Home » Theological Doctrine » OT Theology » OT Theology Notes
|OT Theology Notes [message #12580]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 13:02
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
My notes here from Dr. Freemans OT theology course.|
A lot of the info here is covered in more detail under Biblical Theology ie: inspiration/revelation/historical theories/ views of the atonement etc. The notes here only cover the info from an ancient Hebrew perspective.
Old Testament Theology
B/ Revelation and Inspiration
C/ The Doctrine of God
D/ The Theology of Man
E/ The Doctrine of Sin
F/ The Spirit World
G/ The Tabernacle
H/ The Doctrine of Sacrifice
I/ The Offerings
J/ The Sacrifices
K/ The Vow Nazaritism and Purification's
L/ Oaths and Taxes
M/ Sacred Seasons
O/ Literature in Israel
P/ Idolatry in Israel
R/ God's Sovereignty
T/ Doctrine of the Messiah
[Updated on: Mon, 05 November 2018 15:09]
|Revelation and Inspiration [message #12582 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 13:16
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
REVELATION AND INSPIRATION IN THE OLD TESTAMENT|
The Purpose of Old Testament Revelation (Or Gods purpose in revealing himself to Israel)
1/ Exodus 19/1-6
a) so they would be Gods own possession
b) a Kingdom of Priests
c) a holy nation Exodus 19/7- rest of the book
Following a 3 day fast the rest of the revelation was given. It started with the 10 commandments and went into the whole system of Law/ priesthood/ temple/sacrifice/ substitutionary atonement.
2/ the means whereby a sinful and unholy nation or people can be cleansed and a fit habitation for God to dwell among them.
The Media of Revelation in the Old Testament
1/ Revelation in nature.
Many heathen nations worshipped the sun stars etc. its called nature worship.
The OT revelation was that the God of Israel stands behind creation as its author& sustainer & controller. He uses nature to reveal something of himself. His nature and his glory.
Duet. 17/3-5 11 Kings 17/16 Jeremiah 8/2 Ezek. 8/16
Deut.4/15-19 Nature worship is forbidden.
In the OT nature is designed as an arena for the revelation of Gods existence & glory. Ps. 8 Ps.19/1 Job 38.
Gods power is revealed in nature Ps. 138 Ps 104
Rom. 1 speaks of this revelation being perverted by man.
2/ Natural or General Revelation
Psalm 19/1-2 This is a supernatural revelation of God to humanity. It speaks to every group
language nation and person. God has revealed something of himself through nature to man. It is quite limited as it cannot lead a sinner to repentance as that takes special revelation.
A person can look at nature and see there is a creator. They can see something of his nature ie. his goodness (he provided sun and rain) and his wisdom in putting it together.
God has revealed himself to man.
a) through nature Ps. 19
b) through providence Ps. 104 & Acts 14/ 13-17
c) through conscience
Man perverts everything God gives him. Jer.10 2/26-28 Isaiah 40/18-20
What is the value of Natural Revelation
a) a revelation of Gods existence Isaiah 40/26,28
b) a revelation of Gods glory Ps. 19/1, Ps. 8
c) a revelation of his power & omnipotence. Job 38, Ps. 104
d) it leaves the sinner without excuse. Ps. 19/1
3/ Revelation through Theophanies.
The word theophany comes from two words that mean manifestations of God.
a) nature theophanies. in nature form ie: the burning bush & pillar of fire and cloud
b) subjective theophanies
-auditory theophanies. Ex 19/1-3
-dreams and visions Gen 20/3 Dan 7/1 Isaiah 6
c) objective theophanies
An actual appearance of the Lord / Angel of the Lord Gen.16/7. The OT context where the Angel of the Lord appears always shows it to be a temporary descent to earth by the Lord himself for a special purpose.
d) The sacred lot - Urim and Thummin.
The Hebrew words mean lights & completeness. Some believe they were two square stones.
They were worn in a pouch under the breastplate over the heart of the High Priest. They were used as a supernatural means of determining Gods will on important occasions. God
would answer the high priest with these. The words signify a full complete revelation. We can't be 100% sure but it seems from the passages that Urim meant No & Thummin meant
yes. Ex.28/29-30, Num.27/18-21, 1Sam.28/6 They are not mentioned in scripture after David and were probably lost in the exile. Ezra and Nehemiah didn't have them. Neh.7/64-65
e) The sacred writings. Gods written word was a revelation
f) Prophetic revelation. God would speak through the prophets
Inspiration of the Old Testament
The New Testament claims that the Old Testament is inspired. 11 Tim 3/16, 11 Peter 1/19-21
Jesus came to fulfill OT scripture Matt.1/22-23 Matt 8/16-17 Matt12/17
The OT itself indicates it was inspired. Jer.1/1,9 Zech. 7/12, Neh. 9/30
In the historical books the technical phrase used to indicate inspiration was "The Lord spake
saying" In the prophets it was " the word of the Lord came to me saying"
Extra-Canonical writings indicate inspiration of scripture. The apocrypha calls the OT the "Holy Book" Josephus called the OT "the sacred Scriptures"
The divine / Human relationship in Inspiration is seen from several passages.
Heb. 1/1-2, 11 Peter 1/21, Zech.7/12, Neh.9/30
|The OT Doctrine of God [message #12583 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 13:20
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
THE DOCTRINE OF GOD IN THE OLD TESTAMENT|
Concepts of God
The concept that there is no such thing as inanimate objects. everything in nature is alive. The term comes from the word animate.
The belief in and worship of many Gods. Often the personification of nature.
The belief in one supreme God among many Gods. One supreme God for each nation.
Monolatry The worship of one god among many
a) Idolatry - The personification of God in a man made object and the worship of it as sacred
b) Fetishism - any object regarded as sacred
The belief in and worship of the one and only God who as creator and sustainer of all things and revealed himself as Yahveh to Israel.
The Divine Nature
a) Assumed by the Old Testament. Gen.1/1, Ps.14/1 The question of Gods existence is not even raised in the OT. Prior to Moses leaving Egypt both Israel & Egypt believed in many Gods. The question is: Is there only one true God? That revelation came to them in Duet. 6/4
Gen.1/1 This denies Atheism as it assumes the existence of God and denies polytheism. It denies dualism (matter & spirit are both eternal) It denies pantheism (everything is god & god is everything) Gen.1/1 asserts that God is before all things and apart from all things.
b)Gods existence is revealed by him in Nature
Ps.14/1, Ps.8, Ps.104, Ps.135, Ps.33, Ps. 136, Ps. 96, Isaiah 40/21-22, Rom 1/18-23
c) Gods existence is revealed in the OT by his mighty acts
The flood. everyone laughed until it began to rain. / Plaques of Egypt / Exodus from Egypt / parting of the Red Sea Psalm 14/1 God doesn't deal with them at all. Just calls them fools.
2. The Unicity of God (or unity)
The Oneness of God was the fundamental distinguishing mark of Israels religion which set it apart from all the other religions of the world.
Deut.6/4, Is 43/10, Is. 45/5, Ex.20/2-3, Ex.22/20
The origin of Israel's monotheism
The Critical View . . .
Israels religion came out of polytheism. It evolved from polytheism to monotheism.
Reply . . .
As in the NT true religion comes as revelation. They didn't reason up to God.
The use of the plural Elohim in the early narratives . . .
The critical view . . .
The use of this term is evidence of their polytheistic background.
Reply . . .
a) the plural Elohim was employed by Israel not only of their one God but also of the individual deity of other nations.
Chemosh Judges 11/24 / Dagon 1Sam.5/7 / Ashtoreth 1Kings11/5 / the golden calf Ex.32
Moses is referred to this way in Ex.4/16 & Samuel in 1Sam.28/13
They used the plural constantly in a singular sense. Which they didn't have to do as there were plenty of other words to choose from.
b) It is unlikely that the writers of the OT who continually insist on one God would select a noun which carries with it polytheistic ideas.
c) The explanation has to do with the peculiarities of the Hebrew language. There exists in
Hebrew certain nouns which always or only occur in the plural. Gen 1 heavens & waters. The
words for old age and youth are both plural. Why would they do this? Why do we do this? eg deer, sheep The point here is you don't prove anything by pointing out that it occurs in the plural because a lot of others do as well. These are called "nouns of indefinite extension" or "intensive plurals"
"Elohim" A common name for God in the OT is a plural of majesty or excellence. It describes God as a being who is infinitely greater in every respect than man. It is describing his infiniteness.
"Adonai" another plural noun meaning Lord used of God and man but pronounced differently with each. It refers to a plural of majesty. Without exception where the plural noun "Elohim" is used of God the verbs and modifiers with it are singular.
The critics maintain Israels national religion in its early stages was monolatry.
The critical view . . .
They worshipped of one god over the land among many gods. A chief God over every nation. From this it evolved to a monotheistic religion. Duet. 10/17, Ex.15/11, Ex.12/12, Ps. 95/3
Reply . . .
God is referring here to what the nations around Israel believe. They believe in other Gods so he is saying he is against them. We have to make a distinction here between what the idolatrous Israelites believe and what prophets & pious Israelites believed. Not all Israel was saved. From the time of the Exodus to the time of the Babylonian captivity idolatry was a constant struggle for pious Israelites. Israels idolatry & polytheism when it was found in Israel was inexcusable for from the beginning of her establishment as a nation God said he was one. From the beginning of the nation the religion could not have evolved because it condemned polytheism from the beginning.
Duet.6/4, 4/35, 4/39, 32/39 Lev.19/4,
The Problem of 1 Sam. 26/18-19
The critical View . . ."go serve other Gods"
Obviously David himself believed Yahveh was the national God of Palestine and in leaving there he was leaving the presence of God and maybe even salvation if he couldn't get back to into Palestine. (see above)
Reply . . .
David was only saying what his enemies said not what he believed. You have to understand OT religion. It all centred around the temple or tabernacle in Jerusalem.To be driven out of Palestine was in a real sense a limitation on his worship as he couldn't sacrifice etc.
Ps. 34. David was still praying and God was still answering him.
To say that God is one in the OT is not a mathematical oneness but a oneness of spirit- a
qualitative oneness -one divine essence -a oneness of spirit -a oneness of nature or being. One divine Spirit eternally manifested as Father Son & Holy Spirit.
3. The Living God
a) Biblical usage of the phrase.
- A God who acts Joshua 3/10
- A God who speaks Duet.5/28
- A God who delivers 1Sam. 17/26,36-37
- A God who has existence Jer.10/10, Dan.6/26-27
The concept of the Living God" was so important that the Jew offered his oath by the life of
Yahveh. Judges 8/19,Ruth 3/13, 1 Sam.19/6, The technical phrase was " As the Lord liveth" The true destiny of the Jews was to be the "Sons of the Living God" Hosea 1/10
b) The false gods.
In contrast to the living God the false Gods are shown to be utterly impotent & unable to help their worshippers. Therefore they don't live.
c) Meaning of the phrase.
The phrase Living God means the other Gods have no life or they have no real existence. It also means he is able to hear and answer his peoples prayers. Also that God is personal not just an idea or concept
[Updated on: Mon, 29 October 2018 13:24]
|The OT Doctrine of God #2 [message #12584 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 13:20
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
4. The Spirit of God|
Question . . . What is the Spirit of God conceived to be in the OT in view of the fact that the OT continually stresses that God is one. Would he be conceived as personal or merely power that comes on man or wisdom that comes from God. Is it merely the life principle bestowed on living things? Answer is at the end of the Spirit of God section.
The Hebrew term – "ruach" We are not looking at how it is used of God but only its usage in the OT.
a) Its literal usage - spirit wind or breath
spirit Isaiah 42/5 wind Ex. 10/13, Gen. 8/1 breath Job 15/30, Lam.4/20
(the NT Gr. word (pneuma) means exactly t6he same thing. (wind or spirit)
b) Metaphoric usage
A metaphor is a figure of speech to show a resemblance
- fortress Ps.91/2
- anger or fury poured out 11Sam. 22/16
- signifying the presence of God Gen.3/8
c) Its usage as a synonym. - one term used for another
Gen.2/7 breath here is a synonym for Gods Spirit. Breath of the mouth stands for the Spirit of
God. All through the creation account God speaks as in a divine fiat & calls into existence.
The wind or breath as words of his mouth are synonymous with Gods Spirit.
d) Spirit means "life principle"
The life principle in man & animals
e) the term Ruach has reference to God himself
Gen. 1/2 Ruach of God Isaiah 61/1
Isaiah 11/2 Ruach of Yahveh
Ps.51/11 the Holy Spirit
Is.63/10-11 his Holy Spirit
Gen 6/3 my spirit
Ezek. 26/37 my spirit
Activities of the Holy Spirit in the OT
1/ The Cosmic sphere or sphere of creation
a) Gods creative power was expressed through his Spirit by bringing order out of chaos Gen.1/1-2
b) All that lives in the world has its life by the Spirit because God sends forth life by the Spirit
Ps.104/30 When he takes away his Spirit they die. Ps. 104/29 In creation & providence the Spirit of God is seen to be creator & sustainer
2/ In the Sphere of Life.- Biological & Spiritual life
Gen 2/7 The breath of life has a twofold meaning
a) the life principle breathed into man. The vitality or spirit of life. eg. life of the physical body
b) The image of God - that which makes man spiritual rational accountable moral
Gen 2/7 - it is not said of the animals Is. 57/16
3/ In the Sphere of Human Experience or History
a) On individuals
In order to effect deliverance the Spirit of God was sometimes placed on individuals. Gen.
41/38-39 Num.11/16-17 Moses and the 70 elders Duet 34/9 Joshua
Judges 3/10, 6/34, 11/29, 14/6, 15/14, 14
b) On Kings 1 Sam.10/6, 11/6, 16/13-14 11 Sam.23/2
c) On artisans The artisans who built the temple and its furnishings Ex. 31, 35/31
d) Intellectual understanding Job 32/8 The anointing of Gods Spirit for wisdom and understanding
e) Prophecy The agent of Gods word who reveals his will. The true prophets were conscious of being filled with the Spirit of God Micah 3/8, Zech. 7/12, Neh. 9/30
Ezek. 13/3 The false prophets were those who followed their own spirit. Num. 24/1-2, 1
f) The Spirit of God could pick up a prophet in spirit and transport them
1 Kings 18/12, 11 Kings 2/16
g) In religion Moral & Spiritual life. Religious emotions and moral influence were the result of the work of the Spirit in the hearts of the Israelites. Influencing them toward good and moral behaviour. Ps.51/11, Ps 143/10,m Neh. 9/20,30
What is the "Spirit of God" conceived to be in the Old Testament?
a) 1 Kings 22/16-23 Even this early in the OT they were already seeing that a spirit was personal. The Spirit of God was perceived to be personal as well.
b) The Spirit of God was not conceived to be a mere power or influence Zech.4/6
c) He is seen to be in the OT as God himself. The Spirit of God in OT thought is not an influence or power exerted by God from a point at which he himself is absent. But God is always present as the Spirit of God. Is. 31/3, Ps. 139/7
Conclusion . . .
To answer the question originally posed the OT concept of the Spirit of God was that it was God himself who as Spirit was present when the Spirit of God was spoken of in relation to the world
[Updated on: Mon, 29 October 2018 13:28]
|Doctrine of God #3 [message #12585 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 13:38
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
THE DIVINE ATTRIBUTES|
1. The Holiness of God
a) The Terms.
"Qadesh" Hebrew- to be set apart , dedicated, consecrated
The English word is holy. The derived meanings are holiness & sacredness. The word in the root meaning is sanctified or apartness. The term for holy is used in a moral & non-moral sense in the OT. The term occurs in heathen literature as well.
b) The Non-moral usage in the Heathen cultures.
The term has a magical usage and designated certain places persons & objects as taboo. They were set apart from secular usage. In its heathen usage it referred to to things that belonged to the gods or kings that no one else could touch. They were separate or set apart.
In the bible the word Kadesh was a sodomite & a Kadesha was a prostitute. They were anything but holy but the word means "set apart" It is the same word as holy but it was translated according to its context. 1 Kings 1/24, 15/12 22/25, Deut 23/17
c) Ceremonial use of the term.
This is to be distinguished from the moral use of the term. Objects and persons are holy because of their association with the holy God. Because God was holy everything seen in relation to him was holy. Objects in the temple were holy because of their relationship to God. The Nazarite (Num.6/8) was holy because of he was separated & consecrated to God. His inward moral holiness was a completely separate issue.
d) The moral usage of Holy.
We want to to look at how it is used in scripture in relation to God so we can determine its derived meaning. With reference to God it means " his otherness, his separateness,his divine transcendence" 1 Sam. 2/2, Job 25/4-6, Hosea 11/9 The term "Holy" so exclusively belongs to God it becomes a synonym for his name. Isaiah 6, 40/25
The basic meaning of holiness is to sanctify or set apart. In relation to God it must mean more than that as it is used of a God who is righteous & holy. Therefore the word does speak of his inner character. Lev. 19/1 So in reference to God it does have a derived meaning. Lev. 19/1
It says God is holy or set apart & then the whole chap tells Israel how to be that way. Unlike all other heathen cultures the word in reference to God has a derived meaning in a moral sense.
Moral holiness in man is a prerequisite for fellowship with a holy God. Ex.19/5-6, Lev.19/1
This requirement enables us to understand the ritual & ceremony in the OT. Since divine holiness means separation from everything sinful (which includes creation as we know it) then that means God cannot have communion with man. This illustrates the need for education in ceremonial holiness and moral purity. The OT ritual was not just something God gave as a substitute until something better came (grace) but the ritual itself taught holiness. All the ritual ie: priesthood, sacrifice, separation was written to educate the people in the need for moral holiness. Divine holiness requires God to separate himself from everything impure & unholy. God can't fellowship with man so he instituted the ritual so they could. To the pious Israelite it was educating him in the need for holiness.
The ark was a sacred object. It was just a piece of wood covered with gold. But because of its association with God it became holy.
- the ark when in Philistine hands brought them much trouble.1 Sam.4,5
- Uzzah touched it and he died. 11 Sam.6
- Some men looked into it and they died 1Sam.6/19-21
"Holy" places are those places where God has revealed himself or appeared
- The burning bush Ex.3/5, 48/2
- Palestine Zech.2/12
- The Tabernacle Ex.28/43
- Temple 1 Kings 6/16
- Alter Ex.29/27
- The Furnishings Num.4/15
- Sacrifices Lev.2/3, 6/25
- Priests Ex.29/1, Lev.21/6
- Priest clothing Ex.29/29
- First born Israelites Ex.13/2
Everything in Israel because of their association with a morally pure & righteous God was to be morally pure. Ceremonial holiness became a type of spiritual holiness. The OT wasn't revealed as a substitute until something better could be devised ie: the NT. The OT has its place in the economy of redemption. The church needs to know these were types and
lessons of spiritual truth. Isaiah 4/3 Holiness is to be the goal of Gods people. Isaiah 6/12-13
Ceremonial holiness as well as spiritual or moral holiness will one day be restored in the
millennium. It will be restored in its meaning as memorials. Zech.14/20-21
Does the term holy have the same meaning in reference to pagan gods as it does in Israel?
