering as there was not enough there to have a meal.

The meaning and Significance

After the animal was offered and the priest took his part the offerer took and cooked the balance within the precients of the temple. It was eaten in communion with the Lord who was in the temple. The ritual required it had to be eaten in the temple by the worshiper and his family. If it was a thank offering and it had to be eaten the same day. The vow or the freewill offering could be eaten the second day as well if there was any left over.

The third day any balance had to be burned. Why?
This prevented any selfish considerations. He couldn't offer to the Lord and then provide for his family all week too. By the third day it would be symbolizing corruption and to symbolize Jesus it could have no corruption. Ps.16/10 Acts 2.

This sacrifice typifies Christ in that many times in the NT Christs sacrifice is mentioned in connection with our peace with God. This sacrifice symbolizes our friendship fellowship and peace we have with God. Rom.5/1-2, 8-11, Col.1/20, Eph. 2/13-18

Christ offering himself a peace offering allows us to have peace with God. Which allows us to have communion with him. In the OT the peace offering was communion between the family and God. It showed he was in peaceful communion with God like the NT communion. The church shares the bread and cup remembering Christs sacrifice.
The blood had to be sprinkled on the alter even with the peace offering and sin had to be confessed etc

[Updated on: Sat, 13 January 2018 21:43]

Re: OT Theology #7 The Offerings (Specific Sacrifices) [message #12411 is a reply to message #12407 ] Sun, 14 January 2018 22:41 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Sin Offering

The Text:
Lev.4, 5/1-13

If an individual sins the fat was offered on the alter and the priest got the rest. If a priest sinned the fat was burned on the alter and the rest was burned outside the camp in a clean place. This was done so it wouldn't be mixed up with the burnt offering.

The Hebrew Term:
Chattah- Sin or sin offering

The Purpose

It is to abolish any interruption between the persons covenant standing with his God and his community. The main central idea of the sin offering is the propitiation of God's wrath through the covering over of the sins by the shedding of the blood of an innocent substitute. In every offering the blood is manipulated on the alter but in the sin offering it is central. In this offering the blood is also applied to the horns of the alter which is the most significant and central part of the alter.

Limitations on the Sin Offering

Some sins had no sin offering. There was no sacrifice for presumptuous and wilful sin. They were either stoned or banished from Israel. Presumptuous sin was called "sin with a high hand". Heb. 10/28. The sins covered by the sin offering are : sins of ignorance, unintentional sins, unpremeditated sins, sins of weakness, sins of rashness. Some sins weren't covered : blasphemy, cursing your parents, occult, adultery, murder, and other serious wilful crimes. They had to die or be banished because God was emphasizing the seriousness and wickedness of rebellion.
Matt.12 some today blaspheme the Holy Spirit.
Mark here: This was not a hard and fast rule concerning dying or banishing. King David committed murder and adultery and God forgave him although he paid an awful price.

The Law of the Sin Offering

1. for the anointed priest (while he was serving as a priest at the tabernacle during his time of service)
The priest didn't serve all the time. When their time came they left home and went and served as there was too many of them. Luke 1/8-9
2. For the whole congregation
3. For the ruler
4. For the individual Israelite.(including priest not serving at the tabernacle)

The choice of the animal was determined by
1. The rank of the sinner
2. His ability to make an offering

The high priest offered a bullock. A civil ruler offered a he goat. For the entire congregation a bullock. For an individual a lamb, she goat, turtle doves. OR Lev.5/1. for a very poor person
a meal offering without the additives.
Lev. 5/11 Without shedding of blood there is no remission but God in his providence still makes a way. The sacrifice for the whole nation once a year would cover it.

Ritual of the Sin Offering

1. Presentation of the victim.
2. Laying on of hands and confession of sin.
3. Slay the animal.
4. The fat is offered on the alter.
5. The blood is sprinkled on the alter and applied to the horns of the alter.

If it is a priest who has sinned of for the whole congregation then it is also applied to horns of the alter of incense and sprinkled 7 times toward the veil.
On Yom Kippur the blood is also applied to the ark of the covenant.
The sin offering for the priest had to be taken out of the camp and burned in a clean place as a whole burnt sin offering to keep from confusing it with a burnt offering which was burnt on the alter.
Heb. 13/11-13 The point here is Jesus fulfilled the sin offering for the congregation. Paul says here to the Jews that follow Jesus and believe in him that for all practical purposes is to leave the the camp of Israel.