In Egypt there was a god called Kadesh. Study mythology & you will see the pagan gods have reference to the term holy only in their root meaning of separateness. The pagan gods are guilty of all the sins men are.
With respect to Yahveh the God of Israel:
Holiness has reference to his moral purity, his inner character, his otherness which separates him from all other men & all other gods. His uniqueness, his otherness, his moral & spiritual transcendence.
With respect to man it implies:
A separation from sin Isaiah 6/1-8 and a consecration to the Lord Jer. 1/4-5
|Doctrine of God #4 [message #12586 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 13:39
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Divine Attributes|
THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF GOD
The root meaning of righteousness in the bible is to be straight.
a) In a moral sense it means uprightness. A state of being right. It also means conformity to a proper standard or norm. That is the basic Old Testament meaning. It is the standard by which we are measured. Gods righteousness is his own moral holiness and perfection which is the standard for all men.
Deut. 32/4, Ps.11/7, Amos 5/24
b) In a non-moral sense it indicates it is conformity to an acceptable standard ie: righteous weights and measures Ezek.46/10-12, Dan.25/15
Sacrifices of righteousness conformed to a revealed acceptable standard. Ps.51/19, Ps.4/5
Righteous conduct is conduct according to Gods revealed standards.
c) Righteousness is not simply an abstract moral principle the Hebrew righteousness was a righteous act or event. Not something in the abstract. A righteous man performed righteous acts and lived righteously.
Ps.106/3, Isaiah 58/2, Ezek. 18/21-22, Gen 18/19, 1 Sam.12/7-8, Isaiah 1/27, Isaiah 47/12-13
d) Righteousness is also expressed in judgment.
In this sense it is expressed as justice. Gen.18/25 God is called the supreme judge. Righteousness is the standard by which he governs the world. It is also the standard by which he requires us to live. It will be the standard by which he judges the world. Ps.9/7-8
e) Righteousness and justice are two sides of God's holiness.
Justice carries with it the idea of absolute fairness based on a standard of righteousness.
Righteousness demands absolute conformity to Gods standard and justice visits all non-conformity with punishment. The terms carry with them a sense of absolute fairness and in that sense it is his justice.
The LOVE OF GOD
Hessed- mercy or loving kindness
The distinction between the terms.
Hessed is always conditioned upon there being a covenant. Ahabah is unconditional love in the OT.
Old Testament usage of the terms.
Ahabah has only to do with the will of the one who loves. Either he wants to love or he doesn't. Thus it comes to be the term for election love in the OT. Its synonymous with grace.
Hessed is used to denote the attitude of loyalty, faithfulness & moral obligation which both sides of a covenant observe to one another. Hessed was the binding relationship in a covenant. It meant not merely love but steadfast faithfulness.
Hosea is called the prophet of Hessed in the OT. Hosea 6/4,6 2/18-19
|The Doctrine of God #5 [message #12587 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 13:58
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The NAMES OF GOD|
Significance of Names in Hebrew.
Among the Hebrews a name was never merely a tittle but often descriptive. Of the nature character, appearance, or function of a person place or thing.
- Esau- means hairy
- the dead sea was called the salt sea
- Eve was named after her function ie: the mother of all living.
- Obed means servant
b) Names represent some relationship
- Simon Barjona- the son of Jona
- a spiritual relationship- Jedediah (Solomon) means beloved of the Lord.
- geographical relationship.- Zerrubabal born in Babel (Babylon)
- pious parents would compound the name with Gods
Jo-el, Yahveh is my God
Dan-ial God is my judge
Eli-jah my God is Yahveh
c) Names may express piety, sorrow, grief, joy or hope.
Phinehas named her son Ichabod - inglorious
Rachel named her son benomi. son of my sorrow (Benjamin)
Isaiah -Salvation is of Yah or the Lord.
d) Names were sometimes give to express thanks, gratitude, or praise
Ishmael - God hears
e) Sometimes they were peronomastic. eg. a play on words.
Naomi- pleasant She changed her own name to Marah- bitter
Nabel- word means fool
Jacob- means supplanter
f) Sometimes names are prophetic.
Isaiah's children: Shearjashub- a remnant shall return / MahershahalHashbaz - the spoil speeds and the prey hastens (quick to the plunder and swift to the spoil) - means their enemies would quickly spoil them. One name reflected hope & the other judgment prophetically.
Hosea's children : Jezreel - God sows (judgment) / LoAmmi- not my people
- LoRuhamah- not pitied
In The NT the word Christ is the Hebrew Messiah- means anointed one.
The Divine Names and their meaning
a) El. Translated God.
A common name used throughout the middle east by Semitic peoples. Being a common name it is used of false gods as well. Ps.81/9, Duet 32/12 The word means "the strong one". It occurs about 300 times in the OT. It is often combined with other words to make names.
ie: Isra el, Dani el, Jo el When the term is used of God it has the definite article with it or an adjective to show it is God. That is not done with the false gods.
Translated God and occurs over 250 times in the OT. It is the plural of El. The word means "the mighty one". It is also used of the false gods. When used of God it has the definite article. Verbs and modifiers with it are always in the singular when the word is used to refer to God. El & Elohim are used to refer to beings other than God. They refer to false Gods idols angels and men. It is used of angels (Heb. is sons of God) Bene Elohim Job 38/7 Also sometimes of men because the divinely appointed anointing or position of authority Ex. 4/16, 7/1
The word means power or might. It is found almost exclusively in the poetic literature. It is also used occasionally of the false gods.
The most high God or highest God. Its used of Melchizedek in Gen.14/18. The word "Elyon” is an adjective which means highest or most high. Num.24/16, Duet. 32/8
It means God Almighty. It is derived from a verb that means to deal mightily. It is the name God used of himself with Abraham. Gen.17/1 This is the most frequently used name in the patriarchal period. Exodus 6/3 God told Moses that before he had only revealed himself to the patriarchs as the most high God or God Almighty.
The word means Lord. You can drop the "h" because the "d" is soft. It is also the common word used of man in the OT. The word sometimes means master husband sir
- master - Ex.21/5
- husband - Gen.18/12
- prince - Gen. 42/10
- king - 1 Sam.22/13
- father - Gen.31/25
- priest - 1Sam.1/15
- Moses - Ex.32/22
Gods personal name was Yahveh. The Jews out of respect used the name Adhon. Where it is
used of God it is always pronounced Adoni or Adonay
g) Yahweh. The modern Heb. word is Yahveh.
This is Gods OT personal name revealed to Moses Ex.6/2. Actual word is YHWH. Heb. as has no vowels. The vowels are added to make sense of the name. The dead sea scrolls for eg were written completely in consonants. Vowels were invented & added in the 6 Th century AD by a group known as the Masoretes. Hebrew ceased to be a spoken language after the Romans conquered the world. Only scholars spoke it. Out of respect the Jews didn't (don't) pronounce YHWH. They pronounced the vowels of Adonay instead. The question is though why would God reveal his name to anyone and not want them to say it. That is false piety. 3000 yrs after God revealed his personal name to Moses a Catholic priest (about 1500 A.D.) put Adonay & YHWH together to form the name Jehovah. In Hef's opinion that is nonsense.
h) The compound names of God
- Yahveh Elohim - I am the mighty One. Gen 2/4
- Yahveh Jireh - The Lord will Provide. Gen. 22/14
- Yahveh Shalom - The Lord is our Peace. Judges 6
- Yahveh Nissi - The Lord is my Banner .Ex.17/15
- Yahveh Tsidkenu - The Lord is our Righteousness Jer. 23/6
- Yahveh Tsebaoth - The Lord of Hosts Joshua 5/14
- Yahveh Shammah - The Lord is There. Ezek. 48/35
- Yahveh Rophaka or Rapha - The Lord who Heals
(9) Other Names
- The Holy One Of Israel
- The King
- The God of the Heavens
- The mighty One of Jacob
- The Mighty One of Israel
- The rock of Israel
- The Living One
- The Great One
- The Glorious One
- The Eternal One.
(10) Usage of the term ba'al.
The word is sometimes used of God. It was mainly used to designate the Idol that corrupted the Israelites. It means Owner Master Possessor Lord
|Man and His Sin [message #12588 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 14:07
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
Man and His sin|
The Origin and Nature of Man in the Old Testament
The OT gives man a special place of value and dignity. Because in the beginning God created us in the image and likeness of God. In the OT man is portrayed with a vivid realism.
in his 1st test he fails / Cain kills Abel / The flood because of evil / Destroyed in Moses desert
-over & over sold into slavery in the promised land
The OT shows that man is not only what God made him but what he made himself : a sinner!
Terms for man
a) Adam the word means Adams name. It also has a generic use which means man or mankind. The word comes from a Heb. root that means red "Adom"
- Adomah- Heb. is land ground soil earth
- Edom red, soil earth. The area in the middle east known as Edom is all red sandstone
God made man out of the red soil hence the name Adam was given to "man" and when applied to 'that man" it meant his name.
b) Esh man masc. ; Eshah feminine. Gen.2/23
c) Esh- man sometimes used of God - man of war. esh of war.
d) Enosh ( also the name of Seth's son Gen. 4/26)
man or mankind in his mortality. -frail weak mortal subject to death. Job 25/6
Why call him Enosh? He is expressing that man is mortal.
This term Enosh is never used of the messiah in the OT. Dan.7/13 being the supposed exception where it simply means "like" the son of man. Identifying with us.
e) Giver. the opposite of Enosh. A strong & heroic man. ie; David Mainly used poetically.
The Psychology of the Hebrew
The OT is filled with references to the body and parts of it that have spiritual and moral
significance. The body The nephesh. The spirit. The heart. The inward parts. Psychology
Gen.47/18 used of a living human body
1 Sam. 31/10 used of a dead body
Heb. Basar. flesh. A more common term. This word lends itself to a more comprehensive use.
- Lev.14/9 it is equates with the body
- Is. 58/7 it can refer to blood relations
- Num.16/22 It is used of all mankind
- Gen.7 it is used of the animals
It also has a ethical and moral usage in the OT. This is where Paul got his idea of flesh vs spirit.
The moral usage of the term Basar is seen in ceremonial defilement.
Ceremonial defilement resulted from:
Various diseases / touching a dead body / women in childbirth
For any of these things a sin offering had to be offered. In Gods sight it was a defilement of the spirit & hence the sin offering. This is the basis of Paul's teaching in the NT on flesh vs spirit. External purification was symbolic of internal cleansing. The moral defilement of the body was seen in the fact that a sin offering was required to be offered.
Lev. 12, Lev 14 Num.6
Question: Why did a sin offering have to be offered for ceremonial defilement?
a) All disobedience even disobedience to levitical law was sin. It wasn't ceremonial uncleanness. It was disobedience to God's revealed will.
b) Man as flesh is mortal creaturely & impure. All manner of disease, sexual emission, touching the dead etc. tended to emphasize man's mortality and impurity in his basic form. To the Hebrews these things along with ceremonial defilement eventually brought a natural relationship between them and mans natural corruption.
c) Man is flesh in contrast to a holy righteous God was sinful and impure and could not come into the presence of God. The blood of the sacrifice provided a covering for the person who had sinned (ceremonially or otherwise) so they could come back into fellowship with God.
Jer.17/5 11 Chron. 32/8 Is. 31/3. Flesh is used all through the bible as more than a word meaning the body. Gen.6/3,12-13 Job 10/4 Ps.78/39
Moral & ethical uses of the word flesh.
There is often a relationship between sickness and sin
- Ps.103/3- a direct relationship between sickness & forgiveness.
- Deut.28 sickness in the body is a direct result of sin.
- Jesus said to the man at the pool of Si loam - go and sin no more
- James 5- confess your sins and be healed
- 1 Cor.11 communion
- Job 4/17-19 mans moral impurity & the flesh are equated
Sin is not in the flesh but in the heart. Flesh becomes a figure for the carnal man, the worldly man, unregenerate man or the normal appetites when allowed to run wild.
The Hebrew did not divide the body up as body soul & spirit like the Greeks. A man "is" body soul & spirit but he doesn't "have" a body a soul a spirit. The Hebrews saw man as a unit
Gen. 2/7. A living being came alive when God breathed in the spirit and he became a living soul. To the Hebrew he could understand why Adams body had to die when he sinned. When you divide body & spirit something unnatural occurs ie: death. This is why the NT calls the gospel the resurrection of the body. The Hebrew concept of the unity of man emphasizes the truth that there is an inseparable relationship between the body and spirit.
It is significant that in the OT sickness is viewed as defilement and a sin offering had to be offered for certain diseases. Touching a dead body, leprosy, childbirth, etc. signified that man was a sinner.
The Nephesh or Soul
The word is translated as soul, life, self, person, emotion, or appetite The Greek word is Psyche (used in the Septuagint) The Hebrew writing this NT Greek saw this word the same as the to word Nephesh. There is a difference between NT Greek and Greek philosophical thought.
OT uses of the word.
The Life the self the person and as consequence of that means the seat of the emotions appetites & desires. The soul is never to be thought of as an entity apart from the person himself. In the OT at death it is the person or personality that survives as the nephesh.
1/ the life or self or person
a) it is used of the inner being of man or the immortal part of man as distinguished from his flesh. It is not something just stuck inside. Is.10/18, Deut.12/23, Job 14/22 Ps. 16/10 Its often said in the OT that the soul is delivered from death. Acts 2- Jesus. The body
was in the grave and the desire was to have the soul delivered from death.
b) The nephesh is the life of the person. Ex. 21/23, 11Sam.23/17
Jonah 1/14 Heb. word here is nephesh but it properly translated life. Lev.17/11 the life process.
c) It is a synonym for the person.- All these have a pronoun attached to word nephesh.
Gen.49/6 me / Ps.25/13 he / Ps.124/7 we / Job 9/21 myself / Duet.4/9 thyself
Gen. 2/7 We were created out of dust with spirit breathed into us and the result was a living soul.
2/ Nephesh stands for the source of the emotions appetites & desires.
Ps.107/9 hunger / Deut. 12/20 desire / Lev.26/11 loathing or abhorring / Jer. 13/17
Gen.42/21 anguish / Ps. 35/9 joy / Son of Sol. 1/7 love / Ps 11/5 hate
The soul is sometimes said to be one of the functions of rational personality ie: capable of mental acts. Almost a synonym for the mind. - Esther 4/13 soul meaning mind - Ps. 19/2
That the nephesh signifies the life or the person is seen in the OT concept of the state of the
nephesh after death. It is the nephesh that leaves the body at death but it is the life of the person that is leaving. The Heb went onto say that the nephesh survived and would one day be restored to normal personality with a body.
Gen.35/18 at death the nephesh left the body. 1King 17/22
The OT concept that the nephesh departs at death (that is the person) is found in the Heb. belief of the life of the person continuing in the after life. 1 Sam.28, Ps.16/10,Ps. 49/15,
Job 19/25-27 The nephesh departs at death. The person departs at death. The soul is not some abstract thing that floats away at death. It is the person. The source of sin or righteousness is the nephesh not the body. The Basar (flesh) is merely the instrument through which the appetites & desires can be expressed. The eyes can express the hate love compassion etc of the person but can only express what is inside. The tongue will lie idle until the nephesh puts it in operation.
Strong emotions like joy grief anxiety can be felt in the stomach region. It is the basar that requires nourishment but it is the nephesh that desires it. Without the nephesh the basar would have no consciousness of these things. That it is the nephesh and not the basar that desires these things is shown in that the body loses all interest in them when the nephesh leaves the body. Ps.51/6-10, Prov.20/9, Matt 5/27-28
[Updated on: Mon, 29 October 2018 14:16]
|Man and His Sin #2 [message #12589 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 14:15
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Spirit. Gen. 2/7|
The body plus the spirit makes a living nephesh.
a) Lev.17/14 The blood is the nephesh of the basar. The blood is the life of the body. Not the life of the person. Without blood your body would die.
b) The life of the person is not in the nephesh .The soul of the person results from the impartation of life to the body. Once it comes into existence it is immortal. After Adam it happens at conception. In the NT the soul always meant the life of the person or the person himself.
Heb. Ruach- spirit breath wind In the OT the context determined which word is used.
a) It stands for the life principle. The animation in man and animals
b) It stands for disposition, temperament, attitudes
Prov. 16/18 a haughty spirit / Prov.29/23 a humble spirit / Prov.14/29 a patient spirit
Ps. 51/17 a contrite spirit / Gen.45/17 a synonym for animation
Joshua 5/1 2/11 courage / Judges 15/19 strength
Isaiah 11/2 sometimes used for mental endowment / Ex.28/3 a spirit of wisdom
Prov.17/27 a prudent spirit / Job 20/3 an understanding spirit
You have to make a distinction between soul and spirit but occasionally the spirit express
emotions (anger,hate). The spirit is not the seat of the emotions and speaking of the spirit in
relation to the emotions is to speak of ones temperament or disposition When the spirit is used to express emotions it is used to express the attitude of the nephesh. It is the person who is angry but it can be expressed as a spirit of anger.
The spirit also stands for the life principle.
The spirit comes from God. He is the source Zech.12/1 Eccl.12/7 It is sustained by God.
Job 10/12 It can be designated the spirit of life and thus it is the life principle. It can be expressed just as easily spirit of life as breath of life. Gen.6/17, Gen.7/15. It is translated breath but the word used is spirit. Ezek.37/5 breath is spirit. Breath is just air and should be translated spirit. We're saying it is spirit not breath because at death the spirit leaves not breath. Eccl.12/7, Ps. 146/4 The spirit is the life or animating principle. When it departs death occurs. The spirit and soul are to be distinguished because there are separate terms for them in OT & NT.
The uniqueness of man does not lie in the fact he has a nephesh. Both man and beast have a soul. Gen.2/17,19.
There is a 3/fold distinction.
a) Animals and creatures came into existence at Gods command. Gen. 1/20-25. Man was the
workmanship of Gods own hands. He is unique
b) Man received a personal divine in breathing.
c)Man is created in the image & likeness of God Gen.1/26-27 2/18-20
There is a similarity and a distinction between the spirit that man & beast receive.
a) the similarity is both man & beast have the spirit from God ie: the life principle.
Eccl.3/21, Ps. 104/21-30
b) The difference is the spirit imparted to man as a consequence of the divine inbreathing is not only the animating life but the divine image. It is also the spirit of man is the seat of mental endowment and temperament. The spirit of man like God is morally oriented
Ps.51/10, Num.14/24, Ezek. 11/19,36/26 An animal has the life of God but in man it is the divine image.
The relationship between Body Soul & Spirit
The spirit comes from God so that makes it Gods. The soul comes from man so that makes it
mans. The soul is the man himself, his personality, his individuality. The soul is him but the spirit is Gods. Eccl. 12/7 Man in not spirit but he is soul. As long as the spirit is united with the body the "you" is there. God is spirit man is flesh.
Gen.2/7 man is formed out of the earth. God breathed in his spirit and the result was a living
person. A soul.
Over and over in the bible the word translated soul should be translated person. Ps. 23/3 Soul is me. Man is not spirit. Luke 24/36-39. This was following the resurrection. In eternity Jesus was eternal spirit but following the incarnation he became and remains God and man forever. Is Jesus a spirit? No he has taken on flesh and bones even after the resurrection. The life of the body is the blood. After the resurrection it is a spiritual body. It no longer requires blood. But it is a body. The resurrection body he had then is what he has now. The bodies of the saints who have died & crumbled to dust somewhere a speck of that dust remains & God will use it to make a new resurrection body out of. 1 Cor. 15/42-47
A natural body vs a spiritual body.
Matt. 27/51-53, Heb. 1/7, Heb. 2/7, John 4/24 Man is not spirit he is soul. The soul came into existence by virtue of the union between the spirit of God and our flesh. When that happens an immortal being comes into existence which had no prior existence until the spirit met flesh. Adam was only clay until the spirit was breathed into him. Once that immortal soul is created by the union of Gods spirit & flesh that immortal soul is no longer dependent on the flesh for existence. It will continue to exist but in an incomplete state. Dan.12/2, Is. 26/19, Ps. 49/15
The spirit or animating life within man is Gods but once it is imparted to man the bible speaks of it as being mans spirit.
Ps.104/29, Job. 32/8,18
For both man & animal. Job 10/12, Eccl.3/21
The nephesh indicates that man is a conscious creature with personal life or personality, appetites, drives & emotions. The Ruach indicates he is a moral spiritual rational & immortal being in the image of God Animals have irrational souls but we have rational. They have spirits but it is just the animating principle or life force. In us it is the image of God. This is why men prior to salvation are like beasts. At salvation we desire the things of God. A bull can gore you a lion can eat someone but they have no moral awareness of the act as they have irrational souls. This is why the bible always speaks of the salvation of the soul in both OT & NT. Heb. 12/23, 1 Cor 5. speaking of the immortal part of man a synonym for the soul.
It is the central physical organ of the body and as such its the focus of the life of the body. This is why it is referred to so much. It came to be used as a figure of all spiritual functions.
a) A synonym for the nephesh. Ps.51/1, Neh.9/8, Ps. 101/4, Jer. 32/39-40, Ezek.11/19
b) A judicial blinding as judgment on the wicked
eg. Pharaoh. a hardening of the heart. Ex. 4/21, Joshua 11/18-20
c) It stands for the feelings and emotions. Duet.6/5, 15/10, 28/67 Lev. 19/7, Is 30/29,
d) It also stands for the will which is a function of the nephesh. So the heart means the person. 1 Sam. 14/7, 1 Kings 8/18
e) It is a synonym for the mind. The mind is the rational consciousness of the nephesh. The
Hebrew unlike the Greeks & westerners never depicted the source of intelligence as the brain or head. 1 Kings 10/2, Prov.3/3, Ex.31/6, Prov.23/7, Ps.73/7
There is no word for brain in OT Heb. In modern Heb there is one as one is needed. The varied uses of heart as shown here give more understanding into the nature of & function of
man as a nephesh. Deut 6/5 with Luke 10/27 Heart is a figure of the centre of the person (emotions & desires) Soul is the whole person. Strength is all your vitality & power. Mind is all your rational processes. He is using a variety of expressions to show you must love God with all your being.
The inward parts KJV - the bowels.
eg liver intestines etc.
It became a synonym in the OT for the seat of the emotions (OT & NT) & a synonym for the nephesh
Why? Its not just an arbitrary term because we actually experience our feelings and emotions in that area of the body. ie. solar plexus - Lords anointing and occult seems to originate here.
Jer.31/20 compassion / Is. 16/10-11 / Jer. 4/19 distress
Son of Solomon 5/4 Lit. the inward parts - an expression of love.
Phil.2/1 KJV. bowels & mercies- Gr. inward parts / Belly - Job 20/20 - the seat of the emotions
Job 20/15 - a synonym for greed / Prov.18/8 - a synonym for the nephesh
Liver - As the heaviest organ of the body it was regarded as the seat of the heavy emotions. It
signified that part of the person that became weighted down with heavy grief emotion and anger. The Heb. word for liver is the same as the adjective for heavy. Lam. 2/11 - a figure for sorrow
The neck is used as a figure to signify obstinance & stubbornness. An unyielding heart. A
characteristic of the human race. Acts 7 - Stephen Prov. 29/1, 11 Kings 17/14, Neh.9/16-17,29
The significance of the bibles use of the physical organs & the flesh to convey moral spiritual & ethical truths is because man is body soul & spirit in an inseparable bond.
Man in the Image of God
a) The purpose.
This term is ascribed to no other creature but man. Man was given this nature because it was
called for by the divine purpose for him. Since the central purpose of God in making man in his image was fellowship with God then he had to bear some resemblance to his maker
The image of God is a synonym for the unique inner nature of man. It means he is personal moral ethical & rational. This is not said of the animals and can't be. The image of God does not mean he is like God but that he is in Gods likeness & his likeness is personal moral ethical and rational. The bible shows man is flesh and God is spirit. Man is not spirit but he is spiritual in his inner nature. Zech. 12/1, Eccl.12/7 Prov. 20/27
The image of God denotes a sacredness of personality unlike animals.
|The Doctrine of Sin [message #12590 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 14:18
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
THE DOCTRINE OF SIN|
Why study it.
a) It is in the OT that sin is introduced to the human race
b) The consequences of sin are shown here
c) The remedy for it is shown here. Typified in the OT sacrifices.
The Biblical view of Man
a) Man has great dignity conferred on him by being created in the image of God
b) Man is also portrayed as a sinner.
The Liberal view of Man
a) He is not morally depraved but merely misguided. He needs education to straighten him out. Sin is merely a stumble in his upward evolution.
b)Since finite man cannot sin infinitely then infinite hell & punishment in an eternal hell is
c) Man is inherently good.
In both OT & NT the relationship between God & man because of sin is absolute alienation. Gen 3 God cursed man.
Ps. 58/3, Ps. 14/1-3, Ex.23/7, Ex. 34/7 Jer. 17/9
The Nature of Sin & Guilt in the OT
It falls into 5 classes depending on the term used.
a) Chata- to miss the mark or goal. This is the common word for sin in the OT. It includes sin
against sin against God or man. This term signifies the objective act of sin ie. ones conduct,
Gen. 40/1, 42/1
b) Rasha- to be wicked. It expresses the inner character of the sinner. Also indicates an
unregenerate man. a saint in the OT can sin but he is never called Rasha. The term usually
denotes one who is guilty of a crime or who is disobedient & deserves punishment with the cause of it in himself. ie: he is wicked Dan.12/10
c) Avah- To bend or twist- to pervert. This term speaks of the perverted inner character of the the wicked. Prov. 12/8, Jer. 23/31
d) Asham- denotes the state of the sinner before the law. He trespasses or is guilty. The term
signifies liability & guilt to punishment through transgression of the law. The term is legal in
e) pasha - The wilful rejection of Gods will and the refusal to obey him. The Jew viewed the whole OT as the law and viewed sin as not merely an error in judgment or merely missing the mark. But this term describes sin as an act of defiance against God. Ezek.2/1-3, 7-8
Personal self-willed conscious defiance of the will of God. Isaiah 43/27, 1/2, Jer.2/29
This is the basic term used in the OT to describe the deep nature of sin & rebellion against God.
The Hebrew concept of Guilt
The Hebrew term. :asham The Hebrew had only one word for guilt. The same word as sin.
The term stands for - the sin (the act of sin) - the guilt of sin (it made him guilty)
- the sacrifice for the sin All the same word
The Nature of guilt in the Old Testament.
There is an important distinction between the sin offering and the trespass offering.
The sin offering (Heb. Chata) was to cover sins in general. The trespass offering had reference to certain concrete violations of the law. On the day of atonement the sin offering would cover everyone's sins for the year. Sin offerings were offered at all times & feasts & joyful occasions. It was a general sacrifice made to keep Gods people clean before him and in covenant standing.
The trespass offering was never offered for sin in general but for trespasses of the Levitical law or against your bro. Therefore quilt emphasizes the condition of the individual or the nation before the law as a result of the violation of some specific commandment.
Contrary to the Liberal view which is that God is a loving father the solemn nature of guilt in Gods sight is seen by . . .
a) There is some guilt for which there is no sacrifice (or forgiveness.) The person had to die. Ie: murder, wilful sin (Heb. sin with a high hand)
b)That the OT shows that guilt is not only individual but collective as in family, nation etc. The
prophets said over and over that the exile would punish the nation (including the innocent &
children etc.). The sin of the parents was sometimes carried to the third & fourth generation. Num.14/18, Jer. 9/1-2
The relationship between sin guilt and its punishment
These three things are always together in the Bible. Guilt is the relationship between sin and its punishment. There is no such thing in the bible as sin without punishment. God says he won't clear the guilty. The issue here is not redemption but the awful nature of sin & guilt.
This is why in Isaiah 53 it says he was a guilt offering not a sin offering. The animal was not
actually guilty but legally guilty. The animal paid the legal price for the guilt. ie:death
Isaiah 53 is the transitional place in the OT. It has all the sacrifices typified here & points forward to the atonement. Isaiah 53/10 Heb word is guilt offering not sin offering. Jesus paid the legal penalty for our guilt. You can't make an innocent person guilty.
a) because Jesus was guiltless he could offer himself as a guilt offering
b) Jesus could bear the punishment.
It was always an animal for sacrifice that was which was spotless & pure and always guiltless
itself. Gen. 6/7, Ex. 21/28 God says the animals had corrupted themselves as well. An animal had to die for its own guilt. It couldn't be used for an offering.
The sin offering was most holy. Lev.6 Jesus was called an"asham" not a "chata"
The Old Testament Concept of Salvation
The Term: - Yeshua , Yeshuah
Salvation in the OT is viewed as two aspects:
a)General Usage.- temporal deliverance as indeliverance from human enemies Num.10/9
The Gr. equivalent is "Sozo" The OT implies because this term "salvation" is used in these contexts that temporal deliverance is meant as well.
Fire / flood / pestilence / poverty
b)Spiritual Usage.- spiritual deliverance eg: life in the eternal state. Ps.79/9, Ps.59/-2, 49/6, Zech 9/16
The Wrath of God
Apart from the wrath of God OT sacrifice has no purpose. Num.16/46 The atonement and the
wrath of God are closely connected. All they had time for was to take fire off the alter.
a) The Liberal View
One of their major planks is to deny the wrath of God. They either deny his wrath or limit its
b) The Biblical View
The Hebrew terms. "aph" wrath / anger / "qetsaph" wrath
The usage of wrath is in the OT shows it is a reality.
Num.16/46 The rebellion of Korah
Deut.9/18-22 against Israel
The flood, Sodom & Gomorrah
The term or idea of God pouring out his wrath occurs over 580 times in the OT. If it stated once in the bible it is sufficient to compel our obedience
c) The nature of God's wrath. The effect of sin on God is to immediately arouse divine displeasure expressed as anger or wrath.
The wrath of God is not an attribute like love or holiness but wrath is a disposition. It is an
expression of his holy displeasure against sin & rebellion.
His wrath is transient meaning it can be removed if you meet the conditions. His wrath is as holy as his love. To understand his love you have to understand his holiness. Therefore wherever holiness meets unholiness there is inevitable conflict and divine wrath is as natural a consequence of unholiness as love is to toward those who are holy.
[Updated on: Mon, 29 October 2018 14:21]
|The Spirit World [message #12595 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 15:55
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Spirit World in OT Thought|
There are 3 terms used
a) Malak - angel or messenger
b) Bene Elohim - sons of God Job1/6
c) mighty or mighty ones
The Origin of angels
a) the critical view. This is very involved but basically Israels religion came out of paganism & angels were really pagan gods.
b) The biblical view
Yahweh has a royal court & its members are made up of angels cherubim, Seraphim, living
creatures and other creations. They are created spiritual beings that minister before him.
1 Kings 22/19, Ps.148/1-5
The OT Idea of Angels
a) Mediators Zech. 1/9, Dan. 9/21-2
-The explained the meaning of dreams and visions
- They protected and delivered. Heb.1/9 Dan.6/22
- They minister healing
- Dan.12/1 in the last days angels will minister deliverance to Israel.
b) They are personalities Named as Gabriel & Michael
Angels and their Orders
a) Gabriel had a ministry of special revelation of God to man
He gave Revelation to Danial Dan.8/16, 9/21 as well as Zacharias & Mary. Luke 1/5,19,26
b) Michael. The head of the armies of Heaven.
Dan.10/13,21 one of the chief princes
Dan.12/1 the great prince
Rev.12/7 Michael is stronger than the devil- but Jude 9 he respected the devils authority.
c) Ezek 9/2-5 6 angels - one seems to be in charge
d) Zech. 2/1-3 The angel is always seen to be a servant of the Angel of the Lord
e) concerning rank and authority man is lower than the angels Ps.8/4-5
Characteristics of Angels
a) supernatural wisdom 11 Sam.14/17,20
b) They have supernatural powers.
- Gen 18 angels but they can eat
- Gen 19/12-13 power over the forces of nature
- Gen 19 11 power over man
- Ps.104/4 They are spiritual beings
c) as to their features
- Gen.18/2 They often appear in visible form as men
- Gen sometimes appear as flame of fire
- Invisible to ordinary sight but Prophets and donkeys can see them Num. 2, 11 Kings 6
d) They are supernatural in their strength
Ps.103/20 They excel in strength
The origin of Angels
Ps. 104 God created them
Job 38/4-7 Sons of God - Bene Elohim They were there in the beginning of our world.
Meaning of the Word
a) A transposition. This is found in many commentaries. Change the letters a little and it becomes Chariot. Cherubim & chariot are very similar Heb. words. In the OT they are the chariots of the Lord so they say it is just a transposition.
Ps.104/3, Ps. 18/11, 1 Chron. 28/18
b) A compound word made up of 2 words. One is the preposition "like" and the other word "many or multitude" so the word would mean "like a multitude" or "great ones" This is Bro. Freeman's opinion
Usage of the Term
- Gen. 3/24 the first mention
- Ex.25/18 They were there on the ark.
- 1 Sam. 4/4 The ark was literally his throne
- 1 Kings 6/23 Solomon made carvings of them
- 1 Kings 7/29 they appear on the laver of water
- Ps.18/10 They were his chariot
- Ezek 1&10 designated as living creatures.
- Ezek. 41/8-20 They appear as part of the decoration in the millennial temple.
- Ezek. 28/14 Satan is called the anointed cherub
Description of the Cherubim
The OT suggests they are human in form with wings. Ezek 1/6
Ezek. 1/5 called living creatures & in 10/15 they are called cherubim 1/8 they have hands
When God chooses to localize himself he has a human form. We are created in that form.
Ex.25/20 They have faces which suggests they are human in form with wings. They can be
diversified in form however God wanted to create them.
Ezek.1/6, 41/18. some have 2 faces and some have 4 faces.
Ezek 1 They have eyes all over.
Rev. 4/7 The 4 faces are seen on 4 different creatures.
The meaning and function of the cherubim
They always appear in the closest relationship to God. They covered the ark. They are bearers of the manifestation of God when he appears in his glory. Ezek.1,10, 1 Chron. 18/11
They are seen as guardians making inaccessible anything unholy in the presence of God.
Ex.25 They overshadow the ark and cover it with their wings.
Cherubim are seen to have the highest exalted positions of privilege and fellowship. He chose to create them to guard his holiness. God has made them so powerful that they symbolize guarding his throne. God doesn't really need anyone to do that.
The 4 faces seem to suggest
man - wisdom or omniscience / the ox - power strength omnipotence / the eagle - soaring omnipresence / the lion - sovereignty
They do symbolize something but we don't know exactly what. Some suggest they symbolize the whole created order eg man beast domesticated animal & birds.
Ezek 41 2 faces man & lion. This could symbolize a man and the lion of Judah.
Why 4 faces?They don't have to turn around.
The word means "to burn".
The term is used in Num. 21 of the fiery serpents.
Seraph fiery serpent. From the verb seraph - to burn
Isaiah 6. The only place we see them in the bible.
vs 7 The Seraph as a divinely appointed instrument for the purification of the prophets sin appears with heavenly fire and cleanses his unholiness. God didn't do it personally. He sent a being to do it. Their appearance seems divinely intended to symbolize certain spiritual truth.
They have 6 wings. 2 wings covered their faces. This indicates no created being however exalted can bear to look on the full divine glory of God 2 wings covered their feet. symbolic of reverence and submission. With 2 wings their flew. Indicating swiftness in obeying the divine commands. In function they have the office and privilege of continually praising God and declaring his absolute holiness. He is not vain and cannot know pride. He is absolutely perfect. They are his ministers to perform his will however we don't know what that will is.
[Updated on: Mon, 29 October 2018 16:04]
|The Spirit World : Demonology [message #12596 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 15:58
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
Demonology in the OT|
Israel was knowledgeable on the subject. The apostate Israelites in Egypt and in the desert
worshipped demons & knew it. Deut. 3/16-17, with 1 Cor 10/20. Evil spirits and their activities are mentioned in many places in the OT. The OT is filled with teaching on the subject & the NT just assumes you know and understand it. There are lying spirits 1 Kings 22/20-23 Job 1-2
There are oppressing spirits 1 Sam.16/14-16,23, 19/9 / occult spirits Deut 18/9-12 / sacrifice & worship of demons Deut 32/16-17 Lev.17/7 Ps. 106 36-38. God is in sovereign control of the kingdom of darkness
Habitations of demons Is. 34/14, 13/19-21
Using a medium to consult the dead 1 Sam. 28, Lev. 20/6
Occultism is severely punished in the OT Ex.22/18, Lev. 19/26,31 1 Chron. 10/13-14
In a real sense the OT dispensation continues to the cross. The Jews in the NT prior to the
cross were familiar with deliverance and the need of it. Matt. 12/24-27 Exorcism was a common practice in Israel. No explanation was given on either side of the cross. Jews had a deliverance ministry. Acts 19/3 There is nothing to suggest they weren't effective
The commission to cast out demons. Matt.10 No explanation is given or why they were present in people.