The Sanctity of the Sin Offering

Lev. 6/17, 14 The meal offering sin offering and trespass offering all were pointed out by God as being most holy.
Lev. 6/25 The word used for sin offering and sin are the same word

The Sin Offering is a Type of Christ

He is typified as a Lamb in scripture. Ex.12 with the Passover sacrifice.
Isaiah 53/5-7 He is prophesied as Gods lamb.
John 1/29 He is identified as Gods lamb.
Rev. 5/11-12 He is magnified as Gods lamb.
Rev. 22/1-5 He is glorified as Gods lamb.
He is always seen as a sacrificial lamb. 11Cor. 5/21,19, 1Peter 1/18-19, 2/24, Rom.8/3-4, Heb.9/14, 10/10-12

Important considerations between the Animal Type and Jesus Christ.

1. The sin offering was ordained by God to teach a great moral lesson. ie: the terrible nature of sin in the sight of a holy God which could only be forgiven by the death of an innocent substitute victim. Sin is so terrible that someone had to die. An innocent pure guiltless substitute was required by God.

2. Unlike the animal sacrifice which had to be repeatedly offered Gods lamb was given once for all. Heb. 10/10-12 It could only be offered once yet the benefits continue into the present and its benefits are realized or claimed anytime we need it. (eg forgiveness)

3. In fulfillment of the OT type Jesus remained pure and most holy. 11 Cor. 5/19

4. The significance of 11 Cor.5/21 is it has to be understood in light of the OT context for sin. That Christ could be called sin by Paul in the same sense the OT sin offering could be called sin.

[Updated on: Mon, 15 January 2018 20:07]

Re: OT Theology #7 The Offerings (Specific Sacrifices) [message #12412 is a reply to message #12407 ] Tue, 16 January 2018 17:51 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Trespass Offering

Lev.5/14-19 6/1-7 7/1-7

The Hebrew Term
Asham - guilt, trespass, trespass offering

The sins covered are trespasses on others rights either man or God with respect to ownership. Its value can be estimated and covered by compensation (because you had to make restitution)
The principle idea in the sin offering is propitiation or covering of Gods wrath. The principle idea in trespass offering is satisfaction

The Ritual

1. The animal is presented
2. Hands are laid on the head
3. Sins are confessed over it
4. The animal is killed
5. The fat is burned on the alter
6. The rest goes to the priest
The point here to the rest going to the priest is that this is how the priest made his living and could feed his family. It would be the equivalent of putting money in the offering box at church.

The blood here is only sprinkled on the alter and not the horns of the alter like the sin offering because the guilt was not fully expiated at the alter unless restitution had taken place.

Three Kinds of Trespass offerings

1. Trespasses against God

a) where the value could be determined - he would offer a ram plus restitution and 1/5 extra.
b) where value could not be precisely determined
Examples would be: accidentally eating the tithe or the first fruits ,eating a first born lamb, eating the flesh of the sin offering, eating the showbread. If value could not be determined he would just offer a ram.

2.Trespasses against man

A ram was offered restitution was made plus 1/5 extra
Examples would be misuse of a deposit, fraud, robbery, oppression, finding a lost object and not returning it.

3. Trespasses in General

Examples would be:
- A leper who was cured. The leper being considered unclean had trespassed against the holiness of God. (whose fault it was is beside the point)
- A nazarite who broke his vow. He would do that for eg by touching a dead body
- Unchastity with the slave of another.(slaves were property)

The Trespass Offering as a Type of Christ

Eph.2/1 Col.2/13 The trespass offering was certainly a type of Christ. John 1/29, Isaiah 53/10, The Heb. word for sin there is asham - trespass

Re: OT Theology #7 The Offerings (Specific Sacrifices) [message #12413 is a reply to message #12407 ] Tue, 16 January 2018 18:11 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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Willful and Presumptuous Sins

Num.15/29-36 Willful sins or sin with a high hand
Deut. 17/8-12 Presumptuous sins
1Sam.2/22-25 3/11-14 Eli and his sons
2Sam. 12 Davids murder and adultery

The greater moral offenses had no provision for sacrifice and were punished by death or excommunication. Not talking about moral weaknesses here.
Ex.32/19-35, 21/11-17, 31/12-15
Deut.13/1-9 A false prophet had to die. There was no sacrifice for repentance.
Joshua 6/17-19

Sins of Ignorance Lev. 4/2, 27
Misdemeanors Lev. 6 Finding a lost lamb and denying it for eg.