Many of the commands in the mosaic law have reference to the former occult practices of the Israelites. The prohibitions against certain funeral practices. eg cutting yourself cutting hair. Lev.19/27-28. A prohibition against bestiality. (cohabitation with animals) This is not uncommon in occultism and witchcraft. Lev. 19/27-28A prohibition against eating certain foods because of their close connection with the occult snakes, swine, stork, frogs, some birds which dwell in ruins (like demons) crows. You have to get the whole teaching on clean and unclean foods. Nothing is unclean in itself These are religious considerations.
Origins of Demons
If God had wanted us to know where demons came from he would have told us. The bible just
assumes their existence. All these theories are wrong.
a) Demons are fallen angels. This comes out of the book of Enoch in the apocrypha. The problem is in the bible there are demons and fallen angels. Jesus never cast out fallen angels.
b) They are a fallen pre-adamic race of men.
c) Josephus said demons are the spirits of the wicked dead
d) Jewish tradition has it that demons are the offspring of Adam and Lilith( a female demon)
e) They are the giants (nephilim) of Gen 6 who died in the flood and became demons
Sphere of Existence
a) In the heavenly regions. Eph.6 spirits of wickedness in heavenly places. Satan is the prince of the power of the air.
b) They are the powers behind the secular govt. Luke 4/5-8 Dan.10/2-14 All good interpreters & the Jews agree the prince of Persia is a satanic prince Eph.6 The rulers of the darkness of this world. They are in control of Govt, occult powers, education systems,banking systems, medical systems
c) Desolate ruins in the desert. Jesus called them dry places Is. 13/19-21, 34/14, Matt. 12/43
These creatures are the names of demons
d) In people or in close connection with people to bind oppress influence and control. Mark 1/23, Luke 4/38-39
e) In the Pit. Rev.9/1-11 Luke 8/30-31. Jesus evidently had authority to cast them there. They
didn't want to go there so there must be some there already.
f) In the Future? In the millennium they will be bound in the pit with Satan. Is.14/12-15 Rev.20/1-3. If the devil is there then his hosts are there with him. In the eternal state they will be in the lake of fire. Rev. 20/10
Exorcism in the OT
a) It was practised in Israel. Matt.12, Acts 19. It is implied by the NT references before the cross.
b) Josephus - He mentions Solomon practised exorcism so it must have been Jewish tradition. He said he was the wisest man & he knew how to cast out demons. Jewish rabbinical literature deals with exorcism
Protection against the Devil & Evil Spirits in the OT.
It is implied by the use of the blood. Ex.12 They put it on the doorposts Ps.78 48-51 evil angels brought the plagues The pious Israelite would see a connection between the blood over the house and protection. The blood of the sacrifices was constantly before him and they would draw the connection.
Those involved in the occult know the power of these demons & invoke incantations and sacrifices to protect themselves. The OT had laws against any incantation or magic rites or appeal to any demon or god for protection. The Israelite would then call on the Lord for protection. In the NT Jesus said use my name. Mark 16/17
Classes of Demons
1/ Se'irim singular Si'ir
Translated demon, satyr, He Goat Lev.17/7, Deut. 32/16-17
This class of demons were spoken of & worshipped & propitiated in the pre-moasic period. They are spoken of as goats. Satan himself often appears as a he-goat. He often appears with 3 horns instead of two. He goats are often trained to have sex with witches. It is in their history and it happens today. The prohibitions in Lev are because of this. It did and does happen. In astrology the 10th sign of the occult was the goat. It was considered by the ancients as the strongest & most important because it represented the devil.
2/ The Shedim.
It comes from a root that means mighty one "or" it comes from a root that means destruction
Deut. 32/17, Ps. 106/37 Israelite's sacrificed to this class of demon. In occultism this demon
always appears with claws like a rooster. In animal form but with rooster claws.
3/ Lilith from the Babylonian Lilitu
The KJV translates this the "screech owl" There is no basis for translating it this way. This is the female night demon. Same in Babylon. In Jewish folklore this was Adams first wife before Eve. In Jewish thought as well as occult thought she is the female demon that seduces men at night. This is not far fetched except they aren't really male or female. Incubus & succubus spirits fall in here. Demons can manifest them self as either male or female but Lilith is always female & is common today in the occult. This demon is so prominent in occultism and found so far back that it is included in the scriptures.
[Updated on: Mon, 29 October 2018 15:59]
|The Spirit World : Spiritualism [message #12597 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 16:12
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
Spiritism (Spiritualism) in the OT|
Deut. 18/9-12 Spiritism is the name for all these things. Some occult functions overlap.
1/ Witchcraft or Sorcery
The Heb. word is sorcery. KJV is witchcraft. (an English term)
Keshph – sorcery The Syriac and Arabic form means to cut & pray. To cut refers to cutting your body in religious ceremonies. To pray refers to communication with their heathen gods. A witch can be male or female but it has now come to mean a warlock for a male. A witch is usually a female as mostly women practise it. The Heb. terms for sorceress or sorcerer are definitely male or female. A witches coven is headed by a high priestess sometimes a high priest too but the powerful one is the women. The emphasis on the sorceress or female is the concept of fertility in the female. The concept of the mother goddess is prevalent in all sorcery & witchcraft even today. It is mostly women involved in this. Most fortunetelling is by women.
Most water divining is by men. Astrologers have been men throughout history but today it about evenly divided.
Nature and Characteristics of Sorcery in the OT
a) 1 Sam.28 They consult the dead
b) Ex.7/11 They practise magic
c) Dan. /2 They interpret dreams
d) Jer. 27/9-10 They practise divination
e) They use drugs. Throughout history there is the implied use of drugs. It always had a prominent place in occultism but especially in sorcery. There is no verse that says this but it is there indirectly. The Septuagint translates the word for sorcery as pharmacy. Pharmakia.
Gal. 5/20 uses this Gr. word. It is translated into English as witchcraft. The point is they use this Gr. Word pharmakia and translate it back to the Heb. meaning of sorcery. Drugs are used in magical rituals as well as for heightened sexual awareness etc. Medical science has its origins in witchcraft & witch doctors. It comes directly out of witchcraft. The use of drugs and hypnosis to heal both physical & mental problems comes directly out of witchcraft. This is why you never find drugs or physicians or remedies in Israel.
2/ Divination in the OT
The Heb. term is Qesem. - divination. The original meaning is to divide. The connection comes from an astrologer dividing up the heavens and then discerning the future by looking at it. Divination is a more comprehensive term than astrologer. Anything that predicts or
discerns the future falls under this heading. Foretelling In the OT a diviner was a soothsayer, false prophet, fortune teller who predicted the future.
The diviner looked for signs of future events in many ways
- entrails of sacrificed animal
- flight of birds
- reading tea leaves or coffee grounds. break an egg in the water etc.
- arrows falling to the ground
- consulting the terraphim
- inspection of animal livers
Ezek.21/21 1 Sam. 6/2 1 Sam. 28, the witch of Endor divined It was common among the Canaanites and condemned by God Deut. 18/14-18 Gen. 44/
Joseph's divining cup?
Every ruler had a divining cup. His point was obviously to confuse them and bring them back. The rulers divining cup was his most important possession. A divining cup was a very valuable possession & easy to carry away. He was either doing it to confuse them or when he became second ruler along with a golden throne he would get all the trappings of royalty. That would include a divining cup.
Joseph himself said over and over he got his revelations direct from the Lord. He got his
predictions & interpretation of dreams etc. He always got his revelation from the word.
a) It is totally out of line with OT teaching that Joseph was involved in this.
b) Deut. 18 clearly condemns it even if someone wants to interpret this some other way
3/ The Necromancer sometimes translated Familiar Spirit.
The Heb. term is "Ov"
The English term comes from two Gr. terms meaning "dead" & "divination".
It means a bottle. An empty bottle. This could refer to the empty haunting sound a wind makes in an empty bottle. Or the hollow haunting sound of a spirit speaking through a trumpet at a seance or when they speak out of a mans mouth at a seance. Demons have to have a set of vocal chords to speak through. That is why he has to have the medium go into a trance and then uses him. The more powerful ones create their own vocal chords but still need a trumpet to magnify their voice. Sometimes the demons don't show so many mediums are good ventriloquists.
The Sept. translates the Heb. "Ov" as ventriloquist. It was the Heb. scholars who translated it that way. Is. 8/19 speaks of "Ov's" as those who peep and mutter. Is. 29/4 suggests the low muttering voice of the medium Deut.18/11, 1 Kings 21/6, 23/24, 1 Chron. 10/13,
11 Chron.33/6, Is.19/3. 1 Sam. 28 This account give a complete picture of what an Ov does. She is called in Heb. the mistress of the bottle or possessor of the bottle.
It is called in the KJV a familiar spirit because even today a medium is possessed with a spirit of divination and it is the same spirit every time. So called familiar
What actually happens in a seance?
The demon (familiar spirit) takes total possession. The medium knows nothing. They are in a total trance and unaware of anything going on. Many times a substance called ectoplasm (the life processes of the body) comes out of the body orifices. Oral sexual etc.
The medium always has a spirit guide who will manifest through him always impersonating some important person. eg Napoleon, an Indian chief, Cleopatra. etc. They will act as a medium between this world & the next. When someone goes to a medium to seek a deceased loved one the spirit guide impersonating a spirit from the other side goes and gets him/her and they then impersonate that person to talk to the inquirer. In other words a deceiving spirit comes through the medium and impersonates the dead loved one. Speaking with the loved ones voice.
4/ The Wizard
The Hebrew Term.
It comes from an old English word meaning wise one. The Heb. term is Yiddoni- to know
The meaning is someone who is wise in the ways of the spirit world. Always in the OT they are mentioned with necromancers so the two must overlap. Is. 8/19 Lev.19/31. Their knowledge is not from God and it will defile those who use it.
Heb. Chartim The Heb term doesn't mean magician but engraver or scribe. Magician is used in a derived sense. An engraver is copying or carving. He is skilled in the use of his hands. The derived meaning is a magician is skilful in use of his hands. ie: sleigh of hand
Usage of the Term
Ex 7, Dan 1&2, Is. 47/12-15 Did the magicians of Egypt really practice magic or did they just use sleigh of hand. We have to distinguish today's sleigh of hand magicians who are entertainers with the OT. In OT times they practised magic worked charms & cast spells. Ex. 7 says they did what Moses did. Pharaoh wouldn't have been impressed if it had only been sleigh of hand.
11Thess. 2/9 The Antichrists lying wonders. It doesn't mean they aren't real. Rev. 13/1-15
The attitude of the bible is always hostile.
Acts 8 Simon the magician was in the bondage of iniquity.
Acts 13/6-12 He was an instrument of the devil.
Deut. 18, 2 Kings 21/6 Manasseh sins
Acts 19/18-19 shows a true conversion
6/ Soothsayer Heb. Anan.
It comes from a noun which is the Heb word for cloud. The derived meaning is from looking up at the heavens where the clouds are.
Usage It was probably used to divine by the clouds ie: cloud gazer Eventually the connections between the words were lost and just the word was left.
Heb. is Nachash. The word means to murmur hiss or divine. The same term is used for snake. There is an obvious conclusion here by the Heb. A snake hypnotizes his prey with his eyes
8/ Charmer Heb. Chever.
The word means spell or charm and is quite similar to enchanter. Bro. Freeman believes the difference is the enchanter casts spells on people but the charmer was a hypnotist who worked through the eye gate to reach the mind & spirit.
|The Spirit World : Satan [message #12598 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 18:58
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
His Existence and Personality
His existence is confirmed because he is mentioned in 6 different books in the OT.
Gen.,Job, Isaiah, Ezek., Zech., 1 Chron.
Every writer in the NT mentions him. He is a person. A personality. Personal pronouns are used of him. He has the marks of personality.- rational speech Job 1,2 Zech.3, Gen 3
- He has a will and purpose to perform it. Is 14/12-14
- he is a created being Ezek. 28/15
- He is a cherub Ezek. 28/14
- He is of a higher order than the angels Jude 8-9
Before his fall he was found on the holy mountain of God Ezek.28 At present he is in the heavenly regions He has access to Gods throne when God permits it. Job1/7, Zech 3/1
In the millennium he will be bound in the abyss. Rev. 20 In eternity he will be cast into the Lake of fire.
His present sphere of activity
a) He exercises general control over the entire world. 1John 5/19 to cause as much ruin as
b) He exercises political control John 12/31, Luke 4
c) He has ecclesiastical control over all forms of apostate religion. All cults and non christian
religion. He even has some influence over some christian churches. 11 Cor. 4/4, 11/13-15
d) He has spiritual control over the whole world not the church but the world.
Matt 13/38 John 8/44
Satan. The word means adversary. The term is also used of men and even God.11 Kngs 5/4, 1 Sam.29/4, 11 Sam.19/22, Ps. 38/20 Num.22/22 God was an adversary to him. As theology and history developed we begin to see him recognized as a personality. In Zech.3/1 we have the words Satan and resist. They are both the same word. In the Heb. one is capitalized and one isn't.
The question is . . . is Satan a serpent? In both Gen. and Rev. he appears as a serpent. In the
occult there are strong references to Satan as a serpent. He is often seen in vision as a serpent. Ezek. 28 shows he is a Cherub not a literal serpent Why is shown as a serpent then? Because it describes his deceiving deceptive and poisoness nature. To speak with Eve he had to have a mouth to speak through. Being immaterial he had to possess the serpent. It is a as common for demons to possess animals as people.
So why the snake?
a) it was more rational and intelligent than any other creature
b) it could talk and communicate
c) it wasn't in the form then that it is now. It probably had legs and maybe wings. There is no way to tell what it looked like before the fall.
d) The curse was also put onto the snake. It allowed itself to be used. Obviously there was moral culpability or God would never have judged it.
11 Cor. 11/3, Rev. 12/9 all the devil
It appears the serpent was more beautiful and intelligent than any other creature under man &
could talk as well. In the Apocrypha (Wisdom 2/24) the Jews had already come to same
conclusion as Paul in 11 Cor. 11/3 In Rom. 16/20. Paul connects Satan with Gen.3/15
Everything in the OT was under the sovereignty of God
- Judges 9/23 an evil spirit
- 1 Sam.16/14-16 - a troubling spirit
- 1 Kings 22/22 - a lying spirit
The OT shows the total sovereignty of God in dealing with evil spirits. In the NT we realize the
same truth but also that they are under the control and authority of Satan
It is supposed to mean "The Lord of the Flies" 11 Kings 1/2
Ekron was a philistine city that made images of their diseases. 1 Sam. 5/6 Archaeologists in
excavating the city have found golden flies.
In the NT he is called Beelzebub.
- Matt.12/26 Jesus identifies him with Satan's kingdom
- Mark 3/22 He is called the prince of demons so must be the devil
So according to this the philistines were worshipping the devil directly. 1 Cor. 10/20 The Jews
believed that the gentiles sacrificed to demons. So in 11 Kings 1/2 By bypassing Yahveh the God of the Jews to go to the god of philistines that god must be very important. They knew him to be Satan the chief god of heaven. It was the King of Israel that did this not just some Joe. It shows the Jews considered him to be very important.
The point here is this is why the NT Jews had picked up his name and applied it to the devil.
This is one of those bits of theology that was developed between the testaments. Because Jesus never did any teaching or explaining about Beelzebub. Many things like this were developed during this period. Bro Freeman believes God directed their thinking & theology to reach some of these conclusions.
The King of Babylon and The King of Tyre
Isaiah 14 and Ezek 28. Conservatives have always believed that these two passages have
figurative reference to the Satan.
Isaiah 14 Three main views.
a) It refers to the King of Babylon alone
b) It refers to Satan alone
c) It refers to both Anti-Christ and Satan and not the King of Babylon alone
Why is # 3 the correct view
To properly determine for yourself much study in Isaiah Ezek. Zech. Danial Matt. Rev. is needed which is not the scope of this study.
a) The passage is prophetic. It starts with reference with the future day of Israels rest and triumph over her enemies. Future tenses are employed in the passage. eg vs. 3
b) The passage is addressed to the future king of Babylon. The bible clearly teaches a Babylon yet to come (Rev. 17-18) whose ruler is Anti-Christ Rev. 13-17. When Anti-Christ comes he will be supported by Satan.
c) In vs 12-14 the language moves beyond Anti-Christ to Satan himself. Then in vs 15 it returns back to the king of Babylon.
d)There are several passages where He is addressed through others that he influences or
Gen. 3 God addressed Satan through the serpent
Matt. 16/22-23 Jesus addressed the devil through Peter
John 13/27 Jesus addresses Satan through Judas
The point here is the language of Isaiah 14 cannot be limited to a mere king of Babylon and God is addressing Satan through the king or anti-Christ.
Ezek. 28/2 - This is exactly what Anti-Christ says in 11 Thess. 2/3-4. The language of Ezek 28 goes far beyond what a mere man would be. To properly determine for yourself much study in Isaiah, Ezek., Zech., Danial, Matt. Is needed.
There is a solid discussion on this in the OT prophets book pages 304-408
[Updated on: Mon, 29 October 2018 18:59]
|The Spirit World : The Angel of the Lord [message #12599 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Mon, 29 October 2018 19:01
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Angel of the Lord|
The Heb. term here is Mallack Yahveh. Zech. 1/8-12 This term occurs in many passages in the OT. The question is though to whom does it refer? The context show it is not an angel but deity and the per-incarnate Christ.
- Hagar - Gen 16/9-13 vs 13 she called the angel who spoke to her Yahveh.
- Gen.18/1-3 vs 1 - Yahweh, vs 3 Adoni -deity
- Gen. 19/11-12,18 The angel of the Lord calls himself God
- Gen 3/11-13 The angel of the Lord is the God of Bethel
- Ex. 3/2-4 the burning bush
- Ex.23/20-21 they are commanded to obey him
- he has the power to forgive or not forgive. Mark 2 Jesus
- Ex. 13/19, 14/21 The angel in the pillar of fire was called God. It was his presence
- Joshua 5/13-14 He wouldn't worship an angel. Ground was holy - the presence of deity.
The early church believed the angel of the Lord was God as well. Clement of Rome wrote of
Moses and Joshua seeing God when he appeared as an angel in the biblical passages.
- Judges 2/1 He appeared to Israel
- Judges 6/11 Gideon
- Judges - parents of Samson
- 1 Sam.24/16
- 1 Kings 19 Elijah's flight
Only this particular angel is called Malack Yahveh. God enthroned himself on the ark as his
throne. Students of the bible have always concluded that the Malack Yahveh was God himself. A theophany. A temporary manifestation of the pre-incarnate Christ. In the NT after the incarnation the angels are never called Mallack Yahveh but just angels & when Jesus appears it is in his permanent glorified body
|Ritualism # 2 [message #12601 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Tue, 30 October 2018 14:22
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Sacred Furnishings|
The great Altar
This alone was available to the congregation. Here was where he had communion with God. If he didn't come by way of the alter he wasn't accepted by God. He could only come by faith and by way of a blood sacrifice.
This is where the priest washed his hands and feet and signified that he who carried out the
ministry of reconciliation had to sanctify his own life first. Jesus most scathing denunciations were of the religious leaders for their failure to do this.
Alter Of Incense
This burned perpetually day and night and signified the prayers of the priests as they ministered for the people as intercessors. Num. 14/46 He didn't pray he just grabbed fire off the alter and incense.
Table of Showbread
12 loaves representing the 12 tribes of Israel. Heb. is the table of presence and signified that
God was present among his people to provide for them.
A light which signifies the pure light of revelation which only Israel had. It had 7 branches with 7 bowls on top shaped like almonds holding oil which burned continually with pure olive oil.
- seven is the number of perfection
- seven days then the sabbath
- seven years then the sabbatical
- Every seven times seven years then the year of Jubilee
- the Feast of Tabernacles seven days long
- the Passover - seven days long
- seven weeks from Passover to Pentecost
- seven lambs offered at Pentecost
The Ark of the Covenant
This was in the Holy of Holies and signified the throne for Israels king and his presence among his people. He was literally enthroned there. Lev.16/2, Ex.29/42-46 The significance of the Ark is that inside were the two tablets of stone. God sits enthroned in Israel on the basis of the law and covenant he made with them. He sits on the law. It was a continual testimony of the need to keep the law. But the mercy seat covers the broken law which the Israelites broke and needed forgiveness for. The blood was sprinkled on it. The blood which God provided by his grace covered over the sin and broken law. There is the meeting place – grace and atonement.
The Deeper Spiritual Understanding of the Tabernacle
There are three realms of the christian experience . Any christian can enter into the presence of God (with or without the Baptism of the HS) by the Blood of Jesus. Its one thing to have access its another entirely to abide there.
a) Eph.1/4-12 refers to the outer court - the salvation experience.
The outer court suggests the kingdom realm. All the Israelites could enter here. They had to come to the altar to get forgiveness. Like salvation all can come here. To be born of the spirit gives us life in the kingdom realm.
b) Eph.1/13-14 the Holy place - Baptism of the HS The holy place suggests the spiritual realm. This is the place of anointing and ministry. Refers to the HS Baptism. Without an anointing (oil) no priest could enter here. Being baptized by the Spirit gives us anointing and power in the ministry realm
c) Eph. 3/19, 4/13 The Holy of Holies - the fullness of God The holy of holies suggests the realm of the spirit. The place of the presence of God. The place of anointed ministry. The place of the fullness of God. Being perfected by God is the holy of holies. The fullness of God
It is one thing to have access to Gods presence but another to abide there. Ps. 91 speaks of
abiding there. Its not Gods will to stop with salvation or the HS baptism experience but to pick up the cross and follow Jesus as Paul's prayer in Eph. 3 says. Faith in Christ gives us the right of access. The crucified life gives us the right of abiding.
- John 15/7 not all are abiding in Christ
- Ps. 91/1 You have to be abiding to get the promises
- Rev. 7/9-10 The saved can stand before his throne
- Rev. 3/21 O/C's can sit on his throne with him
- Rev. 2/26-27 O/C's rule and reign with him. O/C's have picked up the cross and moved on.
- Ps. 103/7 His ways to Moses and his acts to Israel
Christ in the Tabernacle
One can draw a line from the ark to alter through the laver and the alter of incense. Then another line from the lamp stand to the table. You can see the cross right in the tabernacle.
Phil. 2 Jesus the king came from the fullness of God down to us and then after his work was
finished he went back to the fullness of God. Our call is to follow him by taking up the cross.
a) the holy of holies Col.1/19, Phil.2/1-8
b) the lamp stand John 1/1-9, 8/12. In 1/7-9 the word Light is capitalized. Jesus was the light of the world.
c) the table of show bread. He offered himself as the bread of life. John 6/26-36, 48
d) He is the laver in the outer court. Symbolic of cleansing. He is the water of life. John4/10,13-4
e) the great altar of sacrifice. John 1/29
f) the altar of incense Heb.7/25 He functions as our intercessor as the priests did ministering in the tabernacle.
g) Jesus went to the Father- back to the fullness of God. Phil. 2/9-11
Everything in the tabernacle points to him and speaks of him. Either his person or his work.
The altar is John 3/16 and most stay here. The laver speaks of water baptism Matt.28 with Acts 2/38 The holy place is the call to come deeper into the HS baptism and evidenced by tongues the altar of incense. Most also begin to receive revelation and understanding - the lamp stand. The revelation concerns the purpose for salvation and HS Baptism not to sit down and hold a praise service. Receiving these things will give us an appetite for our diet. The bread of life or the table of his presence. 1 Peter 2/2. The HS Baptism and the word will bring you into the fullness of God. Everything in the tabernacle even the type of sacrifice pointed to Jesus. This doesn't mean you can take every board and utensil and get some spiritual significance out of it
It is a Greek word that means "the people"
Before the tabernacle and temple there were sacred places where Abraham and others
worshipped. Under Moses they had the tabernacle. In Palestine between Joshua and David it was placed in Shiloh. Solomon built his temple in Jerusalem. All through this time the people sacrificed on the high places to many gods.
The Beginnings of the Synagogue
During the exile they were without a temple and sacrifices and they knew better than to build one in Babylon. They went to Babylon without a synagogue and came back to Israel with one. Jewish tradition says while in Babylon they gradually began to meet on the sabbath and festival days. They did this in priests or prophets homes. Sung the psalms shared from the scriptures. Because pious Jews wanted something and didn't have anything else. Ezek.8/1,20/1 Here we see the beginnings of the synagogue.
Why did the Synagogue continue after the temple was rebuilt
a) Because it had become a vital part of the Jewish way of life in the exile
b) It helped preserve Jewish worship and religious solidarity
c) As it still is today it became not just for spiritual worship but also social gatherings
d) From the beginning it was a place to go study the word and study of it became prominent. This was according to Gods plan because Jesus patterned the church after it.
Functions of the synagogue One could be established anywhere 10 Jewish males gathered. The head was called the ruler and he presided over the service. Mark 5/22
There were 4 functions / worship / instruction in the word for adults and children. There were also synagogue schools for for males age 6-16 / It was a social centre, community life, and a place for legal transactions / It was also a place of trial and punishment
They were held on Sabbath morning.
Recite the Shema (Deut. 6/4-9)
Blessings from the word were pronounced
A cycle of 18 prayers were recited
Readings from the law and prophets
Teaching preaching and instruction
[Updated on: Tue, 30 October 2018 14:27]
|The Doctrine of Sacrifice [message #12602 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Tue, 30 October 2018 14:33
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Doctrine of Sacrifice|
The Origin of Sacrifices
Critical theories of their origin
Most think that Israel got their sacrifices is Egypt and added to it from the heathen in Canaan.
a)Gift theory ; Sacrifices were originally gifts given to their God to get some favour.
b)Magic theory: Through the offering of the blood of a substitute on an altar the disease or sin of the people would be magically transferred to the animal (JDS believe this although they use the term mystical)
c) The table bond theory: Sacrifices were meals which the man and his God participated in eating and thus establishing a bond of fellowship. Their God didn't actually eat but the idea of communion was there. Some believe this was the original meaning.
d) Sacramental communion theory: A modification of the table bond theory. The sacrifice
represented the God and when the worshipper ate it he incorporated into himself the life and power of his God. (this is the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation)
e) The Homage theory ; Sacrifice is rooted in the desire to pay
homage to the deity.
f) The Religious Instinct theory: Man is by nature religious so he desired to give something of
himself to his deity. Its an instinct.
g) The Canaanite view: Israel picked up the religious sacrifice from her Canaanite neighbours .
The Reply: Israelite Sacrifice was of Divine Origin
This is seen in the contrast between Israel and her neighbours. The purity of Israel versus cruelty and fertility rites etc.
How did Israels get so pure? Much heathen worship had fertility rites (Canaan) and human
sacrifice. Israels was completely free of this. Issac? This was a test of Abraham's loyalty
Jephthah? Judges 11. There is no evidence he actually sacrificed her and may have simply
consecrated her to a life of perpetual virginity.
Duet.18/10 prohibited human sacrifice as an abomination to God.
Sacrifice didn't originate in Canaan or Egypt but goes right back to the garden. Sacrifices were the only acceptable method of worship by the patriarchs from whom the nation descended. It goes right back to Abel and all of Genesis. Gen. 8/20-22 Noah offers a burnt offering which appeased Gods wrath and caused him to enter into a covenant with mankind.
Job 1/4-5 - about 2000 BC.
From the beginning righteous men have seen the need of blood sacrifices to appease Gods wrath against sin. Gen. 22/7 Issac expressed surprise that Abraham hadn't brought a sacrifice. The book of Genesis knows of no other sacrifice than a whole burnt offering. In the history of Abel, Noah, Abraham, Issac, Jacob, Job we have evidence of the rite of sacrifice. Long before Moses and Israel in Egypt. Wherever the patriarchs pitched their tents they built an alter.
Gen.31/54 There was one sacrifice other than a whole bunt offering. Israel came into Egypt with a knowledge of sacrifice. In Leviticus there is a positive admonition against adopting any of the sacrifices of Canaan and Egypt. Prior to the flood there was no meat eaten. All the animals killed before the flood weren't for food it is therefore implied they were for sacrifice.
The conclusion was that sacrifice was the acceptable form of worship by the patriarchs long
before Israel ever came on the scene. We see blood sacrifice from Gen. 4 on.
The essential idea in sacrifice
Critical Views and incorrect ideas
a) A sacrificial meal: A communion of God and man. This doesn't explain the many types of
sacrifice in Israel. It also doesn't explain why prior to Israel and Moses the only sacrifice was
whole burnt offering with no meal or communion involved.
b) Self Surrender: You find this idea in burnt offering but it doesn't explain all the other sacrifices. It is also confusing the emotions of the giver with the purpose of the sacrifice. What is being surrendered is the victim.
c) Self Interest: By giving something to your God you get something in return. (seed faith) You
don't serve God because it pays.
d) A Fine: like violating a traffic law
e) A Gift: This idea comes from Gen.4. Their offerings were gifts. This whole theory stands or falls or the use of the Heb. term here. The technical terms for sacrifices didn't come into use until Moses. The word in Genesis for gift is just a generic term. A general term. Some think the reason Abel's sacrifice was received and Cains wasn't was because of the value of the gift. Abel's was much more valuable. Some think it was because (Heb.11/4) Abel offered his
in faith. It says his faith caused him to make a certain action. The point though is the kind of
sacrifice he offered by faith. The question here is why was Abel's sacrifice was better than Cains. It says God testified of his gifts.
His faith in action led him to offer a particular offering. If Cain didn't have any faith he wouldn't
have offered anything. The point being he didn't obey God and offer a right sacrifice. The problem wasn't with Cains sacrifice of grain because in Israel there was a most holy meal
offering. The difference between them was Cains sacrifice was an inanimate object. Abel's was life for a life. A blood sacrifice offered in faith in response to a previous revelation that must have come prior to Gen.4 God accepted Abel's offering. Heb.11/4 Abel's offering is called a sacrifice. A blood atonement.
|The Doctrine of Sacrifice # 2 [message #12603 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Tue, 30 October 2018 14:36
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The essential idea in Sacrifice: Vicarious atonement|
The Definition of Sacrifice
Sacrifice is to be defined as: A substitutionary blood offering made to God by his appointed
ministers upon his alter with the object of covering sin and appeasing or propitiating the wrath of God. Thus restoring those upon whose behalf it is offered to fellowship and communion with God and expressing either penitence homage gratitude thanksgiving dedication consecration communion and entreaty for divine blessing.
Hebrew Sacrificial Terminology
1. The Generic Terms
a) Minchah: A gift or offering. Comes from a word that means to give or lend.
b) Zevach An OT term for sacrifice. Comes from a word which means to slaughter either for food or sacrifice.
c) Ishsheh: An offering made by fire. Comes from the word for fire.
d) Qorban: An offering or gift. Mark 7/11
2. The Specific Terms
a) 'olah: The whole burnt offering. It comes from a word that means to go up or ascend.
b) Zevach shelamim : The peace offering. Comes from a verb that means to be complete or
whole. It means a complete or whole peace with God. Literally it is "The sacrifice of
c) Chattath: The sin offering. Comes from root word meaning to sin. (which means to Miss the
d) 'asham: The guilt or trespass offering.
e) Minchah: The meal offering (grain). KJV is the meat offering.
f) Nesek: A drink offering. Comes from a word that means to pour out.
g) Shemen: The oil burned in the lamp (pure olive oil)
h) Libation of water: 1 Sam.7/6, 11Sam.23/16 This must have been revealed to Samuel as it
wasn't part of the of the levitical law. It was observed with the feast of tabernacles and poured out on the alter. The Jewish writers in interpreting this said they poured out their hearts like water before the Lord.
The prominent OT sacrificial term: Kipper It means to cover over the sin.
Gen.6/14 pitch- kipper Gen.32/20 appease (kipper) his eyes
|The doctrine of Sacrifice # 3 [message #12604 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Tue, 30 October 2018 14:42
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The classification of Levitical sacrifices|
The National Sacrifices
1. The Serial Offerings (a series)
a) Daily offerings: Morning and evening a burnt offering on behalf of the nation (Israel) It was a one year old lamb with meal and drink offerings. It is called continual because it is offered daily.
b) Weekly offerings: Morning and evening double the daily offering.
c) Monthly offering: Offered on the new moon sabbath.
- two bullocks a ram and seven lambs with meal and drink offerings
- the regular daily offerings a sin offering- a kid goat
2. The Festal (Festival) Offerings
The Passover Cycle of Feasts
a) The Lords Passover: Ex. 12 Celebrated on the 14th day of Nissan. Nissan is the 1st month of the religious year. There were two calendars in the OT; civil and religious.
b) The feast of unleavened bread: It started on the 15 Nissan and lasted 7 days. (Nissan is a
month in the Jewish calendar) It isn't the same as the Passover but connected to it. The 1st and 7th days were Sabbaths. The daily offerings were offered then two bullocks a ram and seven lambs with meal and drink offerings. In addition to that a kid (goat) was offered for a sin offering on each of the 7 days.
c) Pentecost: The 3thd feast in the Passover cycle. It occurred 50 days after the feast of unleavened bread and it lasted one day. It is also called the feast of harvest, feast of first fruits or feast of weeks. In addition to the daily burnt offering were peace offerings and meal offerings.
The Cycle of the Seventh Month
a)The Feast of Rams Horns (Trumpets): Celebrated in the month Tisri. The civil new year. The first day of Tisri was new years. It was also the new moon of the seventh month. Offerings are the daily burn to offering a new moon offering plus a bullock a ram and 7 lambs.
b) The Day of Atonement: This was the 10 day of the 7th month. A day of fasting and repentance for Israel. The priest had to offer a sin offering for himself first. The sin offering was a bullock and a ram. For the people he offered two goats. This was very important and will be explained later.
c) The feast of Tabernacles (feast of booths): Most Jews today still celebrate it. The 15th day of the 7th month. It was also called the feast of in gathering. They build booths out of leaves and branches to commemorate their wilderness wanderings. It lasted an entire week. 70 bullocks were offered over the week in an ascending scale. This is the only feast mentioned in Zech. 14 as being in the millennium.
3. The Offerings for the Service of the Holy Place
a) Holy oil: pure olive oil was brought (offered) by the people to burn in the lamp stand.
b) Incense for burning on the alter in the holy place
c) Offerings of the show bread
4. The Extraordinary Offerings
These were all offerings at special occasions
a) At the erection of the tabernacle and temple. This was not required by the law but the people desired to do it.
b) At the consecration of Aaron. This was required by law
c) The offerings of the mirrors by the Hebrew women to make a laver for the priests.
d) A sin offering was offered at Achans sin.
e) A sin offering was offered after the sin of Korah.
The Official Sacrifices
1. The Priestly Offerings Lev. 4/3
The priest that sinned had to offer a special sacrifice. If he accidentally erred in his responsibilities he had to offer a offering. eg touching a dead body The day of atonement began (Lev.16) with priest offering an offering for himself. He had to offer offerings at the consecration of a priest into his service.
2. The Offerings for Rulers - Kings princes and civil rulers
Generally these were very elaborate. Lev. 4/22-26 Sin offerings were made for them. This
happened at the dedication of the temple by Solomon. At the return of the ark by David
The Personal Sacrifices for the Individuals
1. Blood Sacrifices
- burnt offerings
- peace offerings
- sin offerings
- trespass offerings
2. Bloodless offerings
- vegetable offerings / meal offerings
In each of the 5 offerings there was a sixfold ritual that had to take place or the offering would not be accepted.
- presentation of the substitute
- the laying on of hands on the head of the substitute by the offerer.
- the slaying of the animal
- the sprinkling of the blood on the alter for the covering
- the burning of the sacrifice on the great alter
- the sacrificial meal (in most sacrifices)
|Doctrine of Sacrifice # 6 [message #12607 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Tue, 30 October 2018 15:00
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Peace Offering|
Lev. 3/1-6 The Term :Zervach Shalamin. It comes from a word that means entire or whole. It is called a shalom which means peace or peace with God. There was only one word for peace "Shalom". If you were talking about the sacrifice or peace offering you used the same word.
Kinds of Peace Offerings
a) The Thank Offering. This was sometimes called the praise offering. It was offered in
thanksgiving for some benefit you received but that you didn't ask for. It wasn't an offering you had promised God.
b) The Vow Offering or The Vow. This was an offering you promised God if he answered some
prayer for you.
c) The Free Will Offering. This was not for any benefit or because of a promise but just a free gift from the heart.
It was the same as any other offering except that only the fat went on the alter to be burned. The priest and the person offering it would eat it. Lev. 7/29-34
The Wave Offering. The breast was waved toward the alter and then toward the priest. It was
given to the priest for him to take home and eat.
The Heave Offering.