Why would these sins be treated differently than gross sins? Even in the NT you see degrees of guilt in the sight of God.
John19/11, 1john5/16, 1Tim.1/13 with Heb.6/4-6


While there are many sins that God will forgive upon repentance in both OT and NT willful and presumptuous sins in some matters there is no sacrifice or forgiveness for.

In the NT

- Matt.12/31-2 Blaspheme the HS
- Heb.6 Enlightened and then falling away. This is speaking of apostasy not backsliding.
- Heb.10 willful sin after knowledge of the truth. Probably speaking of apostasy here.
- 1Peter 2/10 The presumptuous and self willed are reserved for judgement.
- 1john 5/16 A sin unto death.

OT Theology #8 The Sacrifices [message #12415 is a reply to message #6441 ] Sat, 20 January 2018 22:12 Go to previous messageGo to next message
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The Moral and Ethical nature of the Sacrifices

The view of the liberals is that it was only ceremonial and effective only for ceremonial defilement. Effective only for ritual defilement.

The answer to that is that it would make the sin and trespass offerings superfluous. Why have a blood atonement if it is only concerned with external defilement.

The ritual of atonement in these offerings speaks of moral and ethical considerations. Often when one is reading books on these matters you will find an unwarranted distinction between the levitical (ceremonial) and the prophetic (spiritual).

The Israelite didn't think of sacrifice just as ritual because he obtained forgiveness of sins and right relationship with God through it. The ritual was the means of Gods grace and forgiveness coming to him. The Hebrew didn't look at the sacrifice as something tempory and passing away or typical. Sacrifice was then the only sufficient means by which they could stay in right relationship with God. Therefore it was sufficient for the dispensation it was intended to serve.

This is not saying the levitical sacrifices were sufficient to take away sin or that they were equal to the sacrifice of Christ. Nor is it saying the blood of animals can take away sin but it is recognizing that it was the appointed means to stay in fellowship.

The ritual and sacrifice were the means by which the Hebrew obeyed the revealed will of God. To understand the OT sacrifices you have to look ahead from their point of view. You can't look back from the book of Hebrews.

The liberal view is that the primitive revelation was given to Moses. ie sacrifice and ritual. Then later a more perfect and deeper revelation came to the prophets and they preached against ritual.

Ps. 40/6-10, Is.1, Micah 6/6-8, Amos 521-24, 1Sam. 15/22, Jer.7/21 They did preach against mere ritual.
Ps.51/16-17,19 After a broken heart is come then the sacrifice is pleasing to God.

Re: OT Theology #8 The Sacrifices [message #12416 is a reply to message #12415 ] Sat, 20 January 2018 22:33 Go to previous messageGo to previous message
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A sin offering was required when:

- A high priest sinned
- The nation sinned
- On the day of atonement
- A civil leader sinned
- An individual sinned
- Purification after childbirth
- Purification of a Nazarite. ie touching a dead body
- Consecration of a priest
- Cleansing of a leper
- Any sin not covered by trespass offering

The reason a sin offering was required for a leper or an unclean sexual issue or sickness is representative of mans natural sinfulness. Most of these rituals aren't just ritual but God views them in their connection to the natural sinfulness of the human race. Disease for eg is part of the curse. Deut. 28

Trespass offerings were required when ;

- Not informing about a crime he witnessed.
- Touching an unclean object
- Rashly swearing a vow
- Misuse of the tithe or first fruits
- Abuse of trust ie losing a deposit
- Ignorantly sinning
- Illicit relations with a female slave
- A Nazarite who became defiled

All of these except touching an unclean object and the Nazarite are moral problems that required a sacrifice. OT sacrifice and ritual aren't meaningless but most were for moral and ethical sins. The Pentateuch shows the attitude of the sinner must be correct to have God accept the sacrifice.

Many offerings (whole burnt, free will) were given to God and not required. They reflected a spiritual attitude of the heart. He gave them because he wanted to. Trespass offerings mostly no one knew about the sin but the the sinner. It shows a spiritual attitude in the heart to bring the offering. Because you wanted to be right with God. To offer a trespass or sin offering was to do it in front of the whole nation.

There was no sacrifice unless the heart was right. Adultery, rebellion, premeditated murder God considered the heart not right for these things.

The Pentateuch is filled with moral and ethical requirements that are as spiritual as anything in the NT.
Ex.22/2-22, 23/2,Lev.19/2,18
All these things show that there is more to sacrifice than just empty ritual.

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