The right shoulder was heaved up toward the Lord and then given to the
priest to take home. The balance would be eaten by the offerer in a communion meal with the Lord. The peace offering was male or female cattle sheep or goats. In the whole burnt offering if you were poor you could offer pigeons or turtle doves but not in the peace offering as there was not enough there to have a meal.
The meaning and Significance
After the animal was offered and the priest took his part the offerer took and cooked the balance within the precincts of the temple. It was eaten in communion with the Lord who was in the temple. The ritual required it had to be eaten in the temple by the worshipper and his family. If it was a thank offering and it had to be eaten the same day. The vow or the freewill offering could be eaten the second day as well if there was any left over.
The third day any balance had to be burned. Why?
This prevented any selfish considerations. He couldn't offer to the Lord and then provide for his family all week too. By the third day it would be symbolizing corruption and to symbolize Jesus it could have no corruption. Ps.16/10 Acts 2.
This sacrifice typifies Christ in that many times in the NT Christs sacrifice is mentioned in
connection with our peace with God. This sacrifice symbolizes our friendship fellowship and peace we have with God. Rom.5/1-2, 8-11, Col.1/20, Eph. 2/13-18
Christ offering himself a peace offering allows us to have peace with God. Which allows us to
have communion with him. In the OT the peace offering was communion between the family and God. It showed he was in peaceful communion with God like the NT communion. The church shares the bread and cup remembering Christs sacrifice.
The blood had to be sprinkled on the alter even with the peace offering and sin had to be
The Sin Offering
The Text: Lev.4, 5/1-13
The Hebrew Term: Chattah. Sin or sin offering
If an individual sins the fat was offered on the alter and the priest got the rest. If a priest sinned the fat was burned on the alter and the rest was burned outside the camp in a clean place. This was done so it wouldn't be mixed up with the burnt offering.
It is to abolish any interruption between the persons covenant standing with his God and his
community. The main central idea of the sin offering is the propitiation of God's wrath through the covering over of the sins by the shedding of the blood of an innocent substitute. In every offering the blood is manipulated on the alter but in the sin offering it is central. In this offering the blood is also applied to the horns of the alter which is the most significant and central part of the alter.
Limitations on the Sin Offering
Some sins had no sin offering. There was no sacrifice for presumptuous and wilful sin. They were either stoned or banished from Israel. Presumptuous sin was called "sin with a high hand". Heb.10/28. The sins covered by the sin offering are : sins of ignorance, unintentional sins, unpremeditated sins, sins of weakness, sins of rashness. Some sins weren't covered : blasphemy, cursing your parents, occult, adultery, murder, and other serious wilful crimes. They had to die or be banished because God was emphasizing the seriousness and wickedness of rebellion. Matt.12 some today blaspheme the Holy Spirit.
The Law of the Sin Offering
1. for the anointed priest (while he was serving as a priest at the tabernacle during his time of
service)The priest didn't serve all the time. When their time came they left home and went and served as there was too many of them. Luke 1/8-9
2. For the whole congregation
3. For the ruler
4. For the individual Israelite.(including priest not serving at the tabernacle)
The choice of the animal was determined by
a) The rank of the sinner
b) His ability to make an offering
The high priest offered a bullock. A civil ruler offered a he goat. For the entire congregation a
bullock. For an individual a lamb, she goat, turtle doves. OR Lev. 5/1. for a very poor person
a meal offering without the additives. Lev. 5/11 Without shedding of blood there is no remission but God in his providence still makes a way. The sacrifice for the whole nation once a year would cover it.
Ritual of the Sin Offering
a)Presentation of the victim.
b) Laying on of hands and confession of sin.
c) Slay the animal.
d) The fat is offered on the alter.
e) The blood is sprinkled on the alter and applied to the horns of the alter.
If it is a priest who has sinned or for the whole congregation then it is also applied to horns of the alter of incense and sprinkled 7 times toward the veil. On Yom Kippur the blood is also applied to the ark of the covenant. The sin offering for the priest had to be taken out of the camp and burned in a clean place as a whole burnt sin offering to keep from confusing it with a burnt offering which was burnt on the alter.
Heb. 13/11-13 The point here is Jesus fulfilled the sin offering for the congregation. Paul says
here to the Jews that to follow Jesus and believe in him is for all practical purposes is to leave the camp of Israel.
The Sanctity of the Sin Offering
Lev. 6/17, 14 The meal offering sin offering and trespass offering all were pointed out by God as being most holy. Lev. 6/25 The word used for sin offering and sin are the same word
The Sin Offering is a Type of Christ
He is typified as a Lamb in scripture. Ex.12 with the Passover sacrifice.
Isaiah 53/5-7 He is prophesied as Gods lamb. John 1/29 He is identified as Gods lamb.
Rev. 5/11-12 He is magnified as Gods lamb. Rev. 22/1-5 He is glorified as Gods lamb.
He is always seen as a sacrificial lamb. 11Cor. 5/21,19, 1Peter 1/18-19, 2/24, Rom.8/3-4,
mportant considerations between the Animal Type and Jesus Christ.
a) The sin offering was ordained by God to teach a great moral lesson. ie: the terrible nature of sin in the sight of a holy God which could only be forgiven by the death of an innocent substitute victim. Sin is so terrible that someone had to die. An innocent pure guiltless substitute was required by God.
b) Unlike the animal sacrifice which had to be repeatedly offered Gods lamb was given once for all. Heb. 10/10-12 It could only be offered once yet the benefits continue into the present and its benefits are realized or claimed anytime we need it. (eg forgiveness)
c) In fulfillment of the OT type Jesus remained pure and most holy. 11 Cor. 5/19
d) The significance of 11 Cor. 5/21 is it has to be understood in light of the OT context for sin. That Christ could be called sin by Paul in the same sense the OT sin offering could be called sin.
[Updated on: Tue, 30 October 2018 15:02]
|Docrtine of Sacrifice # 7 [message #12609 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Tue, 30 October 2018 15:09
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Trespass Offering|
Text: Lev.5/14-19 6/1-7 7/1-7
The Hebrew Term Asham - guilt, trespass, trespass offering
The sins covered are trespasses on others rights either man or God with respect to ownership. Its value can be estimated and covered by compensation (because you had to make restitution) The principle idea in the sin offering is propitiation or covering of Gods wrath. The principle idea in trespass offering is satisfaction
a) The animal is presented
b) Hands are laid on the head
c) Sins are confessed over it
d) The animal is killed
e) The fat is burned on the alter
f) The rest goes to the priest
The point here to the rest going to the priest is that this is how the priest made his living and could feed his family. It would be the equivalent of putting money in the offering box at church.
The blood here is only sprinkled on the alter and not the horns of the alter like the sin offering
because the guilt was not fully expiated at the alter unless restitution had taken place.
Three Kinds of Trespass offerings
1. Trespasses against God
a) where the value could be determined - he would offer a ram plus restitution and 1/5 extra.
b) where value could not be precisely determined
Examples would be: accidentally eating the tithe or the first fruits ,eating a first born lamb, eating the flesh of the sin offering, eating the show bread. If value could not be determined he would just offer a ram.
2.Trespasses against man A ram was offered restitution was made plus 1/5 extra
Examples would be misuse of a deposit, fraud, robbery, oppression, finding a lost object and not returning it.
3. Trespasses in General
Examples would be: A leper who was cured. The leper being considered unclean had trespassed against the holiness of God. (whose fault it was is beside the point)
A Nazarite who broke his vow. He would do that for eg by touching a dead body. Unchastity with the slave of another.(slaves were property)
The Trespass Offering as a Type of Christ
Eph.2/1 Col.2/13 The trespass offering was certainly a type of Christ. John 1/29, Isaiah 53/10, The Heb. word for sin there is asham - trespass
Wilful and Presumptuous Sins
Num.15/29-36 Wilful sins or sin with a high hand Deut. 17/8-12
1 Sam. 2/22-25 3/11-14 Eli and his sons 2 Sam. 12 Davids murder and adultery The greater moral offences had no provision for sacrifice and were punished by death or excommunication. Not talking about moral weaknesses here.
Ex.32/19-35, 21/11-17, 31/12-15
Deut.13/1-9 A false prophet had to die. There was no sacrifice for repentance. Joshua 6/17-19
Sins of Ignorance Lev. 4/2, 27
Misdemeanours Lev. 6 Finding a lost lamb and denying it for eg.
Why would these sins be treated differently than gross sins? Even in the NT you see degrees of guilt in the sight of God.
John 19/11, 1 John 5/16, 1Tim.1/13 with Heb.6/4-6
While there are many sins that God will forgive upon repentance in both OT and NT wilful and
presumptuous sins in some matters there is no sacrifice or forgiveness for.
Even n the NT Matt.12/31-2 Blaspheme the HS
Heb.6 Enlightened and then falling away. This is speaking of apostasy not backsliding.
Heb.10 wilful sin after knowledge of the truth. Probably speaking of apostasy here.
1 Peter 2/10 The presumptuous and self willed are reserved for judgment.
1 John 5/16 A sin unto death.
The Moral and Ethical nature of the Sacrifices
The critical view: It was only ceremonial and effective only for ceremonial defilement. Effective only for ritual defilement.
The reply: That would make the sin and trespass offerings superfluous. Why have a blood atonement if it is only concerned with external defilement. The ritual of atonement in these offerings speaks of moral and ethical considerations. Often when one is reading books on these matters you will find an unwarranted distinction between the levitical (ceremonial) and the prophetic (spiritual).
The Israelite didn't think of sacrifice as ritual because he obtained forgiveness of sins and
right relationship with God through it. The ritual was the means of Gods grace and forgiveness coming to him. The Hebrew didn't look at the sacrifice as something temporary and passing away or typical. Sacrifice was then the only sufficient means by which they could stay in right relationship with God. Therefore it was sufficient for the dispensation it was intended to serve. This is not saying the levitical sacrifices were sufficient to take away sin or that they were equal to the sacrifice of Christ. Nor is it saying the blood of animals can take away sin but it is recognizing that it was the appointed means to stay in fellowship. The ritual and sacrifice were the means by which the Hebrew obeyed the revealed will of God. To
understand the OT sacrifices you have to look ahead from their point of view. You can't look back from the book of Hebrews.
The liberal view is that the primitive revelation was given to Moses. ie sacrifice and ritual. Then later a more perfect and deeper revelation came to the prophets and they preached against ritual. Ps. 40/6-10, Is.1, Micah 6/6-8, Amos 521-24, 1 Sam. 15/22, Jer.7/21 They did preach against mere ritual. Ps.51/16-17,19 After a broken heart is come then the sacrifice is pleasing to God.
A sin offering was required when:
A high priest sinned / The nation sinned / On the day of atonement / A civil leader sinned
An individual sinned / Purification after childbirth / Purification of a Nazarite / Consecration of a priest / Cleansing of a leper / Any sin not covered by trespass offering
The reason a sin offering was required for a leper or an unclean sexual issue or sickness is
representative of mans natural sinfulness. Most of these rituals aren't just ritual but God views
them in their connection to the natural sinfulness of the human race. Disease for eg is part of the curse. Deut. 28
Trespass offerings were required when:
Not informing about a crime he witnessed / Touching an unclean object / Rashly swearing a vow / Misuse of the tithe or first fruits / Abuse of trust ie losing a deposit / Ignorantly sinning
Illicit relations with a female slave / A Nazarite who became defiled
All of these except touching an unclean object and the Nazarite are moral problems that required a sacrifice. OT sacrifice and ritual aren't meaningless but most were for moral and ethical sins. The Pentateuch shows the attitude of the sinner must be correct to have God accept the sacrifice. Many offerings (whole burnt, free will) were given to God and not required. They reflected a spiritual attitude of the heart. He gave them because he wanted to.
Trespass offerings mostly no one knew about the sin but the the sinner. It shows a spiritual attitude in the heart to bring the offering. Because you wanted to be right with God. To offer a trespass or sin offering was to do it in front of the whole nation. There was no sacrifice unless the heart was right. Adultery, rebellion, premeditated murder God considered the heart not right for these things. The Pentateuch is filled with moral and ethical requirements that are as spiritual as anything in the NT. Ex. 22/2-22, 23/2, Lev. 19/2,18
All these things show that there is more to sacrifice than just empty ritual.
|Doctrine of Sacrifice # 8 [message #12610 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Tue, 30 October 2018 15:12
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
Various views of the efficacy of the OT Sacrifice|
1. Ceremonial Efficacy It was merely Ceremonial. It was good only for ceremonial sins.
2. Temporary Efficacy It was good only until the next sin offering. Or until the day of atonement.
3. Complete or Real Efficacy
The sin and trespass offering provided a real atonement for all sin. Moral and ceremonial. As long as the sacrifices were presented in humble faith and repentance. When the OT levitical law is consulted the effect of the sacrifice is said by God to be that it covers sin, makes atonement and forgiveness is granted.
God said I will forgive him if he follows this ritual. God said it would work. Lev. 4/35
The Hebrew didn't have the book of Hebrews. He just had Gods word. The humble pious regenerate Israelite with his conscience and heart burdened with sin by offering an acceptable substitute in the ritual could go home forgiven. The OT sacrifices offered temporary peace but only the sacrifice of Christ could offer permanent atonement. The OT sacrifices had an atoning efficacy ascribed to them by the law itself. There is nothing in the law to indicate to the Israelite that the sacrifices were merely types and shadows of things to come.
The Problem of the Book of Hebrews
Heb.9/8-14, 10/1-12 From the worshippers standpoint in the OT the levitical sacrifices were effective in a two fold way
1. It restored him to fellowship with God
2. the sacrifices effected the actual forgiveness for sin
The Twofold Purpose in Sacrifice
1. The revealed Purpose. The covenant relationship between God and Israel was sustained
through ritual and sacrifice. He was forgiven his sin and remained in fellowship with God through it. Which means the sacrifice didn't symbolize forgiveness apart from the actual realization of it. That would rob it of its immediate meaning to the Israelite. Forgiveness was obtained through the act of sacrifice.
2. The Hidden and future purpose as revealed in the Book of Hebrews
Every sacrifice that God accepted and gave them forgiveness for was validated in the mind of the Father on the basis of what he knew he would do with the all sufficient sacrifice of his own lamb. Heb. 10/4 It can't take away sin but then nothing in the OT says that it does. What he promised was forgiveness and restoration to covenant standing. God himself in the OT promised forgiveness. There is an apparent contradiction to some people which is explained in the fact that the OT sacrifices were efficacious only with respect to forgiveness and not with respect to purging away sin. The point here is that only the sacrifice of Christ could purge away sin and without that ; forgiveness doesn't mean anything. Rom.3/25-26
Through the self sufficient sacrifice of Christ for sin Gods righteousness was at last vindicated. While the OT sacrifices provided forgiveness for sins yet those sins were never purged away. (he just in his grace passed them by) They were passed over by the forbearing grace of God until purged away by the sacrifice of Christ. On account of the eternal purpose of God to punish sin and provide an atonement in his son God pardoned people in the OT. He did not actually purge sins away until covered with the blood of Christ. Owing to the forbearance of his grace God accepted animal substitutes to cover sin and propitiate his wrath until the fullness of time and with his own lamb he would validate all the forgiveness
granted through the animal sacrifice. All of this means that Christs sacrifice was already accepted in the counsels of God and by his foreknowledge before the foundation of the world.
Rev.13/8, 1 Peter 1/19-20, Rom.3/25 is the key to all of it
|The Vov / Nazaritism [message #12614 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Thu, 01 November 2018 18:42
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
1. The Positive Vow
A promise to dedicate something to God. It can be a sacrifice or some other object. This is called Korban (corban) It means an offering not necessarily a sacrifice.
Lev.1/2, Num.7/13, Neh. 10/34
Mark 7/5-13 Jesus scathing denunciation of the pharisees practice of the vow.
This was a vow of something you would give to the Lord. To get out of helping parents or
someone or to get out of an obligation they would say its corban and then use it themselves.
Gen. 28/22 His sheep cattle possessions or servants
b) Persons 1Sam.1/11 Samuel
Judges 11/30 Jepthah vowed his daughter Bro. Freeman thought this was foolish vow that should have been repented of. He also thought it was a vow of perpetual virgin hood.
c) The Vow of Devotion. This was not used in a spiritual sense. It could be called a vow of
judgment. Devoted to judgment. Heb. is "Cherem" - a ban, a devoted thing Lev. 27/29
Joshua 6/17-18 Jericho. The whole city. It is destroyed and burned. If it is living it is killed
d) There are special vows devoting something to Gods use. eg. lands animals. They are then
unsaleable. They become the possession of the priesthood and can never be redeemed.
Lev. 27/21,28 Num.18/14,8
2. The Negative vow
A promise to renounce some act or enjoyment for the glory of God
a) Fasting This was the most common vow of abstinence. It is commanded only on Yom Kippur Gen.37/34, Joshua 7/6, Judges 20/28, 1 Sam.7/6
This vow was quite common in Israel.
b) Nazaritism You had to deny yourself. (see below)
Conclusion: It was an expression of devotion to God. It had no necessary merit. Deut.23/22 It
was an act of worship and voluntary in the OT. The vow of a of a wife or daughter was not valid unless approved by the husband or father by his silence. Num.30
The Text Num.6/1f
It can be a man or women / You can eat or drink nothing from the grape vine / He can't cut his hair / you can't touch a dead body. Even your own family
The Hebrew Term: Nazer - one who is consecrated. The word for crown is taken from this word
Two Types of Nazarite
a) a Nazarite for a definite period Num. 6
Setting oneself aside for a period to seek the Lord or do some work in ones life
b) A Nazarite from the womb. This was imposed at birth.
1 Sam.1- Samuel / Judges 13- Samson / Luke 1- John the Baptist
Renounce everything from the grape vine / not cut his hair / could touch nothing dead
The Breaking of the vow of Nazaritism Num.6/13-21
The Meaning of the Nazarite
Num.6/2,8 It signified the consecration of the whole life unto God and separation from the things of the world during the period of separation he was as a priest to God. He fulfilled the same requirements they did while they were serving as ministers. Lev.10/8-9, 21/10-11
The long hair signified the high priests crown because the word Nazarite is the same Heb. Word for crown. The word for the high priests crown is the same word from which we get Nazarite. The same root word but different pronunciation. Separation unto God was to be taken seriously. 11 Peter 2. In the NT we are all separated unto God and priests
|Purification [message #12615 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Thu, 01 November 2018 18:45
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
1. Ceremonial defilement
These were ritual uncleanness (ritual as opposed to sinful) where people had to be restored to cleanness. Death It is viewed as unclean in the OT. Touching a dead body or it happening in the same house as you or touching something connected with it. Touching an unclean dead animal. If you touched a clean animal that died unnaturally you became unclean. Num.19/13- This is the ritual that cleanses you from this. Slaying a perfect red heifer burning it and mixing its ashes with water and sprinkling you or your house or whatever became defiled by death.
Two Aspects to the Waters of Purification.
a) A clean person who touched the water or the red heifer became unclean. Why? To express the infectious character of death. Its unnatural and awful. Anything pertaining to it made it unclean. Death is the ultimate expression of Gods judgment against sin.
b) The waters of purification were themselves clean and holy. Because they cleansed those who were defiled. The ashes were gathered by someone who was clean and taken to a clean place until they were needed. Then they were mixed with the water.
Purification after childbirth
Lev. 12/1-8 A women was unclean after childbirth. 7 days and 33 days for a boy and 14 days and 66 days for a girl. They had to offer a burnt offering and a sin offering. Vs 7 -"she shall be cleansed from the issue of her blood" The women was ritually unclean because of the issue of blood. Lev. 12/7 with Lev. 15/19-28 This also included the menstrual cycle.
In the OT a women couldn't come into the temple during the menstrual cycle. Only those pure and clean with no ritual defilement. Anything unnatural relating to the private organs was not to come into the temple until clean. Why 66 days for a girl vs 33 for a boy? Its not the fact of boy or girl but the mother in her uncleanness. A girl will also eventually add to the ritual uncleanness of the issue of blood. Luke 2/22-24 This offering was for the mother not the child
Purification from Leprosy
This was very important because of its connection to the curse. Sickness disease and death were in the curse. Leprosy was singled out because it was a type of living death. Leprosy is singled out because it is a graphic living description of death.
Lev.14/1-8 restores him to the nation -1st ritual
Lev.14/9-32 restores him to the temple - 2nd ritual
Lev.14/33- leprosy clinging to a house or garment
Purification from Sexual Issues Lev. 15
Purification for a Nazarite who defiled himself Num.6
The Lord in showing these things to Israel is showing them that the curse and sickness etc are the curse because of sin. Depicting it very graphically. The point is the OT shows that these things are unclean and defiling and you can't come into Gods presence with them
1. The Trial of Jealousy Num. 5/11-31 vs 18 with 1 Cor. 11- the head covering. She now has no symbol of authority on her head. She has no protection except her own righteousness if any. Holy Water? vs. 17 Probably water out of the laver. The dust in the water? vs 17 Eating dust is the mark of a curse or of deepest shame and humility. eg Gen 3/14, Ps.72/9, Micah 7/17, Isaiah 49/23 Why was the dust mixed with holy water? It signified the entrance into the innermost parts of the women of the divine curse on adultery. Some suggest this was a psychosomatic illness. It is a supernatural judgment upon this sin.
2. The deliverance of Suspicion from Blood Guiltiness.
Deut. 21/1-9 Unsolved murder! This was not an atonement or sacrifice. The priest and Levites
were there only to officiate. The purpose was not to make an atonement. There was no blood sacrifice offered by the priests. This was capital punishment. The animal was a substitute. The elders washed their hands over it so the guilt from that town was washed away. These were added to the law because God required that even secret sins were to be dealt with if he was to dwell in the midst of Israel
|The Oath and Taxes [message #12616 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Thu, 01 November 2018 18:50
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
In Israel it was a religious act. The Hebrew Term Deut. 6/13 Heb. is Shebuwah. It comes from the same root word as the sacred number 7. It implies perfection. Seven is often sacred and has religious significance and signifies completeness. The oath then implies it is seven times whatever you would say without the oath.
Kinds of Oaths
a) An assertion of a truth before the Living God "as the Lord lives"
b) The oath of imprecation or curse. This is an appeal to Gods penal justice against the wicked.
The Usage of the Oath
Oaths were commanded by God to be in his name. It was to wean them from the other Gods they had learned in Egypt. The formal oath was always in the name of the Lord.
a) The Formal Oath
Gen.24/2 a promise / Gen. 21/23 to seal a covenant
Neh.6/18 an oath of friendship / Num. 5/19 an oath of innocence
Ex.22/11 an oath of purging - as in a court of law
b) The Informal oath
This was not a commanded oath 11Kings 2/2 "as thy soul liveth" This was not something done carelessly or with profanity. Sometimes they said "as I live". or "may the Lord do so to me"
Signs of the Oath
a) The pledge. Gen 21/27-32
b) Laying the Hand Gen.24/1-3 under the thigh of him who was sworn to. It was like shaking
hands. The thigh was reverenced as the source of life. The most personal private and powerful part of the body
c) Raising the Hand to Heaven or God. Gen.14/22 swearing by the Lord
d) 1 Kings 8/31 an oath before the alter
The Sanctity of the Oath
The oath was very serious ans a religious act. To violate it required a sin offering. Even careless oaths required a sin offering to break it. Lev. 5/4, 6/3 The oath and the vow were different. Sometimes they go together but they can't be confused. One would take a vow and then an oath that they would keep it. There were new rules in the NT. Matt. 5, James 5
The fundamental idea is based on the fact that the people their possessions and the Holy Land belong to God and they were just his stewards. It all belonged to God and in giving a portion of it showed that they were substituting that portion for the whole. It as all Gods. The NT message is exactly the same. The Israelite in his life was constantly reminded of this as he gave of everything he had.
The First Born Male
Whether it was man or animal the first born belonged to the Lord. Ex.13/1-2 This was not the first born but the first born "male" It may have been the 5th that was born. A boy was redeemed by 5 shekels of silver. Num. 18/15-16. Instead of taking every first born male as a priest he took the whole tribe of Levi. If it was a first born animal it was given to the
priest. All of this was based on the Passover in Egypt Ex. 16/2, Num. 3/13, Ex 13
If it was an unclean animal (camel, rabbit) then the first born was redeemed by the priest
evaluating it and you pay him the money plus 1/5 more Lev. 27/27
Clean animals had to be sacrificed. If it was without blemish. The breast and right shoulder went to the priest. You and your family ate the rest as a peace offering to the Lord. If the first born had a blemish he would kill it and eat it at home. Deut. 15/19-22.
Ex.13/12-13 The first born male of an ass had to be redeemed by substituting a lamb Or else you had to break its neck. Again all this was based on the Lords Passover in Egypt. It was the first born male that the angel of Death killed and God protected with the Passover.
All the fruit of the land (grain wine fruit) the first of it went to the Lord. How much? The NT principle applied here. A right heart would give plenty. This along with the sacrifices was what the priest lived on. He had to have enough. Any food not sanctified by offering the first fruits was unclean
Tithes and Offerings This all went to the temple and the priests
a)1/10 of all the increase. Herds fruits wine everything. Lev.27/30-33 If he holds it back for a year because he needs it then next year he gives it and adds 1/5 to it. vs31
b) Deuteronomy tithe Deut. 14/22-27 It was 1/10 of the 9/10 you had left after you paid your tithe. This was the tithe you ate in religious feasts. You took it with you to the pilgrimage feast in Jerusalem 3 times a year.
c) Every third year the 10th was left at home and you had a feast of tithes where you invited strangers, levites, widows & orphans. Deut.14/28-29 There is no agreement among scholars if this was a third 10%. some believe it is the second 10% just treated differently every third year
Tax for the service of the Sanctuary
Ex. 30/16 Num. 3/12-13 It appears from 11 Chron.24/5 to be an annual tax to repair the sanctuary. Neh.10/32-33 Ex.30/12 All these taxes first fruits tithes amounted to much more than 10%
Tithing and the NT
Some say because Abraham gave a 10th then the principle of tithing is timeless. Because it came before the law. Gen.14 If true one has to give 1/10th of all your increase and not just your net pay. The NT does not prescribe legalism in any form and it isn't even mentioned. The NT teaches it all belongs to God and we are to give to support Gods work bountifully cheerfully and regularly.
1 Cor 16, 11 Cor. 9/6-7, Gal. 6, 1 Cor 9/7-14, It is always a principle in the NT.
|Designations of the Sacred Times and Seasons [message #12617 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Thu, 01 November 2018 19:01
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
Designations of the Sacred Times and Seasons|
Sabbaths / New Moons / Pilgrimage Festivals
Festivals of the Seventh Month:
The Feast of Trumpets
The Day of Atonement
The Feast of Tabernacles
The Sabbatical Year
The Year of Jubilee
The Biblical Texts
Ex. 23 Lev. 23-25,27 Num. 28-29 Deut. 15-16
The Significance of the Sacred Seasons
They are called the "appointed times" in the Bible. Num.28/2 The Holy days or sacred seasons were to preserve by these seasons a remembrance of Israels election and deliverance. It was also a constant reminder that God was the author of all their earthly blessings and their continual dependence on him.
Celebration of the Holy Days
All the yearly feast days were called sabbaths and no work was to be done. The feast of
Tabernacles and the Passover lasted a full week. The first and seventh days of these feasts were sabbaths. On the weekly sabbath and the Day of Atonement no work could be done on the threat of death. Rest only was required. The two week long feasts one could work between the two sabbaths. The weekly sabbath and the Day of Atonement (Shabbat Shabbatom) were called high holy days. The weekly sabbath and the sabbatical feast days were called "holy convocations". On the three sabbath feast days all males were required to go up to Jerusalem to appear before the Lord. Ex.23/14,17 Deut. 16/16. The had to bring their tithes and Deuteronomic tithes.
The Sabbatical Seasons
1. The Weekly Sabbath
Its Origin Gen. 2/2 God rested. The Heb word there is the root of the word for sabbath.
Ex. 20/8-11 the seventh day and the seventh commandment Gen. 7/4-10, 8/10-12 References to seven day periods. He made a seven day week and then blessed 1/7 of it. There is no sabbath until we get to the law. Even the word for sabbaths isn't used in Genesis which is many centuries long.
The Sabbath in the Mosaic Period
Ex.16/21-30 This is the first mention of the sabbath. Gen.2/3 God called the sabbath a blessing not a legalistic burden. Mark 2/23-27 Jesus here in the OT dispensation showed his attitude toward how the sabbath was to be kept. The point is it is to be a blessing.
The Sabbath in the Post Mosaic Period
The early historians and prophets mention it. 11 Kings 4/23, Amos 8/5, Hosea 2/11,
Isaiah 1/13, Ezek. 46/3 Many promises were made to the Jews who will faithfully observe Gods sabbath. Jer.17/21-27 Isaiah 56/2-4, 58/13, Ezek 20/12-24
The Sabbath in the Post exilic period
This is where the synagogue begins. It is not just the sabbath now but an emphasis on study as well. There was a reading of the law on various feast days. During this time the sabbath became a time for the study of the law. It was during this period that all the legalistic interpretations of the law came. Until this time the sabbath was a blessing. Outside of Jesus claim to be messiah the one thing that aroused the religious leaders to wrath was Jesus observance of the sabbath. This happened all through the gospels. John 5/8-16. This was the one thing outside his being messiah that led to his crucifixion.
The Eschatological Sabbath
a) The cessation of the sabbath in the age of grace. This was part of Israels punishment. Hosea 2/11 Some always have and some still do celebrate the sabbath but God isn't recognizing it.
b) The sabbath will be reestablished during the millennium for Israel. Isaiah 66/23
2. The Sabbatical Year (The Sabbatical Seasons)
Every seventh year the land was to rest (not be cultivated or farmed) and all debts were to be
a) Ex.23/ 10-11 so the poor could eat and the beasts of the field could eat
b) It was rest for the land itself. Lev.25/1-7
How were they to eat then the 7th and 8th years? Lev.25/20-22 This isn't to say they couldn't make money in other ways or hunt etc. but they couldn't work as a farmer.
c) all debts were cancelled every seventh year. Deut. 15/1-6 The Lords release. Deut 15/9-10 Even a debt borrowed in the 6th year was cancelled. Obedience brought blessing.
d) During the sabbatical year at the feast of tabernacles the entire law was read to everyone.
3. The year of Jubilee (The Sabbatical Seasons)
The Hebrew Term.
In the bible it is called the "Year of the Rams Horn"
7X7 sabbatical yrs then the 50th is the Jubilee Lev. 25,27 Num.36/4
Everything was restored. All lands and people. So there was 4 yrs with no sowing or reaping
Reasons for the Jubilee year.
a) It tended to abolish poverty. All debt was cancelled and an impoverished family could start over.
b) It prevented large accumulations of wealth and poverty. One couldn't get rich off his bro.
c) It prevented any true slavery from being established. There was much servitude but no true
d) This year gave Israel time to do other things. Study the law, fish, hunt, raise bees etc.
e) it preserved the tribes and families the way God intended. All property was restored.
It is interesting that one of the reasons for the exile was because this jubilee yr was never
practised in Israel. Which is odd considering some of the Godly kings they had.
The Pilgrimage feasts:
Called this as all the males had to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem at the start of the feast
The term is Pesach. The Pascal Lamb or Pascal meal means the same thing. The term comes from Matt. 26/17 A Greek word out of the LXX. (Septuagint) It marks the beginning of the Jewish new year. Ex.12, Ex.13/3-9, Ex.23/15, Lev.23/5, Num.28/16-26, Deut.16/1f
1. It commemorates the deliverance of Israel from bondage in Egypt
2. It commemorates the deliverance of their first born.
3. It is the beginning of their religious new year
4. It is the starting of the Hebrew nation (as a theocracy)
5. It typifies the sacrifice of Christ.
The Passover was eaten on the 14 Nissan (a Heb. month). This was called the Passover feast or feast of unleavened bread Matt 26/17 It was celebrated from the 14th - 21st of Nissan. 7 days.
Celebration of the Passover in Later Times
After the temple (or tabernacle) was built the lamb was killed at the sanctuary not at home. The blood was sprinkled upon the alter not the house. The fat was burnt on the alter. The meaning of the Passover was recited each year. Ex.12/24-27. They sang the Hallel (hallelujah) Ps1/13-18. There were many public and national sacrifices offered after the lamb.
There was a second or little Passover on the 2nd month 14th day for those who were unclean or on a journey. Num.9/1-12
Remarks from Jewish Historians
a) Nor ordinary food eaten after midday on 14th Nissan
b) No uncircumcised person could eat of it.
c) Between 10 & 20 people could eat it together
The Mode of Passover According to Josephus
Cup of wine
the lamb was put before the elder
the eldest son would ask "what does this mean"
singing of hallel
eat the lamb / 3thd & 4th cups of wine / the 2nd part of Hallel
Here we see Jewish tradition adding to what the bible taught.
The Passover as a Type
John 1/36 Typical of Christ. 1 Cor 5/7 No other meaning aside from Christ. John 19/31-36
The Passover as a Sacrifice
The Passover lamb was roasted. All other sacrifices were boiled.
It was eaten with unleavened bread which depicted the need of haste. The bitter herbs was sign of the bitterness of their bondage which showed the bitterness of death in the crucifixion. The sprinkling of the blood always in a sacrifice signifies deliverance from death. In Egypt it was over the house. In Israel it was over the alter to cover sin. It signified the covering of the believer. It was always the faith of the Israelite in doing what God said applying the blood that delivered them. The Passover was more than a feast. It was also a sacrifice. Ex.12/27 calls it a sacrifice. The NT (11Cor. 5/7) calls it a sacrifice. It had to be slain at the temple when they had one like all the other sacrifices. The blood was sprinkled on the alter as an atonement.
What Class of Sacrifice is it?
a) It was not a sin offering. Only the priest could eat and touch the sin offering. The sin offering was cut up with some to the altar and some to the priest. The priest got the breast and thigh.
b) The Passover could belong to the class of peace offerings because like peace offerings the
offerer ate it all. The Passover provides peace for us. The blood was sprinkled on the altar like the peace offering.
|Judaism [message #12619 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Thu, 01 November 2018 19:14
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Origin and Meaning of the Term "Judaism”|
The reason why we study this is because one can't understand much in the NT without
understanding between the testaments. There is much in the NT that just appears without
explanation. eg: synagogue, pharisees, Sanhedrin The term "Judaism" occurs in
11 Maccabees 2/21,14/38. During this period (between the testaments) Judaism refers to the religion of the Jews as contrasted to Greek Hellenism. The term in the NT is used to contrast non-christian Jewish religion with Christianity. Gal.1/13 Jews religion.
The Greek word is Judaism. Titus 1/14 Jewish fables. Gal 2/14 Jewish customs There is no word in the OT that can be translated "Jew" There is a word that is a persons name."Yehudi" it means Jewish or Jew. A noun or adjective. 11 Kings 16/6, Esther 5/13, Neh. 1/2
The term comes from the kingdom of Judah. Jew or Judaism. Jew was originally a Judite from the kingdom of Judah. After the exile the name Yehudi began to applied to anyone who was a Jew anywhere.
There is a difference between legalistic Judaism and classical Judaism. The point being that there is nothing wrong with Ezra and Nehemiah calling the people back to mosaic worship. Legalistic Judaism arose between the testaments after prophecy had ceased and there was no king and Israel was ruled mostly by priestly families.
The Background to Post-Exile Judaism
The Political Background
1. The biblical period - under Ezra and Nehemiah
a) The Babylonian period 586-536 BC
b) The Persian period. 536-400 BC
536 BC the Persians allow the Jews to return to Israel
Ezra 3/1-7 Burnt offering is restored
535 BC the foundation of the temple is laid. Ezra 3/8-13
Ezra 4 for 15 yrs no more work is done
520 BC the work resumes under Haggai and Zechariah
515 BC the temple is finished
478 BC Esther becomes queen
458 BC Ezra comes as a teacher/priest Ezra 7-10
445 BC Nehemiah comes a governor and begins to rebuild the city Neh. 1-7
433 BC Nehemiah goes back to Babylon Neh. 13/6
432 BC Malachi preaches
425 BC Nehemiah returns and initiates reforms
During this period the Jews have returned rebuilt their temple and resumed their sacrifices.
2. The Inter biblical Period
a) The Persian Period 400-333 BC
b) The Greek Period 333-167 BC
333-320 BC Macedonian Supremacy (Alexander the Great)
320-198 BC The Ptolemaic Supremacy (Egypt)
198-167 BC The Seleucid Supremacy (Syria) This was Anticanis 4th. He was the worst
oppressor of the Jews until Hitler arose. He ruled over Egypt Syria Palestine after Alexanders
Kingdom broke up. He tried to Hellenize the Jews.
c) The Maccabean Period 167-37 BC
63 BC Pompey (Roman) took Palestine
37 BC Herod the Great begins to rule. Appointed by the Romans
The Religious Background
The rise of the Jewish sects and the development of legalistic Judaism
The Maccabean revolt. They were originally called Hasmoneans named after a priestly family from Modim in Judea. They were faithful to the Lord and the law of Moses.
Antiochus required the Jews to follow Greek culture. Matthias (a priest) refused. See 1 Maccabeas 2f This is the origin of Hanukkah. In 165 BC Judas Maccabees recaptured Jerusalem and rededicated the the altar and the temple and Hanukkah celebrates this.
1 Maccabees 4/38-61, 11 Maccabees 10/6-7 The feast of dedication or Hanukkah is celebrated in Dec. It is also called the feast of lights because of the use of lights in the homes and synagogues. In Israel today the emphasis is on the patriotic aspect of Hanukkah.
The Jewish Sects
Hasideans or Hasidim.
This was a Jewish sect before Christ. The name comes from the word Hasid which means pious. This name "the pious ones" was given to the orthodox Jews who opposed the Hellenization of Palestine. 1 Mac. 2/42,7/13
They still exist today in Israel and elsewhere. Their origin is uncertain but they existed as a
religious group before the Maccabees. They might have arose after Alexanders conquest by
withdrawing from the world 1 Mac. 1/63, 11 Mac.6/18f, Judith 12/2 Josephus book 14 4/3
These were active supporters of the Maccabees religiously but had little interest in politics and later separated totally when Maccabean interest became more political.
The Essenes or pious ones.
They inhabited the Qumran community. Their origin is uncertain but it is believed they came from the Hasidim and fled to the wilderness during Antiochus persecutions because they refused to fight with the Maccabees. They were a monastic brotherhood devoted to the ascetic life. Self supporting, zealous for the law, copied the scriptures They did not go up to the temple to worship. Some try to relate Jesus and John Baptist to this group. But Jesus ate with sinners worshipped at the temple and drank wine. All things the Essenes wouldn't do.
The term is from a Heb verb that means to separate or make distinct
Their Origin It is believed they are the successors of the Hasidim when they became more political. The religious ones then changed their name. Josephus book 13 10/5
The beginning of Legalistic Judaism
The Pharisees as successors of the Hasidim were very zealous for the law unlike most Jews.
They took vows in the most strict manner to observe ceremonial ritual and purity. The party was called a brotherhood in addition to being called pharisees. They wouldn't buy or sell to an unclean person. ie one who didn't keep ritual law. They separated themselves from the common people. John 7/49 They included in their observance of Moses law the oral law and required everyone else to do it too. They interpreted the law and made strict obedience to the letter of the law and divided phrases and sentences and words with ridiculous meanings.
There were two schools of pharisees.
a) The Hilail school - he founded a school with a rigid strict dissecting of the word
b) The Shammai school - A rival of the Hilail. He was an extreme formalist and founded a school of legalistic Judaism which totally ignored the spirit of the law. By the time of Jesus these two schools had along with all the oral interpretation completely superseded the scriptures.
The Talmud lists 7 different kinds of pharisees.
a)The shoulder pharisee - He parades his good deeds like a badge on his shoulder
b) The wait a bit pharisee - He begs for time so he can perform another good deed.
c) The bleeding pharisee - He is so pious that when he sees a women he would close his eyes and end up running into a wall and bleeding. He would rather bleed than sin
d) The painted pharisee - He advertises his holiness so no one will touch him and defile his
e) The reckoning pharisee - He always says . . . what good deeds have I to do to balance the bad I've done
f) The fearing pharisee - He serves God because he fears not to.
g) The pharisee of love - He serves God because he loves God
This is the Talmuds recognition of their own legalism. They were saying a true pharisee is one
who loves God The Talmud was a collection of writings about the interpretation of the law in the Torah. The Torah is the Heb bible or OT. Jesus called the Talmud the Traditions of the Elders and said they made the scriptures of no effect.
According to Josephus they arose at the same time as the Pharisees. It comes from a plural Heb word "to be righteous" By the time of Jesus the Sadducee's had gained control of the temple with its worship and the pharisees controlled the synagogues with their worship.
The high priest was always a Sadducee. Compared to the pharisees they were fewer in number. The party was made up of nobles priests levites and the high priestly family.
The pharisees were not priests but they did include any who could meet the requirements. The Sadducees took only the Pentateuch as scripture and denied basic doctrines. eg resurrection, angels spirits Luke 20/27, Acts 23/8 Mark 12/18
The term means to write.
Its Origin All the law had to be copied by hand. They were called Sophorim in the OT. The word means book or writing. It is translated in the OT as scribe, secretary, enumerator. They appeared as a professional class of learned men in Jer.36, 11 Sam.8/17, Ezra 7/6
Jesus didn't rebuke all scribes Matt 23/34. They generally came from the priestly clans. In the NT they were usually ordinary people who wrote and taught the word. Educated but not priests. In Matt.22/35 they are called students of the law or lawyers. Luke7/30, 10/25,5/17, Acts 5/34, doctors of the law and also called rabbi. They became prominent with the pharisees between the testaments.
They were the extreme nationalists who were the successors to the Maccabees. They arose after Rome took Palestine in 63 BC. They opposed Roman rule paid no taxes and gave no allegiance to any king but God. One of Jesus disciples was a zealot. Luke 6/15, Acts 1/13
They are very important in history because they led the revolt in 70 AD which Jesus predicted in Matt.24
This was the Jewish supreme court. Jewish tradition places its origin in Moses selecting 70 elders to help him rule. According to this tradition Ezra reorganized it after the exile.
Other sources say the high priest and elders having much authority under Rome formed it after a group that preceded it during the Maccabees period. (this is Bro Freemans opinion )
As far as a pattern is concerned 11 Chron. 19/5-11 could be the origin. The Sanhedrin exercised some civil but mostly religious authority. They had their own police who could make arrests. Matt.26.47, Acts 4/3, 5/17, 9/2 Mark 14/43
[Updated on: Thu, 01 November 2018 19:14]
|]The Literary Productions of the Exile [message #12620 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Thu, 01 November 2018 19:18
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Literary Productions of the Exile|
a) The Canonical books
Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, 1&2 Chronicles. All these were written during the exile
250 BC The Bible (OT) was translated by 70 Jewish scholars into Greek because many Jews spoke Greek. Sometimes called the LXX after the Latin Roman Numerals for 70
Very important history contained here. The word Apocrypha means hidden or spurious. We don't know who wrote them. It got into the Latin Vulgate bible which became the Roman Catholic bible. So the 11 apocryphal books are part of the RC bible. The canon of scripture was closed in 90 AD. There were no extant copies of the apocrypha so it didn't make it into the bible. For more info see OT Survey.
They are called "Pseudo" because they weren't written by the people whose names are on them.
- The Testament of the 12 Patriarchs
- The Psalms of Solomon
- The Lives of the Prophets
- The Book of Jubilee
- The Testament of Job
- The Gospel of Enoch
- The Martyrdom of Isaiah
- The Life of Adam and Eve
- The Assumption of Moses
- The Apocalypse of Abraham
- 3 & 4 Maccabees
- Various others
e) The NT Apocrypha
(See NT Theology) Writings of the Early Church Fathers
These were written by devout learned men. They just didn't get into scripture. eg. Nicene, Post Nicene, Ante Nicene fathers
f) The Targums
These were Aramaic translations and interpretations and paraphrases of parts of the OT. They were written about 100 AD. They are important because most Jews of the time spoke Aramaic.
g) The Talmud The word means to study learn or instruction.
There were two Talmuds
1. The Palestinian Talmud.
Written in Palestine about 275 AD
2. The Babylonian Talmud.
Written by Jewish scholars in Babylon about 500 AD. The Talmuds are collections of oral tradition and interpretations of the scriptures and divided into two parts.
1. The Mishnah. A collection of oral tradition and interpretation after Ezra until about 500 AD
2 The Gemara.
A commentary on the Mishnah
|The Kingdom of God in the OT [message #12622 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Fri, 02 November 2018 08:50
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
The Kingdom of God in the OT|
The Sovereignty of God
The Nature of Gods Sovereignty
The meaning of Gods sovereignty to the OT writers was synonymous with the fact that God was God. They considered that an affirmation of his existence was an affirmation of his sovereignty and absolute kingship. They ascribed to him the right to govern his universe the way he wanted to. He is sovereign in the exercise of his power as well as the bestowal of his love grace and mercy. There is no such thing as a non-sovereign God. That is why there can only be one God not two. God over everything is sovereign Isaiah 57/15, 66/1, 40/25, 43/10, 44/6, 45/18, 42/5, 40/13-14, 41/1
The Ground of God's Sovereignty in the OT
This is the power of God. It is the most frequently mentioned of his attributes in all the OT. His power is demonstrated in his names. eg. God Almighty, The Lord of Hosts etc We see this demonstrated in the old songs of the OT. eg. Judges 5, Ex. 15, Deut. 34, 1 Sam.2 We see a demonstration of his sovereign power in creation. We also see it in the exodus from Egypt. We see it in delivering Canaan to Israel. Ezek. 1 We see a picture of Gods sovereignty over all things. Dan.4/35 His power is so sovereign even the heathen acknowledge it.
The Significance of Gods omnipotence
a/ It shows he is able to fulfill all the promises of his word. His word has the power to bring his
promises to pass. Is.55/11
b/ His omnipotence is shown in the OT by his power to protect his people from anybody and
anyone. Ex.9/16 God hardened Pharaoh's heart to demonstrate his power and glory. From Pharaoh's side he did what he wanted. From God's side he couldn't do anything else. Is.46/8-11, Dan. 6/26-27
The Omnipresence of God
He is personally present everywhere at one and the same time everywhere in heaven and earth. Not "in" heaven and "on" earth but he fills heaven and earth. He sees everything Prov.15/3 This is the basis for his judging everything Amos 9/2-4 It also means he is present with his people all the time and not afar off. In the OT he was with them. In the NT he is with us by the HS Baptism. Ps.139/7-12 His omnipresence and his Spirit are the same thing.
The Omniscience of God
This is his perfect wisdom and knowledge of all things past present and future. The significance of this is he is in control of everything he created including inanimate life. All the stars in the universe for example. He doesn't just control them he named them. Ps. 147/5 All real and actual events and all the possibilities as well. He has perfect knowledge of his animate creation. Both man and animals. Ps.50/11 Ps. 94/11 Jer.17/10 he knows the hearts of men Is.48/5,42/9 He knows all things past present and future. The predictions of the prophets were grounded in God's sovereign omniscience. Amos 3/7
God's Sovereignty as Expressed in Creation and Providence
Before anything existed God was content with just himself. When he created it was to reveal
himself because it couldn't be an end in itself. Creation wasn't an end itself. It is an instrument in Gods hands to show his glory. Ps.8, Ps.19. Is.43/7 is why we were created.
God's sovereignty over Nature
Ps.104 Job 38-41 He can control nature as a means to his end. eg. the great plagues of Egypt, the parting of the Red Sea, The Sun stood still, Sodom and Gomorrah, The Flood
God's Sovereignty in Miracles
In the OT it came generally in 3 time periods
a) The creation of Israel in the Exodus
b) Elijah against the threat of Baalism - this was the greatest threat against true religion that ever was. There were only 7000 left and Elijah.
c) The fall of Israel exile and restoration
The prophets and writers of the bible saw all history as a drama with all the strings in Gods hands. God has designed history and now is working it out. The events of nations outside Israel were designed to be instruments in his hands. Is. 10 The absolute proof he is Lord of history is the fact that he predicts it will happen before it happens Is.42/9
Gods Sovereignty over Israels History
a) He delivered Israel in the exodus. Israel had no history until he created the nation
b) He made a nation out of a group of slaves Is.43/1
c) He has restored them as a nation today
d) He is going to purge out the rebels Ezek. 20
Gods Universal Sovereignty over all History
Not just Israels but all history.
Amos 9/7 He creates nations
Dan.4/17 He controls nations
Nahum 3/7-10 He destroys nations when they disobey
All the prophets prophesied against the nations. If he can judge them he can control and be
sovereign over them. Jer. 27/5
The purpose of God in History
Is.45/6 So that men will know that there is only one God
Is.45/22 His purpose is the key to history
For God to reveal himself in his glory and establish his kingdom on earth
The Old Testament Theocracy
The Origin of the Term
Josephus: "Some have monarchy and democracy and oligarchies but God wouldn't have any of these. He established a theocracy assigning the rule and power to himself." This means the state is established upon pure religion and God is the king and also the God they worship. All laws and affairs of state come from him. Even if sometimes they come through man.
a) Origin of the conception of Yahweh being King
He became the king of Israel when he bound them to himself in covenant during the exodus.
Ex.15/18 Deut.33/5 Jeshurun is a poetic name for Israel Is.44/2. This was the beginning of his kingly rule. Is.43/15, Is. 33/22 We see God as king through Moses leadership Judges 8/22-23 We see God as king in the life of Gideon. We see all through the OT that prophets like Samuel pointed to God as king. A leader was judged as a leader not as a great warrior but on religious grounds. ie. His relationship to God.
Psalm 2,24 It is said over and over in the Psalms and Prophets. God as king is not a figure of
speech. When he delivered them and entered into covenant with them and built a tabernacle. He took the ark as his throne and his personal presence was there in the midst of Israel.
Zech. 14/9 He will one day rule over all kingdoms
b. The Vice-Regency - Yahweh's Representative - The Judge
God as invisible Spirit ruled through selected representatives. The earthly representative of divine sovereignty power and presence. Samson represented God's power. Gideon with 300 men overcame millions The point here is the judge didn't do things on his own initiative but only as Gods representative when God anointed him.
c. The Vice-Regency - Yahweh's Representative - The King
The Holy Spirit came upon a judge but a king was anointed with oil. The oil being representative of the HS.
1 Sam. 24/6,10, 11 Sam.1/14-15
d. The Vice-Regency - Yahweh's Representative - The Ideal
It is referring to the Messiah Micah 4, 5/2, Is.2, Zech.14, Is.9/6-7 Jer. 23/5-6 Ezek 24/34
Dan.2/24 The sovereign and eternal nature of this kingdom. It will come and destroy all other
e. The Vice-Regency - Yahweh's Representative - The Prophet
Originally the kingdom was a loosely knit group of tribes in Palestine ruled by judges. Then the kingship was established. God remained king and showed himself as God and one way was by special anointed spokesman. ie prophets. they spoke for God. The involvement of the prophet in the Hebrew kingship was an indication of the subordination of the earthly king to the divine.
The prophet was so uniquely related to God that he could do what the king couldn't. eg. David wouldn't speak against Saul but the prophets did.
Nathan rebuking David 11 Sam. 12 Nathan participated in the appointment of Solomon
1 kings 1 Abijah encouraged the revolt against Solomon 1 Kings 11 Elijah rebuked king Ahab Thus in Israel the king does not dispossess God of his kingship. He merely represents him. God sets him up and God removes him. Usually by a prophet.
The Purpose of the Theocracy
The prophets were convinced that history was moving toward a specific purpose. Zech.14/9 The kingdom of God on the earth- The millennium
[Updated on: Fri, 02 November 2018 08:55]
|Election of Israel [message #12623 is a reply to message #12580 ]
||Fri, 02 November 2018 08:55
| Mark L
Registered: October 2006
ELECTION OF ISRAEL|
The Ground for Israels Election
Their election was grace and unconditioned love Israels election is inseparably related to the theocracy of Israel. Rom. 1 The whole world rejected God and his kingdom. God chose a nation to serve him. The election of Israel is closely related to the theocracy of Israel.
The theocracy was the result of Israels election and the ground of that election was based on
Gods grace and unconditional love.
a) Grace must be sovereign or it isn't grace. It has to come to those least deserving or else they can appeal to merit. It is unmerited favor and God can give it to whomever he wants.
b)Gods love is unconditional. Deut.9/4-5 He chose her because he loved her not because of her righteousness or because they were a great nation. Deut. 7/6-8 It is bestowed upon those least deserving so it will magnify the grace of God.
Election The Hebrew Terms
a) Bachar - to choose Is. 43/10, Deut 7/6
This term is used over 150 times.
b) Yadha (yava)- To know - Amos 3/2
c) Qanah - To acquire or buy Duet.32/6
Bachar is used 30 times in Deut. The term was mostly used in the exile for Israel to know God had chosen her. Jer. 33/24, Is. 41/9, 44/1-2, 49/7
Why was special election limited to Israel Ps. 147/ 19-20
a) When he picked Israel she wasn't even a nation. 1 Cor. 1 God chooses the base and foolish.
b) The nations he didn't choose were responsible for departing from the light they had already
been given way back in the beginning. Rom. 1 They wilfully gave up their knowledge of God. He chose a loosely knit collection of tribes and made them into a nation. Deut.9/4-6
c) It was necessary for God to start somewhere in restoring true revelation and knowledge to the world
d. God's wisdom love and mercy is to be seen in election. Abraham and then Israel were the
means by which he could bless the whole world with salvation.
e) The heathen nations already had a secular culture. Arts science astronomy God started a nation which had religion as its main culture and required holiness. He left the heathen world to itself for a while until their iniquity became total.
f) Special revelation to Israel was special grace to an undeserving people.
Was Israels election arbitrary?
The problem: Some say it is OK to elect nations but to elect individuals is arbitrary
The reply: If that is true then God could charge me with that. ie my marriage. I chose one women to bestow my love and affection upon. Why not love them all? Or for that matter my children. God makes perfect choices from his wisdom not imperfect like us. God doesn't choose a nation. He chooses the people in it.
The purpose of Gods Election of Israel
The Bible always shows it to be responsibility
a) To be custodians of the revelation of the knowledge of the true God. Ps. 147/19-20,
Rom. 3/12 Knowledge about himself, his will, his requirements
b)Israel was elected to obedience. God created a nation that would serve and obey him. No other nation was doing that.
c) Israel was elected to reflect God's character. ie. Jesus in me. True holiness,justice equality, righteousness,morality Lev.19/2, Deut.7/6, Ex.19/5-6, Lev. 20/24-26
d) Preparation for the Messiah. Messianic prophesies, the law itself (as a tutor to bring us to
Christ), the types (sacrifice priesthood) all were preparation to prepare them for the messiah.
e) A popular misconception is that Israel was raised up and called to be a missionary nation to the rest of the world. God told them to wipe out the Canaanites not preach to them. Only
Jonah was sent to a foreign nation and even that was judgment. Missionary activity has to have something to preach. eg, the gospel. Proselytes came to Israel. Israel was called to live the revelation
The conclusion. Did Israel accomplish its purpose?
Answer: No it failed. Is. 42/19-25, Matt21/43
Jesus will one day establish his kingdom and that will stand forever. As a nation and kingdom
Israel failed but God's purposes will yet be fulfilled. Acts 1/6, Rom. 11 God's messiah will not fail and the full purpose of Israels election will be realized in the millennium.
Lev. 26/44 Amos 9/11-15
Like much else in the OT the theocracy was typical of the future kingdom of God.
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